Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive memory loss that leads to a profound emotional disturbance in later stages. As no safe and effective drug is yet available for the treatment of AD, secondary metabolites from plants may be instrumental in meeting this challenge. Keeping in view this point we evaluated sesquiterpenes of medicinal plant Amberboa ramosa for their cholinesterase inhibitory activity.
Four sesquiterpene lactones have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Amberboa ramosa. In which one compound Amberbin C (1) was found to be new while other three Amberin (2), Amberbin A (3), and Amberbin B (4) were previously reported ones. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using different spectroscopic techniques. Isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory potential against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes. All compounds showed excellent inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase.
A new sesquiterpene lactone has been isolated and fully characterized, the sesquiterpene lactones from Amberboa ramosa showed good inhibitory activities against acetyl cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase enzymes, this study indicated that sesquiterpene lactone can become interesting lead molecules in drug development against Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Amberbin C; Amberboa ramosa; Compositeae; Acetyl cholinesterase; Butyryl cholinesterase
GST is a family of enzymes that are important in protection of the body against oxidative stress.
Investigate the association between GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism and hypertension.
Materials and Methods
GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes were detected by PCR. The fragments were then analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis.
There is no significant association between GSTT1 & GSTM1 polymorphism and hypertension (OR = 2.4, P > 0.05 and OR = 1.6, P > 0.05)
GSTT1 & GSTM1 polymorphism can be considered a risk factor for hypertension.
Hypertension; Glutathione S-Transferase T1; Polymorphism, Genetic
To assess the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum xanthocarpum (S. xanthocarpum) fruit extract against antitubercular drug-induced liver toxicity in experimental animals.
Ethanolic (50%) fruit extract of S. xanthocarpum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw) was administered daily for 35 days in experimental animals. Liver toxicity was induced by combination of three antitubercular drugs [isoniazid (I) 7.5 mg/kg, rifampicin (R) 10 mg/kg and pyrazinamide (P) 35 mg/kg] given orally as suspension for 35 days in rats. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), total bilirubin (TBL), albumin (ALB), total protein (TP), lactate dehydroginase (LDH), and serum cholesterol (CHL). Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant activities as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in rat liver homogenate. The biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination.
The results demonstrated that treatment with S. xanthocarpum significantly (P<0.05-P<0.001) and dose-dependently prevented drug induced increase in serum levels of hepatic enzymes. Furthermore, S. xanthocarpum significantly (up to P<0.001) reduced the LPO in the liver tissue and restored activities of defence antioxidant enzymes GSH, SOD and CAT towards normal levels. Histopathology of the liver tissue showed that S. xanthocarpum attenuated the hepatocellular necrosis and led to reduction in inflammatory cells infiltration.
The results of this study strongly indicate the protective effect of S. xanthocarpum against liver injury which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity, and thereby scientifically support its traditional use.
Solanum xanthocarpum; Rifampicin; Isoniazid; Pyrazinamide; Antioxidant; Antihepatotoxicity; Hepatoprotective effect; Antitubercular drug; Liver toxicity; Liver injury; Biochemical parameter; Histopathology
Cheap and efficient white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest due to the energy crisis all over the world. Herein, we have developed heterojunction LEDs based on the well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanotubes on the p-type GaN with the insertion of the NiO buffer layer that showed enhancement in the light emission. Scanning electron microscopy have well demonstrated the arrays of the ZnO nanorods and the proper etching into the nanotubes. X-ray diffraction study describes the wurtzite crystal structure array of ZnO nanorods with the involvement of GaN at the (002) peak. The cathodoluminescence spectra represent strong and broad visible emission peaks compared to the UV emission and a weak peak at 425 nm which is originated from GaN. Electroluminescence study has shown highly improved luminescence response for the LEDs fabricated with NiO buffer layer compared to that without NiO layer. Introducing a sandwich-thin layer of NiO between the n-type ZnO and the p-type GaN will possibly block the injection of electrons from the ZnO to the GaN. Moreover, the presence of NiO buffer layer might create the confinement effect.
White light-emitting diode; ZnO nanorods; Nanotubes; NiO buffer layer
Neurological manifestations of mononucleosis are extremely rare, occurring in about 1% of all cases. However, when they occur, appropriate treatment must be undertaken to ensure appropriate symptomatic management and reduce morbidity. We present the case of a 25-year-old graduate student with weeklong complaints of fever, sore throat, fatigue, nausea, and “dizziness.” She later developed increased sleep requirements, ataxia, vertigo, and nystagmus with a positive EBV IgM titer confirming acute infectious mononucleosis. The patient was clinically diagnosed with EBV-associated cerebellitis and encephalitis, displaying neurological and psychiatric impairment commonly seen in postconcussion syndrome. MRI showed no acute changes. She was started on valacyclovir and a prednisone taper, recovering by the end of twelve weeks. Though corticosteroids and acyclovir are not recommended therapy in patients presenting with EBV-associated ataxia, clinicians may want to keep a low threshold to start these medications in case more serious neurological sequelae develop.
The properties of Boswellia plants have been exploited for millennia in the traditional medicines of Africa, China, and especially in the Indian Ayurveda. In Western countries, the advent of synthetic drugs has obscured the pharmaceutical use of Boswellia, until it was reported that an ethanolic extract exerts anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects. Frankincense was commonly used for medicinal purposes. This paper aims to provide an overview of current knowledge of the volatile constituents of frankincense, with explicit consideration concerning the diverse Boswellia species. Altogether, more than 340 volatiles in Boswellia have been reported in the literature. In particular, a broad diversity has been found in the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatiles with respect to different varieties of Boswellia. A detailed discussion of the various biological activities of Boswellia frankincense is also presented.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer globally. Tobacco consumption and HPV infection, both are the major risk factor for the development of oral cancer and causes mitochondrial dysfunction. Genetic polymorphisms in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes modify the effect of environmental exposures, thereby playing a significant role in gene–environment interactions and hence contributing to the individual susceptibility to cancer. Here, we have investigated the association of tobacco - betel quid chewing, HPV infection, GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes, and tumour stages with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content variation in oral cancer patients.
The study comprised of 124 cases of OSCC and 140 control subjects to PCR based detection was done for high-risk HPV using a consensus primer and multiplex PCR was done for detection of GSTM1-GSTT1 polymorphism. A comparative ΔCt method was used for determination of mtDNA content. The risk of OSCC increased with the ceased mtDNA copy number (Ptrend = 0.003). The association between mtDNA copy number and OSCC risk was evident among tobacco – betel quid chewers rather than tobacco – betel quid non chewers; the interaction between mtDNA copy number and tobacco – betel quid was significant (P = 0.0005). Significant difference was observed between GSTM1 - GSTT1 null genotypes (P = 0.04, P = 0.001 respectively) and HPV infection (P<0.001) with mtDNA content variation in cases and controls. Positive correlation was found with decrease in mtDNA content with the increase in tumour stages (P<0.001). We are reporting for the first time the association of HPV infection and GSTM1-GSTT1 null genotypes with mtDNA content in OSCC.
Our results indicate that the mtDNA content in tumour tissues changes with tumour stage and tobacco-betel quid chewing habits while low levels of mtDNA content suggests invasive thereby serving as a biomarker in detection of OSCC.
To study the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic and aqueous extract of the rhizomes of Picrorrhiza kurroa (Scrophulariaceae) in normal and immunosuppressed mice models.
Materials and Methods:
The rhizomes extract of Picrorrhiza kurroa was administered orally according to their body weight in mice. The study was carried out by various hematological and serological tests. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity on specific and non-specific immunity was studied by administration of test extract. The method of cyclophasphamide-induced immunosuppression was employed with slight modification to study the immunomodulatory potential of the extract. Plant extracts were administered by oral feeding canula to the test groups (groups III–VI), group I (control animals) and group II (model control animals) received same volume of normal saline (0.2 ml). Humoral antibody response to SRBC measurement of antibody titer by hemagglutination reaction was done. The mice belonging to the all groups were antigenically challenged with SRBC (0.5×109 cells/ml/100 g) on 10th day intraparitoneally. Cellular immune response (Foot pad reaction test) the edema was induced by injecting SRBC (0.025×109 cells) in left paw, and 0.025 ml of saline was injected in right paw.
The plant extract showed protective effects on humoral immunity. The change in percentage deduction in footpad volume was also found significant (P<0.001). Administration of extract remarkably ameliorated both cellular and humoral antibody response.
It is concluded that the test extracts possessed promising immunostimulant properties. But, the alcoholic extract is more potent than aqueous extract in producing delayed type hypersensitivity response.
Hematological and serological tests; immunomodulatory activity; Picrorrhiza kurroa; rhizomes
This article presents the development and evaluation of a new topical formulation of diclofenac diethylamine (DDA) as a locally applied analgesic lotion.
To this end, the lotion formulations were formulated with equal volume of varying concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%; v/v) of permeation enhancers, namely propylene glycol (PG) and turpentine oil (TO). These lotions were subjected to physical studies (pH, viscosity, spreadability, homogeneity, and accelerated stability), in vitro permeation, in vivo animal studies and sensatory perception testing. In vitro permeation of DDA from lotion formulations was evaluated across polydimethylsiloxane membrane and rabbit skin using Franz cells.
It was found that PG and TO content influenced the permeation of DDA across model membranes with the lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO content showed maximum permeation enhancement of DDA. The flux values for L4 were 1.20±0.02 μg.cm-2.min-1 and 0.67 ± 0.02 μg.cm-2.min-1 for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. Flux values were significantly different (p < 0.05) from that of the control. The flux enhancement ratio of DDA from L4 was 31.6-fold and 4.8-fold for polydimethylsiloxane and rabbit skin, respectively. In the in vivo animal testing, lotion with 4% v/v enhancer content showed maximum anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect without inducing any irritation. Sensatory perception tests involving healthy volunteers rated the formulations between 3 and 4 (values ranging between -4 to +4, indicating a range of very bad to excellent, respectively).
It was concluded that the DDA lotion containing 4% v/v PG and TO exhibit the best performance overall and that this specific formulation should be the basis for further clinical investigations.
Diclofenac Diethylamine; Topical Applied Lotion; Propylene Glycol; Percutaneous Absorption; Turpentine Oil
Vinylation of aryl N-(2-pyridylsulfonyl) aldimines with versatile 1-alkenyl-1,1-borozinc heterobimetallic reagents is disclosed. In situ hydroboration of air-stable B(pin)-alkynes followed by chemoselective transmetallation with dimethylzinc and addition to aldimines provides B(pin)-substituted allylic amines in 60–93% yield in a one-pot procedure. The addition step can be followed by either B–C bond oxidation to provide α-amino ketones (71–98% yield) or Suzuki cross-coupling to furnish trisubstituted 2-arylated (E)-allylic amines (51–73% yield).
In the title compound, C16H15N3O3S, the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 8.18 (11)° and the C=N—N=C torsion angle is 178.59 (14)°. The conformation of the thiazine ring is an envelope, with the S atom displaced by 0.8157 (18) Å from the mean plane of the other five atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.045 Å). An intramolecular O—H⋯N hydrogen bond closes an S(6) ring. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O interactions link the molecules, with all three O atoms acting as acceptors.
Auscultation of the heart is accompanied by both electrical activity and sound. Heart auscultation provides clues to diagnose many cardiac abnormalities. Unfortunately, detection of relevant symptoms and diagnosis based on heart sound through a stethoscope is difficult. The reason GPs find this difficult is that the heart sounds are of short duration and separated from one another by less than 30 ms. In addition, the cost of false positives constitutes wasted time and emotional anxiety for both patient and GP. Many heart diseases cause changes in heart sound, waveform, and additional murmurs before other signs and symptoms appear. Heart-sound auscultation is the primary test conducted by GPs. These sounds are generated primarily by turbulent flow of blood in the heart. Analysis of heart sounds requires a quiet environment with minimum ambient noise. In order to address such issues, the technique of denoising and estimating the biomedical heart signal is proposed in this investigation. Normally, the performance of the filter naturally depends on prior information related to the statistical properties of the signal and the background noise. This paper proposes Kalman filtering for denoising statistical heart sound. The cycles of heart sounds are certain to follow first-order Gauss–Markov process. These cycles are observed with additional noise for the given measurement. The model is formulated into state-space form to enable use of a Kalman filter to estimate the clean cycles of heart sounds. The estimates obtained by Kalman filtering are optimal in mean squared sense.
heart sound; murmurs; ECG; Kalman filters; acoustic cardiac signals
Actinomycosis is an infectious disease caused by anaerobic gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria of the genus Actinomyces that affects the oropharynx, digestive tract, and genitalia. Thoracic actinomycosis may affect the respiratory tract and the pleura, even extending to the chest wall. Pulmonary actinomycosis occurs in immunocompetent persons during the fourth and fifth decades of life, with greater prevalence in men, and is generally due to Actinomyces israelii or A meyeri. It is frequently misdiagnosed as primary or metastatic lung cancer or conventional lung infections (eg, tuberculosis). The accepted predisposing factors for bronchopulmonary actinomycosis are poor dental hygiene, alcoholism and various chronic debilitating diseases, hiatus hernia, and gastro-oesophageal reflux. We report an interesting case of pulmonary actinomycosis presenting with haemoptysis, associated with achlasia cardia, and treated as tuberculosis.
Vaccines are the most effective public health intervention. Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) provides routine vaccination in developing countries. However, vaccines that cannot be given in EPI schedule such as typhoid fever vaccine need alternative venues. In areas where school enrolment is high, schools provide a cost effective opportunity for vaccination. Prior to start of a school-based typhoid vaccination program, interviews were conducted with staff of educational institutions in two townships of Karachi, Pakistan to collect baseline information about the school system and to plan a typhoid vaccination program. Data collection teams administered a structured questionnaire to all schools in the two townships. The administrative staff was requested information on school fee, class enrolment, past history of involvement and willingness of parents to participate in a vaccination campaign.
A total of 304,836 students were enrolled in 1,096 public, private, and religious schools (Madrasahs) of the two towns. Five percent of schools refused to participate in the school census. Twenty-five percent of schools had a total enrolment of less than 100 students whereas 3% had more than 1,000 students. Health education programs were available in less than 8% of public schools, 17% of private schools, and 14% of Madrasahs. One-quarter of public schools, 41% of private schools, and 43% of Madrasahs had previously participated in a school-based vaccination campaign. The most common vaccination campaign in which schools participated was Polio eradication program. Cost of the vaccine, side effects, and parents' lack of information were highlighted as important limiting factors by school administration for school-based immunization programs. Permission from parents, appropriateness of vaccine-related information, and involvement of teachers were considered as important factors to improve participation.
Health education programs are not part of the regular school curriculum in developing countries including Pakistan. Many schools in the targeted townships participated in immunization activities but they were not carried out regularly. In the wake of low immunization coverage in Pakistan, schools can be used as a potential venue not only for non-EPI vaccines, but for a catch up vaccination of routine vaccines.
Vaccine; typhoid fever; developing country; infectious disease; health education
In this study honeycomb-like NiO nanostructures were grown on nickel foam by a simple hydrothermal growth method. The NiO nanostructures were characterized by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The characterized NiO nanostructures were uniform, dense and polycrystalline in the crystal phase. In addition to this, the NiO nanostructures were used in the development of a zinc ion sensor electrode by functionalization with the highly selective zinc ion ionophore 12-crown-4. The developed zinc ion sensor electrode has shown a good linear potentiometric response for a wide range of zinc ion concentrations, ranging from 0.001 mM to 100 mM, with sensitivity of 36 mV/decade. The detection limit of the present zinc ion sensor was found to be 0.0005 mM and it also displays a fast response time of less than 10 s. The proposed zinc ion sensor electrode has also shown good reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and selectivity. The zinc ion sensor based on the functionalized NiO nanostructures was also used as indicator electrode in potentiometric titrations and it has demonstrated an acceptable stoichiometric relationship for the determination of zinc ion in unknown samples. The NiO nanostructures-based zinc ion sensor has potential for analysing zinc ion in various industrial, clinical and other real samples.
honeycomb NiO nanostructures; potentiometric response; ion selective electrode; selectivity; selective ionophore
This study aims to train students on public health survey; correlate risk factors of osteoarthritis and to identify modifiable risk factors.
Osteoarthritis survey was carried out among 420 Bahraini women, above 40 years of age, diagnosed of osteoarthritis, attending ministry of health facilities.
Most cases in the study were from the age group of 50-59 years with a mean age of 57. Osteoarthritis: of major joints alone was 74%; of generalized was 21% and of small joints of hands and feet alone was 5%. Within major osteoarthritis: 48% were knees alone; 51% were knee and hip and 2% were hip alone. Combinations of co-morbidities were found among 43%. History of diagnosed: diabetes in 10%, hypertension among 13% and hypercholesterolemia in 5% of cases. Half of the cases in the study were obese and 30% were overweight. Osteoarthritis of the Knee and the combination of the osteoarthritis of knee and hip was highest among obese followed by overweight cases. Menopause was found among 68%of patients. Patients on medication accounted for 85% and 75% were on Physiotherapy. Half of the sample had family history of osteoarthritis. While over 90% were less educated with odds ratio for being housewives at 3.085. The multivariate analysis of ordinal regression returned pseudo R2 of 30% for the model with the following significant variables: age, BMI, menopause status, exercise, chronic morbidities and family history of osteoarthritis.
Overall, the proportion of major osteoarthritis of the weight bearing joints is very high. The modifiable risk factors identified from this study are sedentary lifestyle, obesity and overweight, as well as chronic morbidities.
Osteoarthritis; Risk factors; Public health audit; Ordinal regression
The incidence of difficulty in tracheal intubation has been reported to range from 0.5 to 18% in patients undergoing surgery. We aimed to elucidate the role of upper lip bite test (ULBT) with other prevailing tests, hyomental/thyrosternal distances (HMD/TSD), and the mandible length (ML) and their possible correlation in predicting difficulty in intubation. After institutional approval and informed consent were obtained, 300 consecutive patients aged 20–60 years of ASA physical status I and II, scheduled for elective surgical procedures requiring tracheal intubation and meeting the inclusion criteria, were enrolled in this study. Each patient was evaluated regarding ULBT, HMD, TSD and ML. Laryngoscopy was assessed by an attending anaesthesiologist blinded to the measurements. The laryngoscopic result was graded according to Cormack and Lehane’s Grading system. The negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) of ULBT were found to be 94 and 100%, respectively. These corresponding figures for TSD were 88.5 and 0%, respectively. Specificities for ULBT, HMD, ML and TSD were 100, 98.9, 98.9 and 98.1%, respectively. ULBT class and laryngoscopic grading showed the greatest agreement (kappa = 0.61, P < 0.001). An agreement between laryngoscopic grading and HMD and ML also existed (0.003 and <0.001, respectively), but was comparatively weaker. The high specificity, NPV, PPV and accuracy of ULBT as revealed in this study could be a good rationale for its application in the prediction of difficulty or easiness in intubation. ML > 9 cm and HMD > 3.5 cm were good predictors of negative difficult intubation.
Difficult intubation; difficult laryngoscopy; endotracheal intubation; predictive airway tests
Corrigendum to Acta Cryst. (2010), E66, o1881.
The name of one of the authors in the paper by Hussain et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010), E66, o1881] is corrected.
1-Alkenyl-1,1-heterobimetallics are potentially very useful in stereoselective organic synthesis, but are relatively unexplored. Introduced herein is a practical application of 1-alkenyl-1,1-heterobimetallic intermediates in the synthesis of versatile cyclopropyl alcohol boronate esters, which are valuable building blocks. Thus, hydroboration of 1-alkynyl-1-boronate esters with dicyclohexylborane generates 1-alkenyl-1,1-diboro species. In situ transmetalation with dialkylzinc reagents furnishes 1-alkenyl-1,1-borozinc heterobimetallic intermediates. Addition of the more reactive Zn–C bond to aldehydes generates the key B(pin) substituted allylic alkoxide intermediates. An in situ alkoxide directed cyclopropanation proceeds with the formation of two more C–C bonds, affording cyclopropyl alcohol boronate esters with three new stereocenters in 58–89% isolated yields and excellent diastereoselectivities (>15:1 dr). Oxidation of the B–C bond provides trisubstituted α-hydroxycyclopropyl carbinols as single diastereomers in excellent yields (75–93%). Facile pinacol-type rearrangement of the α-hydroxycyclopropyl carbinols provides access to both cis- and trans-2,3-disubstituted cyclobutanones with high stereoselectivity (>17:1 dr in most cases) from a common starting material. This methodology has been applied in the synthesis of quercus lactones A and B.
Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is one of the commonest infectious diseases of the liver and may lead to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and Ribavirin is the treatment of choice for CHC. Combination therapy is thought to act by means of antiviral mechanisms and immunomodulation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most common autoimmune adverse effect associated with combination therapy; hypothyroidism is more common than hyperthyroidism. Antithyroid antibodies and female sex have a predictive value in the development of interferon induced thyroid disease (IITD). Patients with CHC should be informed of the possibility of side effects on the thyroid gland. Screening for antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function tests should be performed in patients with CHC before the commencement of antiviral treatment, and during and after it. This article reviews different aspects of IITD, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, association with treatment regimens and treatment response and the outcome of thyroid dysfunction.
Chronic Hepatitis C; Interferon; Ribavirin; Thyroid Disease
Sister Mary Joseph nodule or Sister Mary Joseph Sign refers to a palpable nodule bulging into the umbilicus as a result of metastasis of a malignant cancer in the pelvis or abdomen. A rare case of Sister Mary Joseph nodule, manifesting as ascites, cachexia and bleeding per rectum, is presented without any primary tumor despite extensive search for the same.
Umbilical Nodule; Metastasis; FNAC
This is a case report of acute L3/4 vertebral osteomyelitis due to Salmonella paratyphi A confirmed by culture from vertebral needle biopsy. From a review of the literature this is the first reported case with bacteriological confirmation. The rarity of Salmonella paratyphi spondylitis and the options for treatment are discussed.
Spondylitis; Salmonella Paratyphi