AIM—To prospectively investigate changes in the area of the anterior capsule opening, and intraocular lens (IOL) decentration and tilt after implantation of a hydrogel IOL.
METHODS—100 patients underwent implantation of a hydrogel IOL in one eye and an acrylic IOL implantation in the opposite eye. The area of the anterior capsule opening, and the degree of IOL decentration and tilt were measured using the Scheimpflug videophotography system at 3 days, and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively.
RESULTS—The mean anterior capsule opening area decreased significantly in both groups. At 6 months postoperatively, the area in the hydrogel group was significantly smaller than that in the acrylic group. The mean percentage of the area reduction in the hydrogel group was also significantly greater than that in the acrylic group, being 16.9% in the hydrogel group and 8.8% in the acrylic group. In contrast, IOL decentration and tilt did not progress in either group. No significant differences were found in the degree of IOL decentration and tilt throughout the follow up period.
CONCLUSIONS—Contraction of the anterior capsule opening was more extensive with the hydrogel IOL than with the acrylic IOL, but the degree of IOL decentration and tilt were similar for the two types of lenses studied.
AIMS—To examine the extent of anterior capsule contraction as well as intraocular lens (IOL) decentration and tilt following implant surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PE).
METHODS—53 eyes from 53 patients with PE and 53 control eyes from 53 age matched patients, undergoing phacoemulsification and implant surgery, were recruited. The anterior capsule opening area and the amounts of IOL decentration and tilt after undergoing continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis were measured using the Scheimpflug videophotography system at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively.
RESULTS—The mean area of the anterior capsule opening in the PE group was significantly smaller than that in the control group at 1 month postoperatively and later. The percentage reductions in the PE group were approximately 25%, while they were less than 10% in the control group. The degree of IOL tilt was also larger in the PE group than in the control group. Five eyes (9.4%) in the PE group underwent a neodymium:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy, but none in the control group underwent a capsulotomy.
CONCLUSIONS—The contraction of the anterior capsule opening was more extensive in the PE eyes than in the control eyes, thus resulting in a high Nd:YAG laser anterior capsulotomy rate. The IOL tilt was also greater in the PE eyes than in the control eyes.
Keywords: anterior capsule contraction; intraocular lens dislocation; pseudoexfoliation syndrome; continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis
BACKGROUND—The extent of the decentration and tilt was prospectively compared between one piece polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and three piece PMMA intraocular lenses (IOLs) which were implanted in the capsular bag after performing continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis.
METHODS—91 patients underwent a one piece PMMA IOL implantation in one eye as well as the implantation of the three piece PMMA IOL with polyvinylidene fluoride loops in the opposite eye. The length of the lens decentration and the angle of the tilt were quantitated using the anterior eye segment analysis system (EAS-1000) at 1 week as well as 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively.
RESULTS—The mean length of the decentration in the one piece IOL was smaller than that in the three piece IOL at 1 week (p=0.0092), 1 month (p=0.0044), 3 months (p=0.0069), and 6 months (p=0.0010) postoperatively. However, no significant difference was found in the degree of the tilt between the two types of IOLs throughout the observation periods.
CONCLUSION—These results clarified that the one piece PMMA IOL with rigid PMMA haptics implanted in the capsular bag provides a better centration than the three piece PMMA IOL with flexible haptics, whereas the tilt was the same between the two types of IOLs.
Keywords: intraocular lens; decentration; tilt; continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis
Schwannomas of the orbit are very rare benign neoplasms. Intraorbital cystic schwannomas originating from the frontal nerve are even rarer, with only 1 case reported to date. This is most likely due to the fact that, in most cases, the origin of the orbital schwannoma cannot be identified intraoperatively. The nerve origin is usually speculated from histological examination of the specimen and the postoperative neurological deficits of the patient. Here, we present the case of a 65-year-old woman with a one-month history of exophthalmos, whose orbital cystic lesion was completely removed by microsurgical transcranial operation. Intraoperatively, the continuity between the tumor and frontal nerve was seen macroscopically, leading us to confirm the frontal nerve as an origin of the tumor, which was consistent with the postoperative neurological findings. The diagnosis of the tumor was established as schwannoma from the histological examination. As a differential diagnosis of the orbital cystic lesions, the possibility of schwannomas should be kept in mind.
AIM: To clarify the association between a polymorphism -449 C>G (rs72696119) in 5’-UTR of NFKB1 with ulcerative colitis (UC).
METHODS: The studied population comprised 639 subjects, including patients with UC (UC cases, n = 174) and subjects without UC (controls, n = 465). We employed polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism to detect the gene polymorphism.
RESULTS: The rs72696119 G allele frequencies in controls and UC cases were 33.4% and 38.5%, respectively (P = 0.10). Genotype frequency of the GG homozygote in UC cases was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.017), and the GG homozygote was significantly associated with susceptibility to UC [odds ratio (OR), 1.88; 95%CI, 1.13-3.14]. In male subjects, the GG homozygote was associated with an increased risk for UC (OR, 3.10; 95%CI, 1.47-6.54; P = 0.0053), whereas this association was not found in female subjects. In addition, the GG homozygote was significantly associated with the risk of non-continuous disease (OR, 2.06; 95%CI, 1.12-3.79; P = 0.029), not having total colitis (OR, 2.40; 95%CI, 1.09-3.80, P = 0.040), disease which developed before 20 years of age (OR, 2.80; 95%CI, 1.07-7.32, P = 0.041), no hospitalization (OR, 2.28; 95%CI, 1.29-4.05; P = 0.0090) and with a maximum of 8 or less on the UCDAI score (OR, 2.45; 95%CI, 1.23-4.93; P = 0.022).
CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that NFKB1 polymorphism rs72696119 was significantly associated with the development of UC. This polymorphism influences the susceptibility to and pathophysiological features of UC.
Genetic polymorphism; NFKB1; Ulcerative colitis
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of histamine and its receptors on goblet cell secretion.
Cultured rat and human goblet cells were grown in RPMI 1640. Goblet cell secretion of high molecular weight glycoconjugate was measured by an enzyme-linked lectin assay. Cultured rat goblet cells were homogenized and either RNA was isolated for RT-PCR or proteins were isolated for Western blot analysis for presence of histamine receptors subtypes H1 through H4. The localization of these receptors was determined in rat and human goblet cells by immunofluorescence microscopy.
Histamine stimulated goblet cell secretion in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. All four histamine receptors were present in cultured rat and human goblet cells. Use of agonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes indicated that the rank order of agonist stimulation was H1 = H3 > H4 > H2. Using antagonists specific to individual histamine receptor subtypes determined that H2 and H3, but not the H1 and H4, antagonists, inhibited histamine-stimulated conjunctival goblet cell secretion.
Rat and human conjunctival goblet cells are a direct target of histamine, which induces secretion. All four histamine receptors are present in rat and human conjunctiva and are active in rat conjunctival goblet cells. These findings suggest that all four histamine receptor subtypes are important for conjunctival goblet cell secretion. Blockage of histamine receptor subtypes could prevent the excess mucus production associated with ocular allergy.
The study demonstrated that all four histamine receptors are present and active in rat conjunctival goblet cells.
The resistance of endometriotic tissue to progesterone can be explained by alterations in the distribution of progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms. The aims of this study were to examine the expressions of PR-A, PR-B, ERα and ERβ in endometrioma and assess whether these expressions are affected by dienogest or leuprolide acetate (LA) treatment.
We enrolled 60 females, including 43 patients with endometriosis (14 who received no medical treatment, 13 who received dienogest and 16 who received LA before undergoing laparoscopic surgery) and 17 patients with leiomyoma. The expression levels of PR and ER isoforms in eutopic and ectopic endometrium were assayed with quantitative real-time PCR, and confirmed with immunohistochemistry.
A decreased PR-B/PR-A ratio and an increased ERβ/ERα ratio were demonstrated in ectopic endometrium derived from females with endometriosis compared with the ratios observed in eutopic endometrium obtained from females without endometriosis. Although LA treatment did not affect the PR-B/PR-A and ERβ/ERα ratios, dienogest treatment increased the PR-B/PR-A ratio and decreased the ERβ/ERα ratio in patients with endometriomas.
Dienogest may improve progesterone resistance in endometriotic tissue by increasing the relative expressions of PR-B and PR-A, and decreasing the relative expressions of ERβ and ERα.
Dienogest; Progesterone receptor isoforms; Estrogen receptor isoforms; Ovarian endometriosis; Progesterone resistance
AIM: To evaluate the inhibitory effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation on pneumoperitoneum and bowel distension after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG).
METHODS: A total of 73 consecutive patients who were undergoing PEG were enrolled in our study. After eliminating 13 patients who fitted our exclusion criteria, 60 patients were randomly assigned to either CO2 (30 patients) or air insufflation (30 patients) groups. PEG was performed by pull-through technique after three-point fixation of the gastric wall to the abdominal wall using a gastropexy device. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed immediately before and after the procedure. Abdominal X-ray was performed at 10 min and at 24 h after PEG to assess the extent of bowel distension. Abdominal computed tomography was performed at 24 h after the procedure to detect the presence of pneumoperitoneum. The outcomes of PEG for 7 d post-procedure were also investigated.
RESULTS: Among 30 patients each for the air and the CO2 groups, PEG could not be conducted in 2 patients of the CO2 group, thus they were excluded. Analyses of the remaining 58 patients showed that the patients’ backgrounds were not significantly different between the two groups. The elevation values of arterial partial pressure of CO2 in the air group and the CO2 group were 2.67 mmHg and 3.32 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.408). The evaluation of bowel distension on abdominal X ray revealed a significant decrease of small bowel distension in the CO2 group compared to the air group (P < 0.001) at 10 min and 24 h after PEG, whereas there was no significant difference in large bowel distension between the two groups. Pneumoperitoneum was observed only in the air group but not in the CO2 group (P = 0.003). There were no obvious differences in the laboratory data and clinical outcomes after PEG between the two groups.
CONCLUSION: There was no adverse event associated with CO2 insufflation. CO2 insufflation is considered to be safer and more comfortable for PEG patients because of the lower incidence of pneumoperitoneum and less distension of the small bowel.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Carbon dioxide insufflation; Pneumoperitoneum; Abdominal distension; Randomized control study
External beam radiotherapy is a potential salvage or adjuvant therapy after radical prostatectomy (RP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment outcome of salvage radiotherapy (RT) following RP for clinically localized prostate cancer and to identify factors that may predict the outcome of salvage RT. Between 2000 and 2006, 41 patients received salvage RT because of increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels following an RP for clinically localized prostate cancer. All the patients received conformal radiotherapy to the prostate bed. The prescribed radiation dose was 60–70 Gy in 26–35 fractions. The overall 5-year biochemical disease-free survival rate was 38%. A multivariate analysis showed that the following pathological findings of the surgical specimen were significantly associated with biochemical failure following salvage RT: a high Gleason score, a negative surgical margin, seminal vesicle invasion, lymphatic vessel invasion and negative vascular invasion. Among these factors, lymphatic vessel invasion was the strongest predictor. In conclusion, the pathological features affected the outcome of salvage RT following RP. Lymphatic vessel invasion was strongly associated with the risk of biochemical failure despite salvage RT. Meanwhile, vascular invasion was not a significant hazardous factor.
prostatectomy; salvage radiotherapy; prostate cancer; prostate-specific antigen; pathological findings
Molecular chaperones localized at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen constitutively or cellular stress-dependently associate with a variety of proteins to promote their proper folding or to inhibit protein misfolding. ER chaperones preferentially form large complexes with co-chaperones and/or misfolded proteins in a highly crowded cellular environment that often hampers their detection by immunocytochemistry (ICC). This study establishes an antigen retrieval (AR) protocol to improve the ICC detection of ER chaperones in cultured cells using widely available antibodies against synthetic peptides. Among ten different antigen retrieval/fixation conditions, only the AR with Tris-HCl (pH 9.5) containing 6 M urea (80 °C for 10 min) significantly improved the ICC detection of the novel ER chaperone sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Extended fixation with 4% paraformaldehyde for 1 hr effectively preserved the morphology of the ER under the AR condition. This method greatly enhanced the signal-to-noise ratio in Sig-1R ICC, thus allowing for semi-quantitative detection of protein upregulation under ER stress. The AR similarly improved the ICC detection of a series of other major ER chaperones, including BiP/GRP78, GRP94, calnexin, calreticulin, ERp57, protein disulfide isomerase, and cyclophilin B. The improved ICC methodology using the urea AR at 80°C may improve ICC of ER molecules as well as visualization of ER structure and substructures.
antigen retrieval; urea; molecular chaperone; endoplasmic reticulum; sigma-1 receptor; ER stress
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is a major cause of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN). ANCA-associated CGN is generally classified into pauci-immune RPGN, in which there are few or no immune complexes.
A 78-year-old man presented with RPGN after a 7-year course of chronic proteinuria and hematuria with stable renal function. A blood examination showed a high titer of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA. A renal biopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis with abundant subepithelial, intramenbranous and subendothelial deposits by electron microscopy, leading to the diagnosis of ANCA-associated CGN superimposed on type 3 membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN).
This case is unique in that type 3 MPGN and MPO-ANCA-associated CGN coexisted, and no similar case has been reported to date. Because ANCA-associated CGN has a predilection for elderly individuals and primary type 3 MPGN is rarely seen in this age group, coincidental existence appears less likely. This case may confer valuable information regarding the link between immune complex and ANCA-associated CGN.
Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis; Immune complex; Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis
Toll like receptor 7 (TLR7) is located in the endosomal compartment of immune cells. Signaling through TLR7, mediated by the adaptor protein MyD88, stimulates the innate immune system and shapes adaptive immune responses. Previously, we characterized TLR7 ligands conjugated to protein, lipid or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Among the TLR7 ligand conjugates, the addition of PEG chains reduced the agonistic potency. PEGs are safe in humans and widely used for improvement of pharmacokinetics in existing biologics and some low molecular weight compounds. PEGylation could be a feasible method to alter the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of TLR7 ligands. In this study, we systematically studied the influence of PEG chain length on the in vitro and in vivo properties of potent TLR7 ligands. PEGylation increased solubility of the TLR7 ligands and modulated protein binding. Adding a 6–10 length PEG to the TLR7 ligand reduced its potency toward induction of interleukin (IL)-6 by murine macrophages in vitro and IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in vivo. However, PEGylation with 18 or longer chain restored, and even enhanced, the agonistic activity of the drug. In human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, similar effects of PEGylation were observed for secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β and type 1 interferon, as well for B cell proliferation. In summary, these studies demonstrate that conjugation of PEG chains to a synthetic TLR ligand can impact its potency for cytokine induction depending on the size of the PEG moiety. Thus, PEGylation may be a feasible approach to regulate the pharmacological properties of TLR7 ligands.
polyethylene glycol; PEG; Toll like receptor 7
To compare the degree of tilt and decentration of an intraocular lens (IOL), refractive status, and prediction error between eyes that underwent trans-scleral suturing of the IOL within the capsular bag (in-the-bag scleral suturing) and eyes that underwent scleral suturing outside of the bag (out-of-the-bag scleral suturing) because of severe zonular dehiscence.
Patients and methods
Thirty eyes that underwent in-the-bag scleral suturing of an IOL and 38 eyes that underwent out-of-the-bag scleral suturing were recruited sequentially. The tilt and decentration of the IOL, anterior chamber depth, manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), prediction error, and incidence of complications were examined.
The mean tilt angle and the decentration length of the IOL of the in-the-bag suturing group were significantly less than those of the out-of-the-bag suturing group (P=0.0003 in tilt and P=0.0391 in decentration), although the anterior chamber depth was similar. The mean MRSE and prediction error of the in-the-bag suturing group were less than those of the out-of-the-bag suturing group (P=0.0006 in MRSE and P=0.0034 in error). The incidence of vitreous loss was less in the in-the-bag suturing group than in the out-of-the-bag suturing group (20% vs63.2%, P=0.0009).
The tilt and decentration of the IOL after in-the-bag scleral suturing are significantly less than those after out-of-the-bag scleral suturing, which may lead to less MRSE and less prediction error. As the incidence of vitreous loss is less after in-the-bag scleral suturing, in-the-bag suturing is advantageous for eyes of younger patients and of less complicated cases.
cataract surgery; scleral suture fixation of intraocular lens; zonular dehiscence; intraocular lens displacement; refractive prediction error
Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric malignancies, and its eradication has been advocated by many groups. We determined the H. pylori carrier status and eradication rates of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
In total, 76 chronically HCV-infected patients were enrolled for comparison with 228 HCV-noninfected, age- and sex-matched controls. H. pylori infection was confirmed by H. pylori antibody and urea breath testing.
The H. pylori infection rate was significantly higher for HCV-infected patients (67 of 76, 88.2%) than for HCV-noninfected controls (158 of 228, 69.3%). Endoscopic findings showed that the rates of gastric ulcers and gastritis were significantly higher for the 67 HCV-infected patients with H. pylori infection (34.3% and 77.6%) than for the 158 HCV-noninfected controls with H. pylori infection (15.2% and 57.6%). Treatment to eradicate H. pylori had a significantly higher success rate for HCV-infected patients (61 of 67, 91.0%) than for HCV-noninfected controls (115 of 158, 72.8%).
The markedly high H. pylori eradication rate observed in this study shows that eradication of H. pylori holds promise for the improvement of the long-term health condition of patients with chronic HCV infection.
Helicobacter pylori; Chronic hepatitis C
Expression of the keratin 12 (Krt12) gene is subjected to monoallelic regulation, as demonstrated by the use of bitransgenic Krt12cre/+/ROSAEGFP mice. This allelic selection of Krt12 gene expression is advantageous for retaining epithelial cells expressing the Krt12+ allele and allows tolerance to structural mutations of Krt12 in persons carrying heterozygous mutations.
The purpose of this study was to characterize a Krt12-Cre knock-in mouse line for corneal epithelium-specific gene ablation and to analyze the allelic selection of the keratin 12 (Krt12) gene during corneal type-epithelium differentiation.
Knock-in mice were generated by gene targeting. The authors examined the expression patterns of several reporter genes in the corneas of bitransgenic Krt12cre/+/ROSAEGFP, Krt12Cre/+/ZEG, and Krt12Cre/+/ZAP mouse lines. Krt12 and cre recombinase (Cre) immunostaining was performed. Corneal epithelial cells from bitransgenic Krt12Cre/+/ROSAEGFP mice were examined by fluorescence-activated cell sorter.
Mosaic and spiral expression patterns of EGFP were observed in young and adult bitransgenic Krt12Cre/+/ZEG mice, respectively. Immunostaining revealed that Cre− cells were also Krt12 negative in the corneal epithelia of Krt12Cre/−/ZAP mice. Using FACS analysis, 60% to 70% of the corneal epithelial cells from Krt12Cre/+/ROSAEGFP mice were EGFP positive, whereas 20% to 30% were negative. RT-PCR revealed that EGFP+ cells express both Krt12Cre and Krt12+ alleles, whereas EGFP− cells express only Krt12+. In the Krt12Cre/− cornea, the number of epithelial cells expressing Cre is the same as that found in Krt12Cre/Cre, which can be explained by the fragility of corneal epithelial cells that did not produce Krt12 because the Krt12Cre allele was not transcribed.
These observations are consistent with the notion that clonal limbal stem cells randomly activate Krt12 alleles in the process of terminal differentiation. The authors suggest that this selection is advantageous for retaining epithelial cells expressing the Krt12+ allele and that it allows tolerance to structural mutations of Krt12.
Although PCR-based in situ hybridization (PCR-ISH) can be used to determine the distribution and localization of pathogens in tissues, this approach is hampered by its low specificity. Therefore, we used a highly specific and sensitive PCR-ISH method to reveal the lobular distribution and intracellular localization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV in chronic liver disease and to clarify the state of persistent HBV and HCV infection in the liver. HBV genomic DNA was detected in almost all hepatocytes, whereas HBV RNA or protein was differentially distributed only in a subset of the HBV DNA-positive region. Further, HCV genomic RNA was detected in almost all hepatocytes and was localized to the cytoplasm. HCV RNA was also detected in the epithelium of the large bile duct but not in endothelial cells, portal tracts, or sinusoidal lymphocytes. In patients with HBV and HCV coinfection, HCV RNA was localized to the noncancerous tissue, whereas HBV DNA was found only in the cancerous tissue. Using this novel PCR-ISH method, we could visualize the staining pattern of HBV and HCV in liver sections, and we obtained results consistent with those of real-time detection (RTD)-PCR analysis. In conclusion, almost all hepatocytes are infected with HBV or HCV in chronic liver disease; this finding implies that the viruses spreads throughout the liver in the chronic stage.
Intrahepatic clear cell cholangiocarcinoma is very rare - only 8 cases have been reported. A 56-year-old Japanese man with chronic hepatitis B infection was diagnosed with a 2.2 cm hepatocellular carcinoma on imaging, and hepatic segmentectomy was performed. Histopathologically, the tumor cells had copious clear cytoplasm and formed glandular structures or solid nests. These pathological findings suggested the tumor was a clear cell variant of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Particular stains and radiological images suggested that the cause of the clear cell change had been glycogen, not mucin nor lipid. On immunohistochemical staining, cytokeratin (CK) 7 and CK19 were positive, whereas CK20 was negative. Vimentin was detected on the cell membranes, and CD56 was focally positive. The patient was given adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently free from the tumor 7 mo postoperatively. Careful follow-up with adequate postoperative supplementary chemotherapy is necessary because the characteristics of this type of tumor are unknown.
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma; Clear cell carcinoma; Glycogen; Mucin; Lipid; Hepatectomy
Tissue morphogenesis during development is regulated by growth factors and cytokines, and is characterized by constant remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to signaling molecules, for example, growth factors, cytokines, and so forth. Proteoglycans that bind growth factors are potential regulators of tissue morphogenesis during embryonic development. In this study, we showed that transgenic mice overexpressing biglycan under the keratocan promoter exhibited exposure keratitis and premature eye opening from noninfectious eyelid ulceration due to perturbation of eyelid muscle formation and the failure of meibomian gland formation. In addition, in vitro analysis revealed that biglycan binds to TGF-α, thus interrupting EGFR signaling pathways essential for mesenchymal cell migration induced by eyelid epithelium. The defects of TGF-α signaling by excess biglycan were further augmented by the interruption of the autocrine or paracrine loop of the EGFR signaling pathway of HB-EGF expression elicited by TGF-α. These results are consistent with the notion that under physiological conditions, biglycan secreted by mesenchymal cells serves as a regulatory molecule for the formation of a TGF-α gradient serving as a morphogen of eyelid morphogenesis.
Biglycan; Eyelid morphogenesis; TGF-α; Muscle development; Keratocan promoter; Transgenic mouse
The postsynaptic density (PSD) is crucial for synaptic functions, but the molecular architecture retaining its structure and components remains elusive. Homer and Shank are among the most abundant scaffolding proteins in the PSD, working synergistically for maturation of dendritic spines. Here, we demonstrate that Homer and Shank, together, form a mesh-like matrix structure. Crystallographic analysis of this region revealed a pair of parallel dimeric coiled-coils intercalated in a tail-to-tail fashion to form a tetramer, giving rise to the unique configuration of a pair of amino-terminal EVH1 domains at each end of the coiled-coil. In neurons, the tetramerization is required for structural integrity of the dendritic spines and recruitment of proteins to synapses. We propose that the Homer-Shank complex serves as a structural framework and as an assembly platform for other PSD proteins.
Postsynaptic density; Homer; Shank; crystal structure; coiled-coil; synapse; scaffolding protein
We sometimes experienced patients with primary unknown cervical lymph node metastasis. In such cases, if computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, laryngoscopy and gastrointestinal endoscopy cannot detect a primary site, there is no other effective method to identify a possible primary tumor. We investigated whether narrow-band imaging can detect a possible primary tumor in such.
Forty-six patients with primary unknown cervical lymph node metastasis were surveyed about primary tumors, from January 2003 to December 2006. All cervical lymph nodes were histologically proved to be squamous cell carcinoma by fine-needle aspiration cytology. Narrow-band imaging combined with magnifying endoscopy was used to identify the primary site in the head and neck region and cervical esophagus. Histological analysis was performed for all suspicious lesions by a biopsy specimen.
Twenty-six lesions were suspected to be cancerous lesions by narrow-band imaging in the head and neck region. Sixteen lesions in 16 (35%, 16/46) patients were squamous cell carcinoma. Ten lesions were located in the hypopharynx and the remaining six lesions were located in the oropharynx. White light endoscopy could not point out any lesion.
Narrow-band imaging endoscopy can detect possible primary cancer in patients with primary unknown cervical lymph node metastasis.
NBI; pharynx; primary unknown cancer; neck lymph node metastasis
To compare the visual function in patients with short wavelength blue light blocking yellow tinted intraocular lenses (IOLs) with that in patients with non‐tinted IOLs.
74 patients scheduled for bilateral cataract surgery underwent implantation of either yellow IOLs (HOYA YA60BB) or non‐tinted IOLs (VA60BB) in both eyes. Contrast visual acuity with and without a glare source was measured under photopic (100 cd/m2) and mesopic (slightly higher luminance than typically used—5 cd/m2) conditions at 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery using the contrast sensitivity accurate tester. Visual acuity and the incidence of patients who noted cyanopsia were also examined.
No significant differences between the yellow tinted and non‐tinted IOL groups were observed in mean visual acuity or in photopic or higher luminance mesopic contrast visual acuity with and without glare source at either 2 weeks or 3 months after surgery. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in contrast visual acuity loss as a result of glare. The incidence of patients who noticed cyanopsia was significantly less in the yellow tinted IOL group than in the non‐tinted IOL group at 2 weeks after surgery (p = 0.0234), but no patients reported cyanopsia at 3 months.
Visual function in patients with yellow tinted IOLs is virtually the same as that in patients with non‐tinted IOLs.
yellow tinted intraocular lens; contrast sensitivity; glare disability; cyanopsia
Myostatin is involved in an inhibitor of muscular growth and differentiation. Myoblasts derived from double-muscled Japanese shorthorn cattle (DM myoblasts) with absence of functional myostatin had higher abilities to proliferate and differentiate than myoblasts derived from normal-muscled cattle (NM myoblasts). In DM myoblasts, mRNA expressions of fetal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) in growth medium and of fast 2a and 2x MyHC in fusion medium were significantly greater than that in NM myoblasts. No significant difference existed in expressions of embryonic and slow MyHC mRNA between DM and NM myoblasts. The expression of MyoD mRNA was suppressed in myoblasts by administration of myostatin. Two cloned DM myoblast strains (DMc) were established. Addition of myostatin for DMc resulted in less myotube formation and suppression of mRNA expression of fast 2x MyHC. These findings suggest that the endogenous myostatin preferentially down-regulates the expression of the fast 2x MyHC and participates in differentiation of myofiber types during early bovine myogenesis.
myostatin; double-muscled cattle; myoblast; myosin heavy chain; skeletal muscle
Differentiation of committed osteoblasts is controlled by complex activities involving signal transduction and gene expression, and Runx2 and Osterix function as master regulators for this process. Recently, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) have been reported to regulate osteogenesis in addition to adipogenesis. However, the roles of C/EBP transcription factors in the control of osteoblast differentiation have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we show that C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP; also known as C/EBPζ) is expressed in bone as well as in mesenchymal progenitors and primary osteoblasts. Overexpression of CHOP reduces alkaline phosphatase activity in primary osteoblasts and suppresses the formation of calcified bone nodules. CHOP-deficient osteoblasts differentiate more strongly than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting that endogenous CHOP plays an important role in the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, endogenous CHOP induces differentiation of calvarial osteoblasts upon bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) treatment. CHOP forms heterodimers with C/EBPβ and inhibits the DNA-binding activity as well as Runx2-binding activity of C/EBPβ, leading to inhibition of osteocalcin gene transcription. These findings indicate that CHOP acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of C/EBPβ and prevents osteoblast differentiation but promotes BMP signaling in a cell-type-dependent manner. Thus, endogenous CHOP may have dual roles in regulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.
Aim: To compare the degree of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in eyes with a hydrophilic hydrogel intraocular lens (IOL) with that in eyes with a hydrophobic acrylic IOL.
Methods: Ninety five patients underwent a hydrogel IOL implantation in one eye and an acrylic IOL implantation in the opposite eye. The PCO value of these patients was measured using the Scheimpflug videophotography system at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively. The rate of neodymium:YAG (Nd:YAG) laser posterior capsulotomy and visual acuity were also evaluated.
Results: The mean PCO value in the hydrogel group increased significantly (p<0.0001), while that in the acrylic group did not show significant change. The PCO value in the hydrogel group was significantly greater than that in the acrylic group throughout the follow up period. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis determined that the Nd:YAG capsulotomy rate in the hydrogel group was significantly higher than that in the acrylic group (p<0.0001). Mean visual acuity in the hydrogel group decreased significantly with time (p<0.0001), and became significantly worse than that in the acrylic group at 18 and 24 months postoperatively.
Conclusion: Posterior capsule opacification in eyes with a hydrophilic hydrogel IOL is significantly more extensive than that in eyes with a hydrophobic acrylic IOL, and results in a significant impairment of visual acuity.
acrylic intraocular lens; hydrogel intraocular lens; neodymium:YAG capsulotomy; posterior capsule opacification