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1.  The Effect of Thermal Reduction on the Photoluminescence and Electronic Structures of Graphene Oxides 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4525.
Electronic structures of graphene oxide (GO) and hydro-thermally reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) processed at low temperatures (120–180°C) were studied using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS). C K-edge XANES spectra of rGOs reveal that thermal reduction restores C = C sp2 bonds and removes some of the oxygen and hydroxyl groups of GO, which initiates the evolution of carbonaceous species. The combination of C K-edge XANES and Kα XES spectra shows that the overlapping π and π* orbitals in rGOs and GO are similar to that of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), which has no band-gap. C Kα RIXS spectra provide evidence that thermal reduction changes the density of states (DOSs) that is generated in the π-region and/or in the gap between the π and π* levels of the GO and rGOs. Two-dimensional C Kα RIXS mapping of the heavy reduction of rGOs further confirms that the residual oxygen and/or oxygen-containing functional groups modify the π and σ features, which are dispersed by the photon excitation energy. The dispersion behavior near the K point is approximately linear and differs from the parabolic-like dispersion observed in HOPG.
PMCID: PMC3982168  PMID: 24717290
2.  How to predict the outcome in mature T and NK cell lymphoma by currently used prognostic models? 
Blood Cancer Journal  2012;2(10):e93-.
To select an appropriate prognostic model in the treatment of mature T- and natural killer (NK) -cell lymphoma (peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and NK-/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL)) is crucial. This study investigated the usefulness of Ann Arbor staging classification International prognostic index (IPI), prognostic index for T-cell lymphoma (PIT) and International peripheral T-cell lymphoma Project score (IPTCLP). Between 2000 and 2009, 176 patients (122 males) with PTCL and NKTCL were diagnosed and treated from a single institute in Taiwan. The correlation between complete response (CR) rate, 3-year overall survival (OS), early mortality rate and four prognostic models was analyzed. Thirty-one patients received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and were analyzed separately. Three-year OS rate was 34.7%, and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma harbored better outcome than others. IPI score had the lowest Akaike information criterion value (1081.197) and was the best score in predicting OS and early mortality (P=0.009). Ann Arbor stage classification can predict CR rate more precisely (P=0.006). OS was significantly better in patients who received HSCT, even in patients with unfavorable features compared with chemotherapy alone. All prognostic models were useful to evaluate the outcome of patients with PTCL and NKTCL but IPI score did best in predicting OS in PTCL and PIT score in NKTCL. This study also supported the role of HSCT in patients with high-risk or refractory PTCL or NKTCL.
PMCID: PMC3483618  PMID: 23064741
T-cell lymphoma; prognostic score; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Asian population
3.  Overexpression of β2-microglobulin is associated with poor survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and contributes to oral cancer cell migration and invasion 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;99(9):1453-1461.
β2-Microglobulin (β2M), a component of MHC class I molecules, is believed to be associated with tumour status in various cancers. In this study, we examined the expression of β2M at different malignant stages of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). To determine the possible correlation between β2M expression and various clinical characteristics, 256 samples from patients with OCSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Strong β2M expression was significantly correlated with a relatively advanced tumour stage (P<0.001), positive nodal status (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001). The cumulative 5-year survival rate was significantly correlated with a relatively advanced tumour stage (P<0.001), positive nodal status (P<0.001), TNM stage (P<0.001), and strong expression of β2M (P<0.001). Thus, elevated β2M expression is an indicator of poor survival (P<0.001). In addition, we extended our analysis of β2M expression to the FaDu and SCC25 oral cancer cell lines. β2-Microglobulin expression was positively correlated with cell migration and invasion in β2M-overexpressing transfectants in Transwell chambers. The suppression of β2M expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) was sufficient to decrease cell migration and invasion in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that β2M expression in the tissues is associated with survival and may be involved in tumour progression and metastasis in OCSCC.
PMCID: PMC2579697  PMID: 18841160
β2-microglobulin; immunohistochemistry; invasion; migration; oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma
4.  Quality of life after curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer in a randomised controlled trial 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;98(1):54-59.
Quality of life (QOL) was studied in gastric cancer patients treated on a randomised, controlled trial comparing D1 (level 1) with D3 (levels 1, 2 and 3) lymphadenectomy. A total of 221 patients were randomly assigned to D1 (n=110) and D3 (n=111) surgery. Quality-of-life assessments included functional outcomes (a 14-item survey about treatment-specific symptoms) and health perception (Spitzer QOL Index) was performed before and after surgery at disease-free status. Patients suffered from irrelative events such as loss of partners was excluded thereafter. Main analyses were done by intention-to-treat. Thus, 214 D1 (106/110=96.4%) and D3 (108/111=97.3%) R0 patients were assessed. Longitudinal analysis showed that functional outcomes decreased at 6 months after surgery and increased over time thereafter, while health perceptions increased over time in general. On the basis of linear mixed model analyses, patients having total gastrectomy, advanced cancer and hemipancreaticosplenectomy, but not complications had poorer QOL than those without. D1 and D3 patients showed no significant difference in QOL. The results suggest that changes of QOL were largely due to scope of gastric resection, disease status and distal pancreaticosplenectomy, rather than the extent of lymph node dissection. This indicates that nodal dissection can be performed for a potentially curable gastric cancer.
PMCID: PMC2359701  PMID: 18182977
quality of life; nodal dissection; gastric cancer; trial
5.  Cloning and characterization of a gene required for the secretion of extracellular enzymes across the outer membrane by Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. 
Journal of Bacteriology  1992;174(8):2679-2687.
Nonpathogenic mutants of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, generated from transposon mutagenesis, accumulated extracellular polygalacturonate lyase, alpha-amylase, and endoglucanase in the periplasm. The transposon Tn5 was introduced by a mobilizable, suicidal plasmid, pSUP2021 or pEYDG1. Genomic banks of wild-type X. campestris pv. campestris, constructed on the broad-host-range, mobilizable cosmid pLAFR1 or pLAFR3, were conjugated with one of the mutants, designated XC1708. Recombinant plasmids isolated by their ability to complement XC1708 can be classified into two categories. One, represented by pLASC3, can complement some mutants, whereas the other, represented by a single plasmid, pLAHH2, can complement all of the other mutants. Restriction mapping showed that the two recombinant plasmids shared an EcoRI fragment of 8.9 kb. Results from subcloning, deletion mapping, and mini-Mu insertional mutation of the 8.9-kb EcoRI fragment suggested that a 4.2-kb fragment was sufficient to complement the mutant XC1708. Sequence analysis of this 4.2-kb fragment revealed three consecutive open reading frames (ORFs), ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3. Hybridization experiments showed that Tn5 in the genome of XC1708 and other mutants complemented by pLASC3 was located in ORF3, which could code for a protein of 83.5 kDa. A signal peptidase II processing site was identified at the N terminus of the predicted amino acid sequence. Sequence homology of 51% was observed between the amino acid sequences predicted from ORF3 and the pulD gene of Klebsiella species.
PMCID: PMC205908  PMID: 1313415
6.  Human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase and its interaction with the triphosphates of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil, -5-iodocytosine, and -5-methylcytosine. 
Journal of Virology  1985;56(3):846-851.
Human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase and cellular DNA polymerase alpha were purified by successive chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, phosphocellulose, heparin agarose, and single-stranded DNA agarose columns. The purified virus-induced DNA polymerase was resolved to consist of two polypeptides corresponding to molecular weights of 140,000 and 58,000, as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Virus-induced DNA polymerase and cellular alpha polymerase were examined for their sensitivities to the triphosphates of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil (FMAUTP), -5-iodocytosine (FIACTP), and -5-methylcytosine (FMACTP). The inhibitive effects of these triphosphates on the DNA polymerases were competitive with regard to the natural substrates; thus FMAUTP competes with dTTP, and FIACTP and FMACTP compete with dCTP. The inhibition constants (Ki) for FMAUTP, FIACTP, and FMACTP of virus-induced DNA polymerase are 0.06, 0.30, and 0.47 microM, respectively. Cellular DNA polymerase alpha is much less sensitive to these inhibitors, and its Ki values for FMAUTP, FIACTP, and FMACTP are 0.45, 3.10, and 2.90 microM, respectively. In addition, human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase, but not cellular DNA polymerase alpha, can utilize these analog triphosphates as alternate substrates for their corresponding natural deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in in vitro DNA synthesis.
PMCID: PMC252656  PMID: 2999440
7.  Inhibition of cellular DNA polymerase alpha and human cytomegalovirus-induced DNA polymerase by the triphosphates of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine. 
Journal of Virology  1985;53(3):776-780.
The triphosphates of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine were examined for their inhibitory effect on highly purified cellular DNA polymerase alpha and human cytomegalovirus (Towne strain)-induced DNA polymerase. These two nucleoside triphosphates competitively inhibited the incorporation of dGMP into DNA catalyzed by the DNA polymerases. The virus-induced DNA polymerase had greater binding affinity for the triphosphate of 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (Ki, 8 nM) than for the triphosphate of 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (Ki, 22 nM), although the nucleoside of the latter compound was strikingly more effective against human cytomegalovirus replication in cell cultures than the nucleoside of the former. The Ki values of these two nucleoside triphosphates for alpha polymerase were 96 and 146 nM, respectively, and were 7- to 12-fold higher than those for the virus-induced enzyme. These data indicated that virus-induced DNA polymerase was more sensitive to inhibition by these two nucleoside triphosphates than was the cellular alpha enzyme.
PMCID: PMC254706  PMID: 2983088
8.  Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase and 5'-triphosphates of several antiviral nucleoside analogs. 
The 5'-triphosphates of 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methyluracil, 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-iodocytosine, 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl)-5-methylcytosine, 9-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]guanine, and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine had lower Ki values for Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase than has been reported elsewhere for host DNA polymerase. Inhibition of DNA elongation by these analogs ranged from moderate to strong, suggesting that preferential incorporation of these analogs into DNA by virus DNA polymerase may contribute to antiviral selectivity.
PMCID: PMC176288  PMID: 2986547
9.  Effects of 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine, a new antiherpesvirus compound, on synthesis of macromolecules in herpes simplex virus-infected cells. 
We examined the effect of 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine (DHPG) on viral DNA, RNA, protein, and enzyme synthesis in HeLa cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. DHPG inhibited virus DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition was not due to the lack of deoxynucleoside triphosphates which are required for DNA synthesis. This compound has no apparent effect on early and late viral RNA synthesis, viral protein synthesis, or viral thymidine kinase, DNA polymerase, and DNase induction in virus-infected cells.
PMCID: PMC176152  PMID: 6095751
10.  Rhinocerebral mucormycosis. 
Western Journal of Medicine  1981;135(4):326-329.
PMCID: PMC1273188  PMID: 6805136

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