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author:("hiyama, S")
1.  Combination Chemotherapy of Azacitidine and Cetuximab for Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia following Oxaliplatin for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer 
Case Reports in Oncology  2014;7(2):316-322.
Therapy-related leukemia (TRL) has been reported to occur after treatment with alkylating agents and/or topoisomerase II inhibitors. Oxaliplatin (OXP) is used as a key drug for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Cisplatin and carboplatin have been linked with TRL, but the involvement of OXP is questionable. A 74-year-old male was diagnosed with peritoneal metastasis from CRC in July 2011. The patient received nine cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), leucovorin (LV), and OXP (mFOLFOX-6 regimen) and three cycles of 5-FU and LV only, resulting in a clinical complete response. However, recurrence of CRC was detected by CT within 3 months after the last course of chemotherapy. In April 2013, laboratory tests showed pancytopenia and 15% blast cells. A bone marrow examination revealed multilineage dysplasia and 20.4% myeloblasts. Cytogenetic analysis indicated a complex karyotype that included chromosome 5 and 7 abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with TRL and treated with a combination of azacitidine (AZA) and cetuximab (Cmab) for both cancers. AZA might be useful in TRL when a patient needs to be treated simultaneously for more than one primary cancer because of its low toxicity. Moreover, Cmab is an effective therapeutic tool in TRL patients with metastatic CRC with the wild-type K-ras gene.
doi:10.1159/000363100
PMCID: PMC4049016  PMID: 24932174
Therapy-related leukemia; Colorectal cancer; Oxaliplatin; Azacitidine; Cetuximab
2.  A novel strategy inducing autophagic cell death in Burkitt's lymphoma cells with anti-CD19-targeted liposomal rapamycin 
Blood Cancer Journal  2014;4(2):e180-.
Relapsed or refractory Burkitt's lymphoma often has a poor prognosis in spite of intensive chemotherapy that induces apoptotic and/or necrotic death of lymphoma cells. Rapamycin (Rap) brings about autophagy, and could be another treatment. Further, anti-CD19-targeted liposomal delivery may enable Rap to kill lymphoma cells specifically. Rap was encapsulated by anionic liposome and conjugated with anti-CD19 antibody (CD19-GL-Rap) or anti-CD2 antibody (CD2-GL-Rap) as a control. A fluorescent probe Cy5.5 was also liposomized in the same way (CD19 or CD2-GL-Cy5.5) to examine the efficacy of anti-CD19-targeted liposomal delivery into CD19-positive Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, SKW6.4. CD19-GL-Cy5.5 was more effectively uptaken into SKW6.4 cells than CD2-GL-Cy5.5 in vitro. When the cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency mice, intravenously administered CD19-GL-Cy5.5 made the subcutaneous tumor fluorescent, while CD2-GL-Cy5.5 did not. Further, CD19-GL-Rap had a greater cytocidal effect on not only SKW6.4 cells but also Burkitt's lymphoma cells derived from patients than CD2-GL-Rap in vitro. The specific toxicity of CD19-GL-Rap was cancelled by neutralizing anti-CD19 antibody. The survival period of mice treated with intravenous CD19-GL-Rap was significantly longer than that of mice treated with CD2-GL-Rap after intraperitoneal inoculation of SKW6.4 cells. Anti-CD19-targeted liposomal Rap could be a promising lymphoma cell-specific treatment inducing autophagic cell death.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2014.2
PMCID: PMC3944660  PMID: 24510029
CD19; liposome; rapamycin; Burkitt's lymphoma
3.  PTIP Associated protein 1, PA1, Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Lymphnode Negative Breast Cancer 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80552.
Pax transactivation domain interacting protein (PTIP) associated protein 1, PA1, was a newly found protein participating in the modulation of transactivity of nuclear receptor super family members such as estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Breast cancer is one of the most life threatening diseases for women and has tight association with estrogen and ER. This study was performed to understand the function of PA1 in breast cancer. The expression of PA1 had been evaluated in a total of 344 primary invasive breast cancer samples and examined the relationship with clinical output, relapse free survival (RFS), breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS). PA1 expression was observed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, however, appeared mainly in nuclear. PA1 nuclear expression was correlated with postmenopausal (P = 0.0097), smaller tumor size (P = 0.0025), negative Ki67 (P = 0.02), positive AR (P = 0.049) and positive ERβ (P = 0.0020). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated PA1 nuclear positive cases seemed to have a longer survival than negative ones for RFS (P = 0.023) but not for BCSS (P = 0.23). In the Cox hazards model, PA1 nuclear protein expression proved to be a significant prognostic univariate parameter for RFS (P = 0.03), but not for BCSS (P = 0.20). In addition, for those patients without lymphnode metastasis PA1 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for RFS (P = 0.025), which was verified by univariate and multivariate analyses. These investigations suggested PA1 expression could be a potential prognostic indicator for RFS in breast cancer.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080552
PMCID: PMC3832393  PMID: 24260416
4.  CD73-generated adenosine promotes osteoblast differentiation 
Journal of Cellular Physiology  2012;227(6):2622-2631.
CD73 is a GPI-anchored cell surface protein with ecto-5′-nucleotidase enzyme activity that plays a crucial role in adenosine production. While the roles of adenosine receptors (AR) on osteoblasts and osteoclasts have been unveiled to some extent, the roles of CD73 and CD73-generated adenosine in bone tissue are largely unknown. To address this issue, we first analyzed the bone phenotype of CD73-deficient (cd73−/−) mice. The mutant male mice showed osteopenia, with significant decreases of osteoblastic markers. Levels of osteoclastic markers were, however, comparable to those of wild type mice. A series of in vitro studies revealed that CD73 deficiency resulted in impairment in osteoblast differentiation but not in the number of osteoblast progenitors. In addition, over expression of CD73 on MC3T3-E1 cells resulted in enhanced osteoblastic differentiation. Moreover, MC3T3-E1 cells expressed adenosine A2A receptors (A2AAR) and A2B receptors (A2BAR) and expression of these receptors increased with osteoblastic differentiation. Enhanced expression of osteocalcin (OC) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) observed in MC3T3-E1 cells over expressing CD73 were suppressed by treatment with an A2BAR antagonist but not with an A2AAR antagonist. Collectively, our results indicate that CD73 generated adenosine positively regulates osteoblast differentiation via A2BAR signaling.
doi:10.1002/jcp.23001
PMCID: PMC3237726  PMID: 21882189
CD73; adenosine; osteoblasts; bone; mouse
5.  Pancreatic Metastasis from Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: A Case Report 
Case Reports in Oncology  2013;6(2):256-262.
Metastatic cancers of the pancreas are rare, accounting for approximately 2–4% of all pancreatic malignancies. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common solid tumor that metastasizes to the pancreas. Here, we present a case of uterine cervical carcinoma metastasizing to the pancreas and review the literature regarding this rare event. A 44-year-old woman with a uterine cervical tumor had undergone radical hysterectomy and had been diagnosed pathologically with stage Ib mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma in 2004. She underwent concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy postoperatively. Pulmonary metastases subsequently appeared in 2008 and 2011, and she underwent complete resection of the lung tumors by video-assisted thoracic surgery. Although she was followed up without any treatment and with no other recurrences, positron emission tomography revealed an area of abnormal uptake within the pancreatic body in 2012. Enhanced computed tomography demonstrated a 20-mm lesion in the pancreatic body and upstream pancreatic duct dilatation. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration was performed and pathological examination suggested neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). On the basis of these results and the patient's oncological background, lesions in the pancreatic body were diagnosed as secondary metastasis from the cervical carcinoma that had been treated 8 years earlier. No other distant metastases were visualized, and the patient subsequently underwent middle pancreatectomy. Pathological examination showed NEC consistent with pancreatic metastasis from the uterine cervical carcinoma. The patient has survived 7 months since the middle pancreatectomy without any signs of local recurrence or other metastatic lesions.
doi:10.1159/000351308
PMCID: PMC3670638  PMID: 23741220
Pancreatic metastasis; Uterine cervical mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma; Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration; Middle pancreatectomy
6.  Aberrant activation of the mTOR pathway and anti-tumour effect of everolimus on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma 
British Journal of Cancer  2012;106(5):876-882.
Background:
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein is important for cellular growth and homeostasis. The presence and prognostic significance of inappropriate mTOR activation have been reported for several cancers. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, such as everolimus (RAD001), are in development and show promise as anti-cancer drugs; however, the therapeutic effect of everolimus on oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unknown.
Methods:
Phosphorylation of mTOR (p-mTOR) was evaluated in 167 resected OSCC tumours and 5 OSCC cell lines. The effects of everolimus on the OSCC cell lines TE4 and TE11 in vitro and alone or in combination with cisplatin on tumour growth in vivo were evaluated.
Results:
Mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation was detected in 116 tumours (69.5%) and all the 5 OSCC cell lines. Everolimus suppressed p-mTOR downstream pathways, inhibited proliferation and invasion, and induced apoptosis in both TE4 and TE11 cells. In a mouse xenograft model established with TE4 and TE11 cells, everolimus alone or in combination with cisplatin inhibited tumour growth.
Conclusion:
The mTOR pathway was aberrantly activated in most OSCC tumours. Everolimus had a therapeutic effect both as a single agent and in combination with cisplatin. Everolimus could be a useful anti-cancer drug for patients with OSCC.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.36
PMCID: PMC3305959  PMID: 22333597
everolimus; RAD001; mTOR; oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma; proliferation
7.  Phenotype of FOXP2 Haploinsufficiency in a Mother and Son 
Disruptions in FOXP2, a transcription factor, are the only known monogenic cause of speech and language impairment. We report clinical findings for two new individuals with a submicroscopic deletion of FOXP2: a boy with severe apraxia of speech and his currently moderately affected mother. A 1.57 Mb deletion on chromosome 7q31 was detected by array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH). In addition to FOXP2, the patients’ deletion involves two other genes, MDFIC and PPP1R3A, neither of which has been associated with speech or language disorders. Thus, findings for these two family members provide informative phenotypic information on FOXP2 haploinsufficiency. Evaluation by a clinical geneticist indicated no major congenital anomalies or dysmorphic features. Evaluations by a clinical psychologist and occupational therapist indicated cognitive-linguistic processing and sensorimotor control deficits, but did not support a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Evaluation by clinical and research speech pathologists confirmed that both patients’ speech deficits met contemporary criteria for apraxia of speech. Notably, the patients were not able to laugh, cough, or sneeze spontaneously, replicating findings reported for two other FOXP2 cases and a potential diagnostic sign of nonsyndromic apraxia of speech. Speech severity findings for the boy were not consistent with the hypothesis that loss of maternal FOXP2 should be relatively benign. Better understanding of the behavioral phenotype of FOXP2 disruptions will aid identification of patients, toward an eventual understanding of the pathophysiology of syndromic and nonsyndromic apraxia of speech.
doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.34354
PMCID: PMC3319495  PMID: 22106036
aCGH; apraxia of speech; autism; dyspraxia; speech sound disorder
8.  Primary Hepatic Gastrinoma as an Unusual Manifestation of Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2012;6(3):590-595.
We report a rare case of primary hepatic gastrinoma. A 77-year-old woman exhibited continuous watery diarrhea for 8 months and weight loss. Bacterial cultures of the stools were negative and colonoscopy revealed no abnormalities. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed severe reflux esophagitis and multiple duodenal erosions. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging detected two solid masses measuring <2 cm in diameter in the right lobe of the non-cirrhotic liver. Microscopically, the tumor was consistent with neuroendocrine tumor (grade 2) with abundant gastrin-immunoreactive cells. Endoscopic ultrasound detected no other alternative primary source of an endocrine tumor. The serum gastrin levels exceeded 40,000 pg/ml in the absence of H2 receptor antagonist and proton pump inhibitor administrations. Based on an arterial stimulation and venous sampling test, the patient was diagnosed as primary gastrinoma of the liver. Our findings demonstrated the presence of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome in a patient who was subsequently cured by surgical resection of the liver tumors.
doi:10.1159/000343157
PMCID: PMC3529581  PMID: 23271988
Gastrinoma; Zollinger-Ellison syndrome; Arterial stimulation and venous sampling test
9.  Stromal cells expressing hedgehog-interacting protein regulate the proliferation of myeloid neoplasms 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(9):e87-.
Aberrant reactivation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been described in a wide variety of human cancers including cancer stem cells. However, involvement of the Hh-signaling system in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment during the development of myeloid neoplasms is unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression of Hh-related genes in primary human CD34+ cells, CD34+ blastic cells and BM stromal cells. Both Indian Hh (Ihh) and its signal transducer, smoothened (SMO), were expressed in CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-derived cells. However, Ihh expression was relatively low in BM stromal cells. Remarkably, expression of the intrinsic Hh-signaling inhibitor, human Hh-interacting protein (HHIP) in AML/MDS-derived stromal cells was markedly lower than in healthy donor-derived stromal cells. Moreover, HHIP expression levels in BM stromal cells highly correlated with their supporting activity for SMO+ leukemic cells. Knockdown of HHIP gene in stromal cells increased their supporting activity although control cells marginally supported SMO+ leukemic cell proliferation. The demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine rescued HHIP expression via demethylation of HHIP gene and reduced the leukemic cell-supporting activity of AML/MDS-derived stromal cells. This indicates that suppression of stromal HHIP could be associated with the proliferation of AML/MDS cells.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.36
PMCID: PMC3461706  PMID: 22961059
acute myeloid leukemia (AML); myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); human hedgehog-interacting protein (HHIP); stromal cells
10.  Targeting Anticancer Drug Delivery to Pancreatic Cancer Cells Using a Fucose-Bound Nanoparticle Approach 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(7):e39545.
Owing to its aggressiveness and the lack of effective therapies, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has a dismal prognosis. New strategies to improve treatment and survival are therefore urgently required. Numerous fucosylated antigens in sera serve as tumor markers for cancer detection and evaluation of treatment efficacy. Increased expression of fucosyltransferases has also been reported for pancreatic cancer. These enzymes accelerate malignant transformation through fucosylation of sialylated precursors, suggesting a crucial requirement for fucose by pancreatic cancer cells. With this in mind, we developed fucose-bound nanoparticles as vehicles for delivery of anticancer drugs specifically to cancer cells. L-fucose-bound liposomes containing Cy5.5 or Cisplatin were effectively delivered into CA19-9 expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Excess L-fucose decreased the efficiency of Cy5.5 introduction by L-fucose-bound liposomes, suggesting L-fucose-receptor-mediated delivery. Intravenously injected L-fucose-bound liposomes carrying Cisplatin were successfully delivered to pancreatic cancer cells, mediating efficient tumor growth inhibition as well as prolonging survival in mouse xenograft models. This modality represents a new strategy for pancreatic cancer cell-targeting therapy.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039545
PMCID: PMC3394772  PMID: 22808043
11.  Multiple myeloma cells expressing low levels of CD138 have an immature phenotype and reduced sensitivity to lenalidomide 
International Journal of Oncology  2012;41(3):876-884.
CD138 expression is a hallmark of plasma cells and multiple myeloma cells. However, decreased expression of CD138 is frequently observed in plasma cells of myeloma patients, although the clinical significance of this is unclear. To evaluate the significance of low expression of CD138 in MM, we examined the phenotypes of MM cells expressing low levels of CD138. Flow cytometric analysis of primary MM cells revealed a significant decrease in CD138 expression in patients with relapsed/progressive disease compared with untreated MM patients. Patients with low levels of CD138 had a worse overall survival compared with patients with high levels of CD138, in newly diagnosed patients and patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem-cell transplantation. Two MM cell lines, KYMM-1 (CD138− low) and KYMM-2 (CD138− high), were established from a single MM patient with decreased CD138 expression. High expression of BCL6 and PAX5, and downregulation of IRF4, PRDM1 and XBP1 was observed in KYMM-1 compared with KYMM-2 cells, indicative of the immature phenotype of KYMM-1. KYMM-1 was less sensitive to lenalidomide than KYMM-2, while no difference in sensitivity to bortezomib was observed. KYMM-2 cells were further divided in CD138+ and CD138− fractions using anti-CD138-coated magnetic beads. CD138− cells sorted from the KYMM-2 cell line also showed high BCL6, low IRF4 expression and decreased sensitivity to lenalidomide compared with CD138+ cells. Our observations suggest that low CD138 expression relates to i) poor prognosis, ii) immature phenotype and iii) low sensitivity to lenalidomide. The observed distinct characteristics of CD138 low MM cells, suggest this should be recognized as a new clinical entity. Establishment of a treatment strategy for MM cells expressing low levels of CD138 is needed to improve their poor outcome.
doi:10.3892/ijo.2012.1545
PMCID: PMC3582943  PMID: 22766978
multiple myeloma; CD138; IRF4; lenalidomide
12.  Solid-pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor, mimicking submucosal tumor of the stomach: A case report 
Solid-pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas (SPTs) are comparatively rare and have low malignancy, with a predilection for young women. Diagnosis is difficult when a SPT develops in a boundary region with other organs. Here, we report a 42-year old woman with a SPT of the pancreas mimicking a submucosal tumor of the stomach on imaging. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain. We suspected a submucosal tumor of the stomach from the findings of endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography. However, angiography showed that some of the tumor vessels arose from the pancreas. Intraoperative findings revealed the tumor originated from the pancreas. Therefore, distal pancreatectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was SPT of the pancreas.
doi:10.4240/wjgs.v3.i12.201
PMCID: PMC3251744  PMID: 22224175
Solid pseudopapillary tumor; Submucosal tumor; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; endoscopic ultrasonography; Fine needle aspiration; Cluster of differentiation; Somatostatin receptor
13.  Brain Metastasis from Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Case Reports in Gastroenterology  2011;5(3):583-589.
Metastasis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) into the central nervous system is extremely rare. We report a patient with synchronous GIST and brain metastasis. At disease onset, there was left hemiplegia and ptosis of the right eyelids. Resection cytology of the brain tumor was reported as metastasis of GIST. After positron emission tomography examination, another tumor in the small bowel was discovered, which suggested a small bowel GIST associated with intracranial metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of the intestinal tumor specimen obtained by double balloon endoscopy showed a pattern similar to the brain tumor, with the tumors subsequently identified as intracranial metastases of jejunal GIST. After surgical resection of one brain tumor, the patient underwent whole brain radiation therapy followed by treatment with imatinib mesylate (Gleevec; Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland). Mutational analysis of the original intestinal tumor revealed there were no gene alterations in KIT or PDGFRα. Since the results indicated the treatment had no apparent effect on either of the tumors, and because ileus developed due to an intestinal primary tumor, the patient underwent surgical resection of the intestinal lesion. However, the patient's condition gradually worsen and she subsequently died 4 months after the initial treatment.
doi:10.1159/000333403
PMCID: PMC3219482  PMID: 22110419
Gastrointestinal stromal tumor; Brain metastasis; Mutational analysis
14.  A case of primary thyroid squamous cell cancer: transformation from benign tumour associated with chronic thyroiditis? 
BMJ Case Reports  2009;2009:bcr10.2008.1137.
Primary squamous cell cancer of the thyroid gland (SCT) is a rare malignant tumour and is associated with a high mortality. A female patient who suffered from primary SCT is described in this report. The cancer was identified with acute painful swelling of the thyroid gland, when the patient was under periodical observation for her chronic thyroiditis at our outpatient’s clinic. In spite of the highly malignant potential of the cancer as indicated by histological examinations, including p53 and MIB-1 index analyses, the patient has been successfully treated so far with surgery and radiation therapy, surviving for more than 34 months with no sign of recurrence or metastasis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment might have been essential for the successful management of this patient. Further observations and investigations are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of the long survival and to find a better treatment for the disease.
doi:10.1136/bcr.10.2008.1137
PMCID: PMC3029573  PMID: 21686450
15.  NUDT16 is a (deoxy)inosine diphosphatase, and its deficiency induces accumulation of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA and growth arrest 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;38(14):4834-4843.
Nucleotides function in a variety of biological reactions; however, they can undergo various chemical modifications. Such modified nucleotides may be toxic to cells if not eliminated from the nucleotide pools. We performed a screen for modified-nucleotide binding proteins and identified human nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X-type motif 16 (NUDT16) protein as an inosine triphosphate (ITP)/xanthosine triphosphate (XTP)/GTP-binding protein. Recombinant NUDT16 hydrolyzes purine nucleoside diphosphates to the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates. Among 29 nucleotides examined, the highest kcat/Km values were for inosine diphosphate (IDP) and deoxyinosine diphosphate (dIDP). Moreover, NUDT16 moderately hydrolyzes (deoxy)inosine triphosphate ([d]ITP). NUDT16 is mostly localized in the nucleus, and especially in the nucleolus. Knockdown of NUDT16 in HeLa MR cells caused cell cycle arrest in S-phase, reduced cell proliferation, increased accumulation of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA as well as increased levels of inosine in RNA. We thus concluded that NUDT16 is a (deoxy)inosine diphosphatase that may function mainly in the nucleus to protect cells from deleterious effects of (d)ITP.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkq249
PMCID: PMC2919730  PMID: 20385596
16.  NUDT16 and ITPA play a dual protective role in maintaining chromosome stability and cell growth by eliminating dIDP/IDP and dITP/ITP from nucleotide pools in mammals 
Nucleic Acids Research  2010;38(9):2891-2903.
Mammalian inosine triphosphatase encoded by ITPA gene hydrolyzes ITP and dITP to monophosphates, avoiding their deleterious effects. Itpa− mice exhibited perinatal lethality, and significantly higher levels of inosine in cellular RNA and deoxyinosine in nuclear DNA were detected in Itpa− embryos than in wild-type embryos. Therefore, we examined the effects of ITPA deficiency on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Itpa− primary MEFs lacking ITP-hydrolyzing activity exhibited a prolonged doubling time, increased chromosome abnormalities and accumulation of single-strand breaks in nuclear DNA, compared with primary MEFs prepared from wild-type embryos. However, immortalized Itpa− MEFs had neither of these phenotypes and had a significantly higher ITP/IDP-hydrolyzing activity than Itpa− embryos or primary MEFs. Mammalian NUDT16 proteins exhibit strong dIDP/IDP-hydrolyzing activity and similarly low levels of Nudt16 mRNA and protein were detected in primary MEFs derived from both wild-type and Itpa− embryos. However, immortalized Itpa− MEFs expressed significantly higher levels of Nudt16 than the wild type. Moreover, introduction of silencing RNAs against Nudt16 into immortalized Itpa− MEFs reproduced ITPA-deficient phenotypes. We thus conclude that NUDT16 and ITPA play a dual protective role for eliminating dIDP/IDP and dITP/ITP from nucleotide pools in mammals.
doi:10.1093/nar/gkp1250
PMCID: PMC2875033  PMID: 20081199
17.  Intravascular Papillary Endothelial Hyperplasia Associated with Venous Pool Arising in the Lower Lip: A Case Report 
Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia is a benign nonneoplastic vascular lesion that consists of endothelial cells with abundant vascular tissue with papillary proliferation. An adult female had a painless growing dark red nodule on the left side of the lower lip and often touched and gnawed at it for more than 4 years. The lesion was a tender, smooth mass approximately 1 cm in diameter without discoloration reaction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lesion showed specific findings. She was diagnosed clinically as having mimicked hemangioma, and the lesion was totally excised under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed that papillary proliferated endothelial cells with venous pool, and the lesion was diagnosed as intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia associated with venous pool. There has been no recurrence for more than 1 year. Despite the benign nature of this lesion, it could have been mistaken for a malignant tumor because of its clinical course and radiologic findings.
doi:10.1155/2009/940686
PMCID: PMC2836790  PMID: 20339454
18.  Laminin-332 promotes the invasion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma via PI3K activation 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;98(5):974-980.
Laminin-332 is major component of epithelial basement membrane, and has an important role in cell migration and tumour invasion. Recently, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation induced by laminin-332 during carcinogenesis or tumour invasion has been highlighted in skin squamous cell carcinoma. The expression of laminin-332 in 126 resected oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) specimens was immunohistochemically examined to determine its associations with the clinicopathological characteristics, and the effect of laminin-332 on the invasiveness and the PI3K activation was assessed by in vitro experiments using ESCC cell lines (ESCCs). Sections with immunostaining signals in >30% cancer cells, which were observed in 55 of 126 cases, were judged to be positive for laminin-332. The positivity was significantly correlated with pTNM stage and poor prognosis. Inactivation of the PI3K pathway by laminin-332 blocking antibody suppressed the invasiveness of TE8 cell line, which secreted laminin-332 at high level and had high PI3K activity. The addition of the purified laminin-332 activated the PI3K pathway and increased the invasiveness of TE11 cell line, which secreted laminin-332 at lower level and had low PI3K activity. The deactivation of PI3K pathway using the PI3K inhibitor decreased the invasiveness of ESCCs and the secretion of laminin-332 in vitro. The expression of laminin-332 was one of the prognostic factors of ESCC. Laminin-332 could provide the autocrine positive-feedback loop through PI3K activation, contributing the invasive ability. Therefore, the inhibitor of PI3K pathway might be useful as the anticancer therapies for ESCC.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604252
PMCID: PMC2266844  PMID: 18283320
laminin-332; PI3K pathway; oesophageal cancer; basement membrane; prognostic factor
19.  Identification of biomarkers in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast with microinvasion 
BMC Cancer  2008;8:287.
Background
Widespread use of mammography in breast cancer screening has led to the identification of increasing numbers of patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). DCIS of the breast with an area of focal invasion 1 mm or less in diameter is defined as DCIS with microinvasion, DCIS-Mi. Identification of biological differences between DCIS and DCIS-Mi may aid in understanding of the nature and causes of the progression of DCIS to invasiveness.
Methods
In this study, using resected breast cancer tissues, we compared pure DCIS (52 cases) and DCIS-Mi (28 cases) with regard to pathological findings of intraductal lesions, biological factors, apoptosis-related protein expression, and proliferative capacity through the use of immunohistochemistry and the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method.
Results
There were no differences in biological factors between DCIS and DCIS-Mi, with respect to levels of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2. The frequency of necrosis and positive expression ratio of survivin and Bax were significantly higher in DCIS-Mi than in DCIS. In addition, apoptotic index, Ki-67 index, and positive Bcl-2 immunolabeling tended to be higher in DCIS-Mi than in DCIS. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of necrosis and positive survivin expression were independent factors associated with invasion.
Conclusion
Compared with DCIS, DCIS-Mi is characterized by a slightly elevated cell proliferation capacity and enhanced apoptosis within the intraductal lesion, both of which are thought to promote the formation of cell necrotic foci. Furthermore, the differential expression of survivin may serve in deciding the response to therapy and may have some prognostic significance.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-8-287
PMCID: PMC2567990  PMID: 18837981
20.  Dermoid cyst of the urinary bladder as a differential diagnosis of bladder calculus: a case report 
Dermoid cysts are extremely rare in the urinary bladder and can pose a diagnostic dilemma to both the Urologist and the Histopathologist. Only a few cases were found documented and cited in PubMed. We present a case of dermoid cyst in the urinary bladder presenting as a bladder stone with a brief review of the literature.
doi:10.1186/1752-1947-1-32
PMCID: PMC1920516  PMID: 17592652
21.  Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) subtype in EBV related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan, compared with Kitakyushu and Kumamoto in mainland Japan 
Journal of Clinical Pathology  2002;55(6):414-423.
Aim: In Okinawa, a subtropical island located between the East China Sea and Pacific Ocean, 2000 km south of mainland Japan, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma is 1.5 times higher than that seen in mainland Japan, and a large number of these patients have been reported to be infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this malignancy in this area by carrying out genomic analysis of EBV.
Methods: Fifty four patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma reported from 1997 to 1999 in Okinawa were compared with 21 and 20 patients from Kitakyushu and Kumamoto in Kyushu, mainland Japan, respectively. Diagnosis was confirmed by conventional histological examination of paraffin wax sections. EBV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Bam HI-F, EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) regions). Sequence analysis of the PCR products was also carried out.
Results: In Okinawa, 25 patients were found to be infected with EBV type A by analysing the 3′ sequence divergence of the EBNA2 genes. Six patients were positive for EBV type B, and eight for both type A and B. Therefore, type A virus infection was demonstrated in 33 of 54 patients, and type B in 14 of 54. In total, 39 of 54 patients were infected with EBV. However, the “f” variant was shown in only one patient, who was also infected with type A virus. In contrast, 97.0% of EBV type A infected patients showed a 30 bp deletion of the LMP-1 gene, but those infected with EBV type B did not. Sequence analysis of the type A virus EBNA2 gene revealed slight variations of the sequence (mutations)—48991G→T and 48998C→A—in 18 of 33 cases compared with the B95-8 strain, and in 14 cases, in addition to these, a further mutation of 48917T→C was demonstrated; in the single remaining case, only one mutation at 49137A→G was detected. The mutations at 48991 (G→T), and 49137 (A→G) are associated with amino acid changes Arg→Met and Thr→Ala, respectively. In contrast, no mutation was seen in the EBNA2 DNA from the 14 cases of type B virus when compared with that of the Jijoye strain. In Kitakyushu and Kumamoto, only 10 of 41 patients (six in Kitakyushu and four in Kumamoto) were infected with EBV. Among them, nine patients were infected with type A virus, and only one patient from Kitakyushu was infected with type B virus. The 48991G→T and 48998C→A mutations of the EBNA2 region were demonstrated in type A virus, but the 48917T→C and 49137A→G mutations were not when compared with the B95-8 strain. In the case of type B virus no mutation was noted. A 30 bp deletion was found in these nine cases of type A, but not in type B. The sequence analysis of EBV type A in Okinawa, Kitakyushu, and Kumamoto showed slight variations when compared with B95–8, but EBV type B LMP-1 did not when compared with the Jijoye strains.
Conclusion: In Okinawa, EBV infection was frequently demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.001). However, in mainland Japan there was no significant correlation between EBV and oral squamous cell carcinoma. In Okinawa, EBV type B infection is approximately 10 times more common than in the mainland. However, in these areas—Okinawa, Kitakyushu, and Kumamoto—the frequency of the “f ” variant was very low, whereas a high incidence of a 30 bp deletion of LMP-1 was noted. The number of EBV (including type A and/or B) infected oral squamous cell carcinomas in Okinawa was about three times higher than that seen in the mainland, although the frequency of oral squamous carcinoma was only 1.5 times higher than that seen in the mainland. A high prevalence of type B virus infection and slight differences in the EBNA2 gene sequence in the type A virus might influence the frequency of this carcinoma in Okinawa.
PMCID: PMC1769665  PMID: 12037022
Epstein-Barr virus subtypes; Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 2; latent membrane protein 1; oral squamous cell carcinomas
22.  Immunocytochemical Analyses and Targeted Gene Disruption of GTPBP1 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2000;20(17):6195-6200.
We previously identified a gene encoding a putative GTPase, GTPBP1, which is structurally related to elongation factor 1α, a key component of protein biosynthesis machinery. The primary structure of GTPBP1 is highly conserved between human and mouse (97% identical at the amino acid level). Expression of this gene is enhanced by gamma interferon in a monocytic cell line, THP-1. Although counterparts of this molecule in Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum have also been identified, the function of this molecule remains to be clarified. In the present study, our immunohistochemical analyses on mouse tissues revealed that GTPBP1 is expressed in some neurons and smooth muscle cells of various organs as well as macrophages. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that GTPBP1 is localized exclusively in cytoplasm and shows a diffuse granular network forming a gradient from the nucleus to the periphery of the cells in smooth muscle cell lines and macrophages. To investigate the physiological role of GTPBP1, we used targeted gene disruption in embryonic stem cells to generate GTPBP1-deficient mice. The mutant mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency, developed normally, and were fertile. No manifest anatomical or behavioral abnormality was observed in the mutant mice. Functions of macrophages, including chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and nitric oxide production, in mutant mice were equivalent to those seen in wild-type mice. No significant difference was observed in the immune response to protein antigen between mutant mice and wild-type mice, suggesting normal function of antigen-presenting cells of the mutant mice. The absence of an eminent phenotype in GTPBP1-deficient mice may be due to functional compensation by GTPBP2, a molecule we recently identified which is similar to GTPBP1 in structure and tissue distribution.
PMCID: PMC86094  PMID: 10938096

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