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1.  Epstein–Barr virus antibody level and gastric cancer risk in Korea: a nested case–control study 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;101(3):526-529.
Few cohort studies have investigated Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection before the occurrence of gastric cancer.
Among 14 440 cohort participants, 100 incident gastric cancer cases were individually matched to two controls. Epstein–Barr virus antibodies IgG and IgA against viral capsid antigen (VCA), EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) antibody IgG, and early antigen (EA) antibody IgG were measured using enzyme immunoassays (EIAs).
The highest titres of VCA IgG (odds ratio (OR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62–3.06) or EBNA IgG (OR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.51–1.46) were not associated with gastric cancer risk.
Higher levels of VCA IgG or EBNA IgG were not associated with increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Koreans.
PMCID: PMC2720236  PMID: 19550421
stomach neoplasms; Epstein–Barr virus; nested case–control study; Korea
2.  CagA-producing Helicobacter pylori and increased risk of gastric cancer: a nested case–control study in Korea 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;95(5):639-641.
In a nested-case control study of 100 cases of gastric cancer and 400 matched controls in relation to virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori in a Korean cohort, CagA seropositivity was significantly associated with a higher risk of gastric cancer among H. pylori-infected subjects (OR=3.57, 95% CI 1.05–12.14).
PMCID: PMC2360680  PMID: 16909137
gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; CagA; Cohort study; Korea
3.  Helicobacter pylori infection with iron deficiency anaemia and subnormal growth at puberty 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  2000;82(2):136-140.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether Helicobacter pylori infection can contribute to growth deficit, especially in pubescent children who need large amounts of iron for growth. A structured questionnaire was sent to the parents of 532 healthy children aged 10 to 15 years (mean 12.9) to obtain demographic information on the parents and the environment. Of the 532 questionnaires sent out, 375 (70.5%; 170 girls and 205 boys) were returned. After collecting blood samples from participants, haemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum ferritin, and serum IgG antibodies to H pylori were measured. The effects of risk factors such as H pylori infection, iron deficiency anaemia, sex, socioeconomic status, type of house, and crowding index on growth were analysed using multiple regression analysis. Of 63 H pylori positive children, 18 (28.6%) were below the 25th centile values for height, compared with 63 of 312 (20.2%) H pylori negative children. The prevalence rate of H pylori infection was 15.5% (53 of 343) in children without iron deficiency anaemia and 31.3% (10 of 32) in those affected. The relative risk of short stature was 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0 to 4.8) for iron deficiency anaemia, and 1.4 (95% CI, 0.8 to 2.4) for H pylori infection. The mean height was significantly lower in the group having both H pylori infection and iron deficiency anaemia. Therefore, H pylori infection accompanied by iron deficiency anaemia, rather than H pylori infection per se, might delay pubertal growth.

PMCID: PMC1718212  PMID: 10648367
4.  Pulmonary fibrosis in a steel mill worker. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2000;15(2):224-228.
We report a case of pulmonary fibrosis in a 32-year-old man, who had worked at a steel mill and who died of respiratory failure due to interstitial fibrosis despite vigorous treatment. He showed SLE-associated symptoms, such as pleural effusion, malar rashes, discoid rashes, arthritis, leukopenia, and positive antinuclear antibody and anti-histone antibody. However, he did not present anti-DNA antibody. A thoracoscopic lung biopsy showed interstitial fibrosis, chronic inflammation and a small non-caseating granuloma in lung tissues, which could be induced by external agents such as metals. The manganese concentration in the lung tissue was 4.64 microg/g compared to 0.42-0.7 microg/g in the controls. The levels of other metals, such as iron, nickel, cobalt and zinc in patient's lung tissue were higher than those in the controls. The patient was probably exposed to Si and various metal dusts, and the lung fibrosis was related to these exposures. Exposure to Si and metal dusts should be sought in the history of any patient with SLE, especially in a male with pulmonary signs, and if present, exposure should be stopped. In the meantime, steps should be taken to ensure that workers exposure to Si and metal dusts in all environments have adequate protection.
PMCID: PMC3054622  PMID: 10803702
5.  Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  1999;14(3):239-244.
The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to regress daily death counts on each air pollutant, controlling for time trend and meteorologic influences such as temperature or relative humidity. Total mortality was found to increase 1.2% (95% CI: 0.2 to 2.2%) for each 10 microg/m3 increase in 6-day moving average of TSP, and 1.2% (95% CI 0.2 to 2.1%) for each 10 microg/m3 increase in 5-day moving average of PM10. The association is similar in magnitude to associations between particulate air pollution and mortality found in several other communities in America and Europe. Associations with gaseous pollutants were all statistically insignificant in the generalized additive model. The relative risk of death increased at particulate levels that were well below the current Korean Ambient Air Quality Standard.
PMCID: PMC3054386  PMID: 10402164
6.  Cytotoxicity and multinucleate giant cell formation in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast caused by crocidolite and chrysotile. 
The mechanism of carcinogenic action of asbestos remains unclear but the physical properties of the fiber appear to be important in this process. Asbestos may cause multinucleate giant cell formation primarily by interfering with the normal course of mitosis. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and multinucleate giant cell formation induced by crocidolite and chrysotile in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cell) with observation of phagocytic activities. Asbestos fibers were rapidly ingested by V79 cells and most fibers were inside the cells. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by observing inhibition of V79 cell proliferation with trypan blue exclusion test. For determination of frequency of multinucleate giant cells, the cells were treated with different doses of crocidolite or chrysotile for 72 hours. Crocidolite and chrysotile induced cytotoxicity in V79 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The pattern of inhibition of cell proliferation is similar for both types of fibers, but chrysotile was more potent at the highest level (20.0 micrograms/ml) of fiber concentration. There was a good relationship (regression coefficientcrocidolite = 0.02, P < 0.01; regression coefficientchrysotile = 0.04, P < 0.01) between the dose of both asbestos fibers and the frequency of multinucleate giant cells. Chrysotile was again more potent at inducing multinucleate giant cells in higher levels of fiber concentrations. We found that asbestos fibers were cytotoxic after phagocytosis and induced multinucleate giant cells by interfering mitosis.
PMCID: PMC3054243  PMID: 9170013
7.  How to predict the outcome in mature T and NK cell lymphoma by currently used prognostic models? 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(10):e93-.
To select an appropriate prognostic model in the treatment of mature T- and natural killer (NK) -cell lymphoma (peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and NK-/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL)) is crucial. This study investigated the usefulness of Ann Arbor staging classification International prognostic index (IPI), prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT) and International peripheral T-cell lymphoma Project score (IPTCLP). Between 2000 and 2009, 176 patients (122 males) with PTCL and NKTCL were diagnosed and treated from a single institute in Taiwan. The correlation between complete response (CR) rate, 3-year overall survival (OS), early mortality rate and four prognostic models was analyzed. Thirty-one patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and were analyzed separately. Three-year OS rate was 34.7%, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma harbored better outcome than others. IPI score had the lowest Akaike information criterion value (1081.197) and was the best score in predicting OS and early mortality (P=0.009). Ann Arbor stage classification can predict CR rate more precisely (P=0.006). OS was significantly better in patients who received HSCT, even in patients with unfavorable features compared with chemotherapy alone. All prognostic models were useful to evaluate the outcome of patients with PTCL and NKTCL but IPI score did best in predicting OS in PTCL and PIT score in NKTCL. This study also supported the role of HSCT in patients with high-risk or refractory PTCL or NKTCL.
PMCID: PMC3483618  PMID: 23064741
T-cell lymphoma; prognostic score; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Asian population
8.  PM(10) exposure, gaseous pollutants, and daily mortality in Inchon, South Korea. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1999;107(11):873-878.
To evaluate the relative importance of various measures of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality in Inchon, South Korea, the association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 20-month period (January 1995 through August 1996). Poisson regression was used to regress daily death counts on each air pollutant, controlling for time trends, season, and meteorologic influences such as temperature and relative humidity. Regression coefficients of a 5-day moving average of particulate matter less than or = to 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) on total mortality were positively significant when considered separately and simultaneously with other pollutants in the model. PM(10) remained significant when the models were confined to cardiovascular or respiratory mortality. Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) were significantly related to respiratory mortality in the single-pollutant model. Ozone exposure was not statistically significant with regard to mortality in the above models, and graphic analysis showed that the relationship was nonlinear. A combined index of PM(10), nitrogen dioxide, SO(2), and CO seemed to better explain the exposure-response relationship with total mortality than an individual air pollutant. Pollutants should be considered together in the risk assessment of air pollution, as opposed to measuring the risk of individual pollutants.
PMCID: PMC1566699  PMID: 10544154
9.  Magnesium inhibits nickel-induced genotoxicity and formation of reactive oxygen. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1997;105(7):744-748.
Nickel compounds are recognized to cause nasal and lung cancers. Magnesium is an effective protector against nickel-induced carcinogenesis in vivo, although its mechanisms of protection remain elusive. The effects of magnesium carbonate on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by nickel subsulfide were examined with respect to the inhibition of cell proliferation, micronuclei formation, DNA-protein cross-link formation, and intranuclear nickel concentration. The generation of reactive oxygen by nickel chloride was also analyzed by observing 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation from deoxyguanosine in the presence and absence of magnesium chloride. The suppression of up to 64% of the proliferation of BALB/3T3 fibroblasts by nickel subsulfide (1 microgram/ml) was reversed by magnesium. The nickel compound increased not only the number of micronuclei but also the amount of DNA-protein cross-links examined with CHO and BALB/3T3 cells, respectively. These genotoxic effects of nickel were again lessened by magnesium carbonate. In addition, the cellular accumulation of nickel increased 80-fold with nickel subsulfide treatment and decreased with magnesium carbonate treatment. Nickel also enhanced 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation in the presence of H2O2 and ascorbic acid, where magnesium played another suppressive role. In fact, inhibition by magnesium was still observed even in the absence of nickel treatment. These results suggest that the protective role of magnesium in nickel-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity can be attributed to its ability to reduce either the intracellular nickel concentration or reactive oxygen formation.
PMCID: PMC1470112  PMID: 9294721

Results 1-9 (9)