Narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) has been widely used in dermatological phototherapy. As for the application of NB-UVB phototherapy to graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), we previously reported that it was highly efficacious for cutaneous lesions of acute GVHD (aGVHD) and that expansion of regulatory T (Treg) cells induced by NB-UVB might be one of the mechanisms. In order to examine whether NB-UVB irradiation through expansion of Treg cells is effective for the treatment of not only cutaneous aGVHD but also aGVHD of inner organs such as the intestine or liver, we conducted experiments in which a murine lethal aGVHD model, characterized by severe involvement of the intestine, was irradiated with NB-UVB. We found that NB-UVB irradiation improved the clinical score and survival rate. The pathological score of aGVHD was improved in all affected organs: intestine, liver, and skin. In the serum of mice irradiated with NB-UVB, the levels of Treg cells-associated cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were elevated. The numbers of infiltrating Treg cells in inflamed tissue of the intestine and those in spleen were increased in mice treated with NB-UVB. This is the first report demonstrating that NB-UVB phototherapy has the ability to ameliorate intestinal aGVHD through the expansion of Treg cells.
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare neoplasm with aberrant hepatocellular differentiation. HAC occurs in extrahepatic organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, testes, ovaries, and lungs and frequently produces alpha-fetoprotein. A 69-year-old patient was diagnosed clinically with T2aN0M0, stage IB, non-small cell lung carcinoma. Because the tumor showed tight adhesion to the chest wall, we performed left upper lobectomy, combined resection of the 3rd and 4th ribs, and lymph node dissection. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of HAC of the lung (pathological T2aN0M0, stage IB), and four courses of cisplatin and gemcitabine were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. Genetic analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor showed wild type. Preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein level, a useful marker of disease progression, was elevated to 4497 ng/ml, decreasing within the normal range by about 3 months postoperatively. The patient remains alive without recurrence as of 51 months after surgery.
Hepatoid adenocarcinoma; Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP); Lung neoplasms
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an accelerated aging disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration caused by mutations in the genes encoding the DNA repair proteins CSA or CSB. Csbm/m mice were given a high fat, caloric restricted or resveratrol supplemented diet. The high fat diet rescued the phenotype of Csbm/m mice at the metabolic, transcriptomic and behavioral levels. Additional analysis suggests that the premature aging seen in CS mice, nematodes and human cells results from aberrant PARP activation due to deficient DNA repair leading to decreased SIRT1 activity and mitochondrial dysfunction. Notably, β-hydroxybutyrate levels are increased by the high fat diet; and β-hydroxybutyrate, PARP inhibition, or NAD+ supplementation can activate SIRT1 and rescue CS-associated phenotypes. Mechanistically, CSB is able to displace activated PARP1 from damaged DNA to limit its activity. This study connects two emerging longevity metabolites, β-hydroxybutyrate and NAD+, through the deacetylase SIRT1 and suggests possible interventions for CS.
Although embryonal proteins have been used as tumor marker, most are not useful for detection of early malignancy. In the present study, we developed mouse monoclonal antibodies against fetal lung of miniature swine, and screened them to find an embryonal protein that is produced at the early stage of malignancy, focusing on lung adenocarcinoma. We found an antibody clone that specifically stained stroma of lung adenocarcinoma. LC-MS/MS identified the protein recognized by this clone as dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 (DDAH2), an enzyme known for antiatherosclerotic activity. DDAH2 was found to be expressed in fibroblasts of stroma of malignancies, with higher expression in minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive adenocarcinoma than in adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS). Moreover, tumors with high stromal expression of DDAH2 had a poorer prognosis than those without. In vitro analysis showed that DDAH2 increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), inducing proliferation and capillary-like tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. In resected human tissues, eNOS also showed higher expression in invasive adenocarcinoma than in AIS and normal lung, similarly to DDAH2. Our data indicate that expression of DDAH2 is associated with invasiveness of lung adenocarcinoma via tumor angiogenesis. DDAH2 expression might be a prognostic factor in lung adenocarcinoma.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00428-015-1863-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
DDAH2; Angiogenesis; Adenocarcinoma; Malignant stroma; Prognosis
Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the lung has an extremely favorable prognosis. However, early but invasive adenocarcinoma (eIA) sometimes has a fatal outcome. We had previously compared the expression profiles of AIS with those of eIA showing lymph node metastasis or a fatal outcome, and found that stratifin (SFN, 14-3-3 sigma) was a differentially expressed gene related to cell proliferation. Here, we performed an in vivo study to clarify the role of SFN in initiation and progression of lung adenocarcinoma.
Suppression of SFN expression in A549 (a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line) by siSFN significantly reduced cell proliferation activity and the S-phase subpopulation. In vivo, tumor development or metastasis to the lung was reduced in shSFN-transfected A549 cells. Moreover, we generated SFN-transgenic mice (Tg-SPC-SFN+/−) showing lung-specific expression of human SFN under the control of a tissue-specific enhancer, the SPC promoter. We found that Tg-SPC-SFN+/− mice developed lung tumors at a significantly higher rate than control mice after administration of chemical carcinogen, NNK. Interestingly, several Tg-SPC-SFN+/− mice developed tumors without NNK. These tumor cells showed high hSFN expression.
These results suggest that SFN facilitates lung tumor development and progression. SFN appears to be a novel oncogene with potential as a therapeutic target.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12943-015-0414-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Stratifin; Tg-SPC-SFN+/−; Lung adenocarcinoma; Malignant progression; NNK
Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver (UESL) in adults, especially over 30 years old, is quite rare. We report two adult UESL patients that one of them survived 62 months and one is now surviving more than 65 months treated with repeated hepatic resections and radio-frequency ablations. Although UESL is an entirely unusual and aggressive tumor, multidisciplinary treatments including repeated hepatic resections and radio-frequency ablations may provide a longer survival.
Undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma; Hepatic resection; Radio-frequency ablation
Angiomyolipoma is a unique mesenchymal neoplasm composed of blood vessels as well as smooth muscle and adipose cells. The liver is a less common site of origin, and hepatic angiomyolipoma is often an incidental finding on diagnostic imaging or is identified on evaluation of nonspecific symptoms.
We experienced four patients who were diagnosed histologically with hepatic angiomyolipoma. The preoperative diagnoses were angiomyolipoma in two patients, hepatocellular carcinoma in one, and cavernous hemangioma in one. Three patients were treated with hepatectomy (one laparoscopic and two open approaches), and the diagnosis was completed by histological investigation of the resected specimen. The remaining one was diagnosed from tumor needle biopsy. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with respiratory triggering using b values of 0 and 800 s/mm2 was employed. An apparent diffusion coefficient map was generated from b values of 0 and 800 s/mm2 for calculation of the apparent diffusion coefficient. The apparent diffusion coefficient values were calculated as 3.66, 1.21, 1.80, and 0.91 in patients 1 to 4, respectively. In MRI imaging, fat component was clearly demonstrated with chemical shift imaging in three patients. Early venous return was detected in three patients with computed tomography angiography.
Fat component and early venous return are important for a correct diagnosis of hepatic angiomyolipoma. Unfortunately, apparent diffusion coefficient values in hepatic angiomyolipoma were overlapping with those in other benign and malignant tumors.
Hepatic angiomyolipoma; Diffusion-weighted MRI; Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC); Chemical shift imaging; Early venous return
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a major inducer of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in different cell types. TGF-β-mediated EMT is thought to contribute to tumour cell spread and metastasis. Sialyl Lewis antigens synthesised by fucosyltransferase (FUT) 3 and FUT6 are highly expressed in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) and are utilised as tumour markers for cancer detection and evaluation of treatment efficacy. However, the role of FUT3 and FUT6 in augmenting the malignant potential of CRC induced by TGF-β is unclear.
Colorectal cancer cell lines were transfected with siRNAs for FUT3/6 and were examined by cell proliferation, invasion and migration assays. The expression and phosphorylation status of TGF-β downstream molecules were analysed by western blot. Fucosylation of TGF-β receptor (TβR) was examined by lectin blot analysis.
Inhibition of FUT3/6 expression by siRNAs suppressed the fucosylation of type I TβR and phosphorylation of the downstream molecules, thereby inhibiting the invasion and migration of CRC cells by EMT.
Fucosyltransferase 3/6 has an essential role in cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells by upregulation of sialyl Lewis antigens and also by enhancement of cancer cell migration through TGF-β-mediated EMT.
colorectal cancer; fucosyltransferase; TGF-β; EMT
Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a premature aging disorder characterized by photosensitivity, impaired development and multisystem progressive degeneration, and consists of two strict complementation groups, A and B. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach, we identified the 5′-3′ exonuclease SNM1A as one of four strong interacting partners of CSB. This direct interaction was confirmed using purified recombinant proteins—with CSB able to modulate the exonuclease activity of SNM1A on oligonucleotide substrates in vitro—and the two proteins were shown to exist in a common complex in human cell extracts. CSB and SNM1A were also found, using fluorescently tagged proteins in combination with confocal microscopy and laser microirradiation, to be recruited to localized trioxsalen-induced ICL damage in human cells, with accumulation being suppressed by transcription inhibition. Moreover, SNM1A recruitment was significantly reduced in CSB-deficient cells, suggesting coordination between the two proteins in vivo. CSB-deficient neural cells exhibited increased sensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents, particularly, in a non-cycling, differentiated state, as well as delayed ICL processing as revealed by a modified Comet assay and γ-H2AX foci persistence. The results indicate that CSB coordinates the resolution of ICLs, possibly in a transcription-associated repair mechanism involving SNM1A, and that defects in the process could contribute to the post-mitotic degenerative pathologies associated with CS.
The appearance of brown rice grown under high temperature conditions is an important characteristic for improvement in Japanese rice breeding programs. We performed a QTL analysis of the appearance quality of brown rice using chromosome segment substitution lines of the indica cultivar ‘Habataki’ in the ‘Koshihikari’ genetic background. A line carrying a ‘Habataki’ segment on chromosome 7 showed a high percentage of perfect grains produced under high temperature conditions during the ripening period. To verify the role of this segment, and to narrow down the region containing the useful allele, substitution mapping was performed using multiple paired lines. As a result, the chromosomal location of a gene that we named Appearance quality of brown rice 1 (Apq1) was delimited to a 48-kb region. In addition, we developed an Apq1-near isogenic line (NIL) to evaluate the effect of Apq1 on various agronomic traits. Under high temperature conditions during the ripening period, the Apq1-NIL produced significantly higher percentages of perfect grains than ‘Koshihikari’. Other agronomic traits, including yield and palatability, were similar between the Apq1-NIL and ‘Koshihikari’. Therefore, the ‘Habataki’ allele of Apq1 will be useful in breeding programs aimed at improving the quality of grains ripened under high temperature conditions.
Apq1; appearance quality; grain; ‘Habataki’; ‘Koshihikari’; mapping; rice (Oryza sativa L.)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of single-breath-hold whole-heart MRA with a 3-T system. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent single-breath-hold whole-heart coronary MRA at 3 T. We assessed acquisition time, scores of image quality of coronary artery (RCA: proximal, middle and distal, LAD: main, proximal, middle and distal, LCX: proximal and distal) and the visualized vessel length of RCA, LAD and LCX.
Mean acquisition time was 37.7 ± 5.2 sec. Coronary branch was successfully depicted in 67/80 branches (84%) in the 10 healthy volunteers with diagnostic image quality. And, the average visible RCA, LAD and LCX vessel length were 83.4 ± 22 mm and 59.6 ± 24 mm.
3-T MRI with single-breath-hold 3D whole-heart coronary MRA can yield adequate image quality. Further study is needed to evaluate the clinical benefit of this technique.
Single-breath-hold whole-heart MRA; Imaging; 3-T MRI
The combination of glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharides (GFO) is thought to be beneficial for alleviating gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy. A commercial enteral supplementation product (GFO) enriched with these 3 components is available in Japan. We performed a retrospective study to test whether oral GFO decreased the severity of mucosal injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of 44 HSCT patients, 22 received GFO and 22 did not. Severity of diarrhea/mucositis, overall survival, weight loss, febrile illness/documented infection, intravenous hyperalimentation days/hospital days, engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and cumulative incidence of relapse were studied. Sex, age, performance status, diagnosis, disease status, and treatment variables were similar in both groups. There were fewer days of diarrhea grade 3–4 in patients receiving GFO than in those who did not (0.86 vs. 3.27 days); the same was true for days of mucositis grade 3–4 (3.86 vs. 6.00 days). Survival at day 100 was 100% in the GFO group, but only 77.3% for the patients not receiving GFO (p = 0.0091, log-rank test). Weight loss and the number of days of intravenous hyperalimentation were better in the GFO group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Although not significant, less gut bacterial translocation with Enterococcus species developed in the GFO group (p = 0.0728) than in the non-GFO group. Other outcomes were not affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative clinical study of GFO supplementation to alleviate mucosal injury after allo-HSCT. We conclude that glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharide supplementation is an effective supportive therapy to decrease the severity of mucosal damage in HSCT.
Glutamine; Fiber; Oligosaccharide; GFO; Mucosal injury; Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Oestrogens usually stimulate the progression of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Paradoxically, high-dose oestrogens suppress the growth of these tumours in certain circumstances.
We prospectively examined the efficacy and safety of ethinylestradiol treatment (3 mg per day oral) in postmenopausal patients with advanced or recurrent ER-positive breast cancer who had previously received endocrine therapies, especially those with resistance to aromatase inhibitors.
Eighteen patients were enrolled with the median age of 63 years and the mean observation time of 9.2 months. Three cases withdrew within 1 week due to oestrogen flare reactions with nausea, fatigue and muscle-skeletal pain. The response rate was 50% (9 out of 18), and the clinical benefit rate was 56% (10 out of 18). The stable disease (<6 months) was 17% (3 out of 18) and another 2 cases were judged as progressive disease. Time-to-treatment failure including 2 on treatment was a median of 5.6 months (range 0.1 to 14.5+). Although vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickening was observed in patients receiving long-term treatment, there were no severe adverse events, such as deep venous thrombosis or other malignancies.
Although the mechanism of this treatment has not been fully understood, our data may contribute to change the common view of late-stage endocrine therapy.
ethinylestradiol; endocrine therapy; metastatic breast cancer; aromatase inhibitor resistance
Radiation therapy (RTx) has been employed as a curative therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma. RTx-induced sarcomas (RISs) are rare, late adverse events, representing less than 0.2% of all irradiated patients. RISs are more aggressive tumors than prostatic adenocarcinomas. Herein, we present a case with RTx-induced prostatic leiomyosarcoma after permanent brachytherapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma. A 69-year-old male presented with dysuria and gross hematuria. Six years previously, he had been diagnosed with localized prostate cancer and was treated by permanent brachytherapy. Urethroscopy showed stenosis by a tumor at the prostate. Transurethral prostatectomy was performed for a diagnosis. Based on pathological findings, the diagnosis was leiomyosarcoma of the prostate. He was treated with three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CTx) that consisted of doxorubicin and ifosfamide (AI), followed by a prostatocystectomy with intrapelvic lymphadenectomy. The tumor extended from the prostate and infiltrated the bladder wall and serosa with lymphatic and venous invasion. The surgical margin was negative, and no residual prostatic adenocarcinoma was observed. The proportion of necrotic tumor cells by neoadjuvant CTx was around 50%. Subsequently, adjuvant CTx was offered, but the patient chose a follow-up without CTx. Local recurrence and lung metastasis were detected by computed tomography 3 months after the surgery. He was treated again with AI. However, CTx was not effective and he died 6 months after the operation. In conclusion, an effective treatment strategy for prostatic sarcoma should be developed in the near future, although the clinical feature of prostatic sarcoma remains unclear due to its rare incidence.
Radiation-induced sarcoma; Brachytherapy; Leiomyosarcoma; Prostatic sarcoma; p53
DNA damage created by endogenous or exogenous genotoxic agents can exist in multiple forms, and if allowed to persist, can promote genome instability and directly lead to various human diseases, particularly cancer, neurological abnormalities, immunodeficiency and premature aging. To avoid such deleterious outcomes, cells have evolved an array of DNA repair pathways, which carry out what is typically a multiple-step process to resolve specific DNA lesions and maintain genome integrity. To fully appreciate the biological contributions of the different DNA repair systems, one must keep in mind the cellular context within they operate. For example, the human body is composed of non-dividing and dividing cell types, including, in the brain, neurons and glial cells. We describe herein the molecular mechanisms of the different DNA repair pathways, and review their roles in non-dividing and dividing cells, with an eye towards how these pathways may regulate the development of neurological disease.
DNA repair; Neural cells; Neurological disorder; Dividing and non-dividing; Endogenous DNA damage
The epigenetic mechanism of tumorigenesis in pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) remains largely unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the role of enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) alteration in pancreatic IPMN progression.
Fifty-four surgically resected pancreatic IPMN specimens, including a total of 181 lesions (normal duct in 48, adenoma in 50, borderline atypia in 53, carcinoma in situ (CIS) in 19, and invasive carcinoma in 11) were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining (EZH2, Ki-67, p27Kip1). Using paraffin embedded sections, total RNA was successfully extracted from 20 IPMN lesions (borderline IPMN in 9, CIS in 6, invasive carcinoma in 5) and 7 pancreatic normal ducts, and then levels of EZH2 and p27Kip1 mRNA were analyzed by real time PCR.
In immunohistochemical analysis, cell proliferative activity revealed by Ki-67 positive nuclei was increased during IPMN progression (normal duct
EZH2 is associated with the accelerated cell proliferation and malignant step in pancreatic IPMN via the downregulation of p27Kip1.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can produce black grains as well as white. In black rice, the pericarp of the grain accumulates anthocyanin, which has antioxidant activity and is beneficial to human health. We developed a black rice introgression line in the genetic background of Oryza sativa L. ‘Koshihikari’, which is a leading variety in Japan. We used Oryza sativa L. ‘Hong Xie Nuo’ as the donor parent and backcrossed with ‘Koshihikari’ four times, resulting in a near isogenic line (NIL) for black grains. A whole genome survey of the introgression line using DNA markers suggested that three regions, on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 are associated with black pigmentation. The locus on chromosome 3 has not been identified previously. A mapping analysis with 546 F2 plants derived from a cross between the black rice NIL and ‘Koshihikari’ was evaluated. The results indicated that all three loci are essential for black pigmentation. We named these loci Kala1, Kala3 and Kala4. The black rice NIL was evaluated for eating quality and general agronomic traits. The eating quality was greatly superior to that of ‘Okunomurasaki’, an existing black rice variety. The isogenicity of the black rice NIL to ‘Koshihikari’ was very high.
black rice; Kala; ‘Koshihikari’; ‘Hong Xie Nuo’; mapping; near isogenic line; Oryza sativa L.
Therapy-related leukemia (TRL) has been reported to occur after treatment with alkylating agents and/or topoisomerase II inhibitors. Oxaliplatin (OXP) is used as a key drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cisplatin and carboplatin have been linked with TRL, but the involvement of OXP is questionable. A 74-year-old male was diagnosed with peritoneal metastasis from CRC in July 2011. The patient received nine cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (LV), and OXP (mFOLFOX-6 regimen) and three cycles of 5-FU and LV only, resulting in a clinical complete response. However, recurrence of CRC was detected by CT within 3 months after the last course of chemotherapy. In April 2013, laboratory tests showed pancytopenia and 15% blast cells. A bone marrow examination revealed multilineage dysplasia and 20.4% myeloblasts. Cytogenetic analysis indicated a complex karyotype that included chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with TRL and treated with a combination of azacitidine (AZA) and cetuximab (Cmab) for both cancers. AZA might be useful in TRL when a patient needs to be treated simultaneously for more than one primary cancer because of its low toxicity. Moreover, Cmab is an effective therapeutic tool in TRL patients with metastatic CRC with the wild-type K-ras gene.
Therapy-related leukemia; Colorectal cancer; Oxaliplatin; Azacitidine; Cetuximab
Relapsed or refractory Burkitt's lymphoma often has a poor prognosis in spite of intensive chemotherapy that induces apoptotic and/or necrotic death of lymphoma cells. Rapamycin (Rap) brings about autophagy, and could be another treatment. Further, anti-CD19-targeted liposomal delivery may enable Rap to kill lymphoma cells specifically. Rap was encapsulated by anionic liposome and conjugated with anti-CD19 antibody (CD19-GL-Rap) or anti-CD2 antibody (CD2-GL-Rap) as a control. A fluorescent probe Cy5.5 was also liposomized in the same way (CD19 or CD2-GL-Cy5.5) to examine the efficacy of anti-CD19-targeted liposomal delivery into CD19-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, SKW6.4. CD19-GL-Cy5.5 was more effectively uptaken into SKW6.4 cells than CD2-GL-Cy5.5 in vitro. When the cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice, intravenously administered CD19-GL-Cy5.5 made the subcutaneous tumor fluorescent, while CD2-GL-Cy5.5 did not. Further, CD19-GL-Rap had a greater cytocidal effect on not only SKW6.4 cells but also Burkitt's lymphoma cells derived from patients than CD2-GL-Rap in vitro. The specific toxicity of CD19-GL-Rap was cancelled by neutralizing anti-CD19 antibody. The survival period of mice treated with intravenous CD19-GL-Rap was significantly longer than that of mice treated with CD2-GL-Rap after intraperitoneal inoculation of SKW6.4 cells. Anti-CD19-targeted liposomal Rap could be a promising lymphoma cell-specific treatment inducing autophagic cell death.
CD19; liposome; rapamycin; Burkitt's lymphoma
Pax transactivation domain interacting protein (PTIP) associated protein 1, PA1, was a newly found protein participating in the modulation of transactivity of nuclear receptor super family members such as estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Breast cancer is one of the most life threatening diseases for women and has tight association with estrogen and ER. This study was performed to understand the function of PA1 in breast cancer. The expression of PA1 had been evaluated in a total of 344 primary invasive breast cancer samples and examined the relationship with clinical output, relapse free survival (RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). PA1 expression was observed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, however, appeared mainly in nuclear. PA1 nuclear expression was correlated with postmenopausal (P = 0.0097), smaller tumor size (P = 0.0025), negative Ki67 (P = 0.02), positive AR (P = 0.049) and positive ERβ (P = 0.0020). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated PA1 nuclear positive cases seemed to have a longer survival than negative ones for RFS (P = 0.023) but not for BCSS (P = 0.23). In the Cox hazards model, PA1 nuclear protein expression proved to be a significant prognostic univariate parameter for RFS (P = 0.03), but not for BCSS (P = 0.20). In addition, for those patients without lymphnode metastasis PA1 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for RFS (P = 0.025), which was verified by univariate and multivariate analyses. These investigations suggested PA1 expression could be a potential prognostic indicator for RFS in breast cancer.
CD73 is a GPI-anchored cell surface protein with ecto-5′-nucleotidase enzyme activity that plays a crucial role in adenosine production. While the roles of adenosine receptors (AR) on osteoblasts and osteoclasts have been unveiled to some extent, the roles of CD73 and CD73-generated adenosine in bone tissue are largely unknown. To address this issue, we first analyzed the bone phenotype of CD73-deficient (cd73−/−) mice. The mutant male mice showed osteopenia, with significant decreases of osteoblastic markers. Levels of osteoclastic markers were, however, comparable to those of wild type mice. A series of in vitro studies revealed that CD73 deficiency resulted in impairment in osteoblast differentiation but not in the number of osteoblast progenitors. In addition, over expression of CD73 on MC3T3-E1 cells resulted in enhanced osteoblastic differentiation. Moreover, MC3T3-E1 cells expressed adenosine A2A receptors (A2AAR) and A2B receptors (A2BAR) and expression of these receptors increased with osteoblastic differentiation. Enhanced expression of osteocalcin (OC) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) observed in MC3T3-E1 cells over expressing CD73 were suppressed by treatment with an A2BAR antagonist but not with an A2AAR antagonist. Collectively, our results indicate that CD73 generated adenosine positively regulates osteoblast differentiation via A2BAR signaling.
CD73; adenosine; osteoblasts; bone; mouse
Metastatic cancers of the pancreas are rare, accounting for approximately 2–4% of all pancreatic malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common solid tumor that metastasizes to the pancreas. Here, we present a case of uterine cervical carcinoma metastasizing to the pancreas and review the literature regarding this rare event. A 44-year-old woman with a uterine cervical tumor had undergone radical hysterectomy and had been diagnosed pathologically with stage Ib mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma in 2004. She underwent concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy postoperatively. Pulmonary metastases subsequently appeared in 2008 and 2011, and she underwent complete resection of the lung tumors by video-assisted thoracic surgery. Although she was followed up without any treatment and with no other recurrences, positron emission tomography revealed an area of abnormal uptake within the pancreatic body in 2012. Enhanced computed tomography demonstrated a 20-mm lesion in the pancreatic body and upstream pancreatic duct dilatation. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration was performed and pathological examination suggested neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). On the basis of these results and the patient's oncological background, lesions in the pancreatic body were diagnosed as secondary metastasis from the cervical carcinoma that had been treated 8 years earlier. No other distant metastases were visualized, and the patient subsequently underwent middle pancreatectomy. Pathological examination showed NEC consistent with pancreatic metastasis from the uterine cervical carcinoma. The patient has survived 7 months since the middle pancreatectomy without any signs of local recurrence or other metastatic lesions.
Pancreatic metastasis; Uterine cervical mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma; Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration; Middle pancreatectomy
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein is important for cellular growth and homeostasis. The presence and prognostic significance of inappropriate mTOR activation have been reported for several cancers. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, such as everolimus (RAD001), are in development and show promise as anti-cancer drugs; however, the therapeutic effect of everolimus on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unknown.
Phosphorylation of mTOR (p-mTOR) was evaluated in 167 resected OSCC tumours and 5 OSCC cell lines. The effects of everolimus on the OSCC cell lines TE4 and TE11 in vitro and alone or in combination with cisplatin on tumour growth in vivo were evaluated.
Mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation was detected in 116 tumours (69.5%) and all the 5 OSCC cell lines. Everolimus suppressed p-mTOR downstream pathways, inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced apoptosis in both TE4 and TE11 cells. In a mouse xenograft model established with TE4 and TE11 cells, everolimus alone or in combination with cisplatin inhibited tumour growth.
The mTOR pathway was aberrantly activated in most OSCC tumours. Everolimus had a therapeutic effect both as a single agent and in combination with cisplatin. Everolimus could be a useful anti-cancer drug for patients with OSCC.
everolimus; RAD001; mTOR; oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; proliferation
Disruptions in FOXP2, a transcription factor, are the only known monogenic cause of speech and language impairment. We report clinical findings for two new individuals with a submicroscopic deletion of FOXP2: a boy with severe apraxia of speech and his currently moderately affected mother. A 1.57 Mb deletion on chromosome 7q31 was detected by array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH). In addition to FOXP2, the patients’ deletion involves two other genes, MDFIC and PPP1R3A, neither of which has been associated with speech or language disorders. Thus, findings for these two family members provide informative phenotypic information on FOXP2 haploinsufficiency. Evaluation by a clinical geneticist indicated no major congenital anomalies or dysmorphic features. Evaluations by a clinical psychologist and occupational therapist indicated cognitive-linguistic processing and sensorimotor control deficits, but did not support a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Evaluation by clinical and research speech pathologists confirmed that both patients’ speech deficits met contemporary criteria for apraxia of speech. Notably, the patients were not able to laugh, cough, or sneeze spontaneously, replicating findings reported for two other FOXP2 cases and a potential diagnostic sign of nonsyndromic apraxia of speech. Speech severity findings for the boy were not consistent with the hypothesis that loss of maternal FOXP2 should be relatively benign. Better understanding of the behavioral phenotype of FOXP2 disruptions will aid identification of patients, toward an eventual understanding of the pathophysiology of syndromic and nonsyndromic apraxia of speech.
aCGH; apraxia of speech; autism; dyspraxia; speech sound disorder
We report a rare case of primary hepatic gastrinoma. A 77-year-old woman exhibited continuous watery diarrhea for 8 months and weight loss. Bacterial cultures of the stools were negative and colonoscopy revealed no abnormalities. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed severe reflux esophagitis and multiple duodenal erosions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging detected two solid masses measuring <2 cm in diameter in the right lobe of the non-cirrhotic liver. Microscopically, the tumor was consistent with neuroendocrine tumor (grade 2) with abundant gastrin-immunoreactive cells. Endoscopic ultrasound detected no other alternative primary source of an endocrine tumor. The serum gastrin levels exceeded 40,000 pg/ml in the absence of H2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitor administrations. Based on an arterial stimulation and venous sampling test, the patient was diagnosed as primary gastrinoma of the liver. Our findings demonstrated the presence of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in a patient who was subsequently cured by surgical resection of the liver tumors.
Gastrinoma; Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; Arterial stimulation and venous sampling test
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