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1.  How to predict the outcome in mature T and NK cell lymphoma by currently used prognostic models? 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(10):e93-.
To select an appropriate prognostic model in the treatment of mature T- and natural killer (NK) -cell lymphoma (peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and NK-/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL)) is crucial. This study investigated the usefulness of Ann Arbor staging classification International prognostic index (IPI), prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT) and International peripheral T-cell lymphoma Project score (IPTCLP). Between 2000 and 2009, 176 patients (122 males) with PTCL and NKTCL were diagnosed and treated from a single institute in Taiwan. The correlation between complete response (CR) rate, 3-year overall survival (OS), early mortality rate and four prognostic models was analyzed. Thirty-one patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and were analyzed separately. Three-year OS rate was 34.7%, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma harbored better outcome than others. IPI score had the lowest Akaike information criterion value (1081.197) and was the best score in predicting OS and early mortality (P=0.009). Ann Arbor stage classification can predict CR rate more precisely (P=0.006). OS was significantly better in patients who received HSCT, even in patients with unfavorable features compared with chemotherapy alone. All prognostic models were useful to evaluate the outcome of patients with PTCL and NKTCL but IPI score did best in predicting OS in PTCL and PIT score in NKTCL. This study also supported the role of HSCT in patients with high-risk or refractory PTCL or NKTCL.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2012.23
PMCID: PMC3483618  PMID: 23064741
T-cell lymphoma; prognostic score; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Asian population
2.  P02.66. Efficacy of acupuncture for fibromyalgia - RCT 
doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-S1-P122
PMCID: PMC3373393
3.  Comparison of PCR ribotyping and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for improved detection of Clostridium difficile 
BMC Microbiology  2011;11:217.
Background
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping is one of the globally accepted techniques for defining epidemic clones of Clostridium difficile and tracing virulence-related strains. However, the ambiguous data generated by this technique makes it difficult to compare data attained from different laboratories; therefore, a portable technique that could supersede or supplement PCR ribotyping should be developed. The current study attempted to use a new multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) panel to detect PCR-ribotype groups. In addition, various MLVA panels using different numbers of variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci were evaluated for their power to discriminate C. difficile clinical isolates.
Results
At first, 40 VNTR loci from the C. difficile genome were used to screen for the most suitable MLVA panel. MLVA and PCR ribotyping were implemented to identify 142 C. difficile isolates. Groupings of serial MLVA panels with different allelic diversity were compared with 47 PCR-ribotype groups. A MLVA panel using ten VNTR loci with limited allelic diversity (0.54-0.83), designated MLVA10, generated groups highly congruent (98%) with the PCR-ribotype groups. For comparison of discriminatory power, a MLVA panel using only four highly variable VNTR loci (allelic diversity: 0.94-0.96), designated MLVA4, was found to be the simplest MLVA panel that retained high discriminatory power. The MLVA10 and MLVA4 were combined and used to detect genetically closely related C. difficile strains.
Conclusions
For the epidemiological investigations of C. difficile, we recommend that MLVA10 be used in coordination with the PCR-ribotype groups to detect epidemic clones, and that the MLVA4 could be used to detect outbreak strains. MLVA10 and MLVA4 could be combined in four multiplex PCR reactions to save time and obtain distinguishable data.
doi:10.1186/1471-2180-11-217
PMCID: PMC3191483  PMID: 21961456
4.  Efficacy and tolerability of bevacizumab plus capecitabine as first-line therapy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;102(6):981-986.
Background:
Molecularly targeted agents with anti-angiogenic activity, including bevacizumab, have demonstrated clinical activity in patients with advanced/metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This multicentre phase II study involving patients from several Asian countries sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus capecitabine in this population.
Methods:
Histologically proven/clinically diagnosed advanced HCC patients received bevacizumab 7.5 mg kg–1 on day 1 and capecitabine 800 mg m–2 twice daily on days 1–14 every 3 weeks as first-line therapy.
Results:
A total of 45 patients were enrolled; 44 (96%) had extrahepatic metastasis and/or major vessel invasion and 30 (67%) had hepatitis B. No grade 3/4 haematological toxicity occurred. Treatment-related grade 3/4 non-haematological toxicities included diarrhoea (n=2, 4%), nausea/vomiting (n=1, 2%), gastrointestinal bleeding (n=4, 9%) and hand–foot syndrome (n=4, 9%). The overall response rate (RECIST) was 9% and the disease control rate was 52%. Overall, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.7 and 5.9 months, respectively. Median PFS and OS were 3.6 and 8.2 months, respectively, for Cancer of the Liver Italian Programme (CLIP) score ⩽3 patients, and 1.4 and 3.3 months, respectively, for CLIP score 4 patients.
Conclusion:
The bevacizumab–capecitabine combination shows good tolerability and modest anti-tumour activity in patients with advanced HCC.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605580
PMCID: PMC2844032  PMID: 20160718
bevacizumab; capecitabine; hepatocellular carcinoma
5.  Microarrays and RNA-Seq identify molecular mechanisms driving the end of nephron production 
Background
The production of nephrons suddenly ends in mice shortly after birth when the remaining cells of the multi-potent progenitor mesenchyme begin to differentiate into nephrons. We exploited this terminal wave of nephron production using both microarrays and RNA-Seq to serially evaluate gene transcript levels in the progenitors. This strategy allowed us to define the changing gene expression states following induction and the onset of differentiation after birth.
Results
Microarray and RNA-Seq studies of the progenitors detected a change in the expression profiles of several classes of genes early after birth. One functional class, a class of genes associated with cellular proliferation, was activated. Analysis of proliferation with a nucleotide analog demonstrated in vivo that entry into the S-phase of the cell cycle preceded increases in transcript levels of genetic markers of differentiation. Microarrays and RNA-Seq also detected the onset of expression of markers of differentiation within the population of progenitors prior to detectable Six2 repression. Validation by in situ hybridization demonstrated that the markers were expressed in a subset of Six2 expressing progenitors. Finally, the studies identified a third set of genes that provide indirect evidence of an altered cellular microenvironment of the multi-potential progenitors after birth.
Conclusions
These results demonstrate that Six2 expression is not sufficient to suppress activation of genes associated with growth and differentiation of nephrons. They also better define the sequence of events after induction and suggest mechanisms contributing to the rapid end of nephron production after birth in mice.
doi:10.1186/1471-213X-11-15
PMCID: PMC3065427  PMID: 21396121
6.  Cessation of Renal Morphogenesis in Mice 
Developmental biology  2007;310(2):379-387.
The kidney develops by cycles of ureteric bud branching and nephron formation. The cycles begin and are sustained by reciprocal inductive interactions and feedback between ureteric bud tips and the surrounding mesenchyme. Understanding how the cycles end is important because it controls nephron number. During the period when nephrogenesis ends in mice, we examined the morphology, gene expression, and function of the domains that control branching and nephrogenesis. We found that the nephrogenic mesenchyme, which is required for continued branching, was gone by the third postnatal day. This was associated with an accelerated rate of new nephron formation in the absence of apoptosis. At the same time the tips of the ureteric bud branches lost the typical appearance of an ampulla and lost Wnt11 expression, consistent with the absence of the capping mesenchyme. Surprisingly, expression of Wnt9b, a gene necessary for mesenchyme induction, continued. We then tested the postnatal day three bud branch tip and showed that it maintained its ability both to promote survival of metanephric mesenchyme and to induce nephrogenesis in culture. These results suggest that the sequence of events leading to disruption of the cycle of branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis began with the loss of mesenchyme that resulted from its conversion into nephrons.
doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2007.08.021
PMCID: PMC2075093  PMID: 17826763
kidney; renal organogenesis; renal morphogenesis; nephrogenesis; confocal microscopy; postnatal development; mouse; apoptosis; proliferation
7.  Plasticity of integrin expression by nerve-derived connective tissue cells. Human Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts express markedly different patterns of beta 1 integrins during nerve development, neoplasia, and in vitro. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1991;87(3):811-820.
Strikingly selective expression patterns of beta 1, alpha 2, alpha 3, and alpha 5 integrin subunits were revealed in endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium of fetal and adult human peripheral nerve by immunostaining with specific antibodies. The alpha 2 subunit was expressed only on Schwann cells both in fetal and adult nerve, whereas the alpha 3 epitopes were expressed exclusively in the adult tissue and were primarily present on perineurial cells. The alpha 5 epitopes were expressed only on the innermost cell layer of perineurium of fetal and adult nerve. The tumor cells within schwannomas and cutaneous neurofibromas expressed both alpha 2 and alpha 3 subunits, indicating that Schwann cells have the potential to express also the alpha 3 subunit in vivo. Cell cultures established from human fetal nerve and neurofibromas revealed expression of the alpha 2 and alpha 5 epitopes on Schwann cells, perineurial cells, and fibroblasts, whereas only Schwann cells contained the alpha 3 epitopes which were occasionally concentrated on the adjacent Schwann cells at cell-cell contacts. Our findings emphasize that nerve connective tissue cells change their profiles for expression of extracellular matrix receptors under conditions which have different regulatory control signals exerted by, for example, axons, humoral factors, or the extracellular matrix of the peripheral nerve. This plasticity may play an important role during nerve development and in neoplastic processes affecting the connective tissue compartments of peripheral nerve.
Images
PMCID: PMC329868  PMID: 1999496

Results 1-7 (7)