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1.  A single nucleotide polymorphism in CAPN1 associated with marbling score in Korean cattle 
BMC Genetics  2008;9:33.
Background
Marbling score (MS) is the major quantitative trait that affects carcass quality in beef cattle. In this study, we examined the association between genetic polymorphisms of the micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (micro-calpain, CAPN1) and carcass traits in Korean cattle (also known as Hanwoo).
Results
By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean cattle, we identified 39 sequence variants within exons and their flanking regions in CAPN1. Among them, 12 common polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in the beef cattle (n = 421). Statistical analysis revealed that a polymorphism in the 3'UTR (c.2151*479C>T) showed significant association with MS (Pcor. = 0.02).
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in CAPN1 might be one of the important genetic factors involved in carcass quality in beef cattle, although it could be false positive association.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-9-33
PMCID: PMC2386817  PMID: 18423040
2.  Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) polymorphisms associated with carcass traits of meat in Korean cattle 
BMC Genetics  2006;7:35.
Background
Cold carcass weight (CW) and longissimus muscle area (EMA) are the major quantitative traits in beef cattle. In this study, we found several polymorphisms of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene and examined the association of polymorphisms with carcass traits (CW and EMA) in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo).
Results
By direct DNA sequencing in 24 unrelated Korean cattle, we identified 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the 9 kb full gene region, including the 1.5 kb promoter region. Among them, six polymorphic sites were selected for genotyping in our beef cattle (n = 428) and five marker haplotypes (frequency > 0.1) were identified. Statistical analysis revealed that -4241A>T showed significant associations with CW and EMA.
Conclusion
Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in GHRH might be one of the important genetic factors that influence carcass yield in beef cattle. Sequence variation/haplotype information identified in this study would provide valuable information for the production of a commercial line of beef cattle.
doi:10.1186/1471-2156-7-35
PMCID: PMC1524984  PMID: 16749938
3.  NSBP-1 mediates the effects of cholesterol on insulin/IGF-1 signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans 
Nematode sterol-binding protein 1 (NSBP-1) is a homolog of nucleosome assembly protein 1 in mammals that is expressed widely in Caenorhabditis elegans. NSBP-1 mutants are biologically lethal, demonstrating the significance of the gene in growth and development. We investigated how cholesterol influences the insulin signaling pathway through this novel sterol-binding protein in C. elegans. Here we report that NSBP-1 influences many biological processes mediated by insulin signaling, such as longevity, dauer formation, fat storage, and resistance to oxidative stress. We found that NSBP-1 is phosphorylated by AKT-1 downstream of insulin signaling. In the absence of insulin signaling, NSBP-1 is translocated to the nucleus and binds to DAF-16, a FOXO transcription factor, in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Moreover, NSBP-1 and DAF-16 regulate a common set of genes that can directly modulate fat storage, longevity, and resistance to stress. Together, our results present a new steroid-binding molecule that can connect sterol signaling to insulin signaling through direct interaction with FOXO.
doi:10.1007/s00018-012-1221-0
PMCID: PMC3759162  PMID: 23255046
Cholesterol; Cholesterol-binding protein; C. elegans; D2096.8; middot; Insulin/IGF-1 signaling; DAF-16
4.  Solution Structure and Rpn1 Interaction of the UBL Domain of Human RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Phosphatase 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e62981.
The ubiquitin-like modifier (UBL) domain of ubiquitin-like domain proteins (UDPs) interacts specifically with subunits of the 26 S proteasome. A novel UDP, ubiquitin-like domain-containing C-terminal domain phosphatase (UBLCP1), has been identified as an interacting partner of the 26 S proteasome. We determined the high-resolution solution structure of the UBL domain of human UBLCP1 by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The UBL domain of hUBLCP1 has a unique β-strand (β3) and β3-α2 loop, instead of the canonical β4 observed in other UBL domains. The molecular topology and secondary structures are different from those of known UBL domains including that of fly UBLCP1. Data from backbone dynamics shows that the β3-α2 loop is relatively rigid although it might have intrinsic dynamic profile. The positively charged residues of the β3-α2 loop are involved in interacting with the C-terminal leucine-rich repeat-like domain of Rpn1.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062981
PMCID: PMC3646893  PMID: 23667555
5.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy 
Klionsky, Daniel J. | Abdalla, Fabio C. | Abeliovich, Hagai | Abraham, Robert T. | Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham | Adeli, Khosrow | Agholme, Lotta | Agnello, Maria | Agostinis, Patrizia | Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A. | Ahn, Hyung Jun | Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia | Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane | Akematsu, Takahiko | Akira, Shizuo | Al-Younes, Hesham M. | Al-Zeer, Munir A. | Albert, Matthew L. | Albin, Roger L. | Alegre-Abarrategui, Javier | Aleo, Maria Francesca | Alirezaei, Mehrdad | Almasan, Alexandru | Almonte-Becerril, Maylin | Amano, Atsuo | Amaravadi, Ravi K. | Amarnath, Shoba | Amer, Amal O. | Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie | Anantharam, Vellareddy | Ann, David K. | Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra | Aoki, Hiroshi | Apostolova, Nadezda | Arancia, Giuseppe | Aris, John P. | Asanuma, Katsuhiko | Asare, Nana Y.O. | Ashida, Hisashi | Askanas, Valerie | Askew, David S. | Auberger, Patrick | Baba, Misuzu | Backues, Steven K. | Baehrecke, Eric H. | Bahr, Ben A. | Bai, Xue-Yuan | Bailly, Yannick | Baiocchi, Robert | Baldini, Giulia | Balduini, Walter | Ballabio, Andrea | Bamber, Bruce A. | Bampton, Edward T.W. | Juhász, Gábor | Bartholomew, Clinton R. | Bassham, Diane C. | Bast, Robert C. | Batoko, Henri | Bay, Boon-Huat | Beau, Isabelle | Béchet, Daniel M. | Begley, Thomas J. | Behl, Christian | Behrends, Christian | Bekri, Soumeya | Bellaire, Bryan | Bendall, Linda J. | Benetti, Luca | Berliocchi, Laura | Bernardi, Henri | Bernassola, Francesca | Besteiro, Sébastien | Bhatia-Kissova, Ingrid | Bi, Xiaoning | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Blum, Janice S. | Boise, Lawrence H. | Bonaldo, Paolo | Boone, David L. | Bornhauser, Beat C. | Bortoluci, Karina R. | Bossis, Ioannis | Bost, Frédéric | Bourquin, Jean-Pierre | Boya, Patricia | Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël | Bozhkov, Peter V. | Brady, Nathan R | Brancolini, Claudio | Brech, Andreas | Brenman, Jay E. | Brennand, Ana | Bresnick, Emery H. | Brest, Patrick | Bridges, Dave | Bristol, Molly L. | Brookes, Paul S. | Brown, Eric J. | Brumell, John H. | Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola | Brunk, Ulf T. | Bulman, Dennis E. | Bultman, Scott J. | Bultynck, Geert | Burbulla, Lena F. | Bursch, Wilfried | Butchar, Jonathan P. | Buzgariu, Wanda | Bydlowski, Sergio P. | Cadwell, Ken | Cahová, Monika | Cai, Dongsheng | Cai, Jiyang | Cai, Qian | Calabretta, Bruno | Calvo-Garrido, Javier | Camougrand, Nadine | Campanella, Michelangelo | Campos-Salinas, Jenny | Candi, Eleonora | Cao, Lizhi | Caplan, Allan B. | Carding, Simon R. | Cardoso, Sandra M. | Carew, Jennifer S. | Carlin, Cathleen R. | Carmignac, Virginie | Carneiro, Leticia A.M. | Carra, Serena | Caruso, Rosario A. | Casari, Giorgio | Casas, Caty | Castino, Roberta | Cebollero, Eduardo | Cecconi, Francesco | Celli, Jean | Chaachouay, Hassan | Chae, Han-Jung | Chai, Chee-Yin | Chan, David C. | Chan, Edmond Y. | Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung | Che, Chi-Ming | Chen, Ching-Chow | Chen, Guang-Chao | Chen, Guo-Qiang | Chen, Min | Chen, Quan | Chen, Steve S.-L. | Chen, WenLi | Chen, Xi | Chen, Xiangmei | Chen, Xiequn | Chen, Ye-Guang | Chen, Yingyu | Chen, Yongqiang | Chen, Yu-Jen | Chen, Zhixiang | Cheng, Alan | Cheng, Christopher H.K. | Cheng, Yan | Cheong, Heesun | Cheong, Jae-Ho | Cherry, Sara | Chess-Williams, Russ | Cheung, Zelda H. | Chevet, Eric | Chiang, Hui-Ling | Chiarelli, Roberto | Chiba, Tomoki | Chin, Lih-Shen | Chiou, Shih-Hwa | Chisari, Francis V. | Cho, Chi Hin | Cho, Dong-Hyung | Choi, Augustine M.K. | Choi, DooSeok | Choi, Kyeong Sook | Choi, Mary E. | Chouaib, Salem | Choubey, Divaker | Choubey, Vinay | Chu, Charleen T. | Chuang, Tsung-Hsien | Chueh, Sheau-Huei | Chun, Taehoon | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Chye, Mee-Len | Ciarcia, Roberto | Ciriolo, Maria R. | Clague, Michael J. | Clark, Robert S.B. | Clarke, Peter G.H. | Clarke, Robert | Codogno, Patrice | Coller, Hilary A. | Colombo, María I. | Comincini, Sergio | Condello, Maria | Condorelli, Fabrizio | Cookson, Mark R. | Coombs, Graham H. | Coppens, Isabelle | Corbalan, Ramon | Cossart, Pascale | Costelli, Paola | Costes, Safia | Coto-Montes, Ana | Couve, Eduardo | Coxon, Fraser P. | Cregg, James M. | Crespo, José L. | Cronjé, Marianne J. | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cullen, Joseph J. | Czaja, Mark J. | D'Amelio, Marcello | Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette | Davids, Lester M. | Davies, Faith E. | De Felici, Massimo | de Groot, John F. | de Haan, Cornelis A.M. | De Martino, Luisa | De Milito, Angelo | De Tata, Vincenzo | Debnath, Jayanta | Degterev, Alexei | Dehay, Benjamin | Delbridge, Lea M.D. | Demarchi, Francesca | Deng, Yi Zhen | Dengjel, Jörn | Dent, Paul | Denton, Donna | Deretic, Vojo | Desai, Shyamal D. | Devenish, Rodney J. | Di Gioacchino, Mario | Di Paolo, Gilbert | Di Pietro, Chiara | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Inés | Diaz-Meco, Maria T. | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P. | Ding, Wen-Xing | Distelhorst, Clark W. | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Dong, Zheng | Dorsey, Frank C. | Dosenko, Victor | Dowling, James J. | Doxsey, Stephen | Dreux, Marlène | Drew, Mark E. | Duan, Qiuhong | Duchosal, Michel A. | Duff, Karen E. | Dugail, Isabelle | Durbeej, Madeleine | Duszenko, Michael | Edelstein, Charles L. | Edinger, Aimee L. | Egea, Gustavo | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eissa, N. Tony | Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan | El-Deiry, Wafik S. | Elazar, Zvulun | Elgendy, Mohamed | Ellerby, Lisa M. | Eng, Kai Er | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Escalante, Ricardo | Esclatine, Audrey | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Espina, Virginia | Fan, Huizhou | Fan, Jia | Fan, Qi-Wen | Fan, Zhen | Fang, Shengyun | Fang, Yongqi | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Farre, Jean-Claude | Faure, Mathias | Fechheimer, Marcus | Feng, Carl G. | Feng, Jian | Feng, Qili | Feng, Youji | Fésüs, László | Feuer, Ralph | Figueiredo-Pereira, Maria E. | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingar, Diane C. | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Finley, Kim D. | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Edward A. | Fisher, Paul B. | Flajolet, Marc | Florez-McClure, Maria L. | Florio, Salvatore | Fon, Edward A. | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fotedar, Rati | Fowler, Daniel H. | Fox, Howard S. | Franco, Rodrigo | Frankel, Lisa B. | Fransen, Marc | Fuentes, José M. | Fueyo, Juan | Fujii, Jun | Fujisaki, Kozo | Fujita, Eriko | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Furukawa, Ruth H. | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galliot, Brigitte | Galy, Vincent | Ganesh, Subramaniam | Ganetzky, Barry | Ganley, Ian G. | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, George F. | Gao, Jinming | Garcia, Lorena | Garcia-Manero, Guillermo | Garcia-Marcos, Mikel | Garmyn, Marjan | Gartel, Andrei L. | Gatti, Evelina | Gautel, Mathias | Gawriluk, Thomas R. | Gegg, Matthew E. | Geng, Jiefei | Germain, Marc | Gestwicki, Jason E. | Gewirtz, David A. | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghosh, Pradipta | Giammarioli, Anna M. | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra N. | Gibson, Spencer B. | Gilkerson, Robert W. | Ginger, Michael L. | Ginsberg, Henry N. | Golab, Jakub | Goligorsky, Michael S. | Golstein, Pierre | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Goncu, Ebru | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Claudio D. | Gonzalez, Ramon | González-Estévez, Cristina | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Gonzalez-Rey, Elena | Gorbunov, Nikolai V. | Gorski, Sharon | Goruppi, Sandro | Gottlieb, Roberta A. | Gozuacik, Devrim | Granato, Giovanna Elvira | Grant, Gary D. | Green, Kim N. | Gregorc, Ales | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Grunt, Thomas W. | Gual, Philippe | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guichard, Sylvie M. | Gukovskaya, Anna S. | Gukovsky, Ilya | Gunst, Jan | Gustafsson, Åsa B. | Halayko, Andrew J. | Hale, Amber N. | Halonen, Sandra K. | Hamasaki, Maho | Han, Feng | Han, Ting | Hancock, Michael K. | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Hisashi | Harada, Masaru | Hardt, Stefan E. | Harper, J. Wade | Harris, Adrian L. | Harris, James | Harris, Steven D. | Hashimoto, Makoto | Haspel, Jeffrey A. | Hayashi, Shin-ichiro | Hazelhurst, Lori A. | He, Congcong | He, You-Wen | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heidenreich, Kim A. | Helfrich, Miep H. | Helgason, Gudmundur V. | Henske, Elizabeth P. | Herman, Brian | Herman, Paul K. | Hetz, Claudio | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Joseph A. | Hocking, Lynne J. | Hofman, Paul | Hofmann, Thomas G. | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holyoake, Tessa L. | Hong, Ming-Huang | Hood, David A. | Hotamisligil, Gökhan S. | Houwerzijl, Ewout J. | Høyer-Hansen, Maria | Hu, Bingren | Hu, Chien-an A. | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Ju | Huang, Shengbing | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huber, Tobias B. | Huh, Won-Ki | Hung, Tai-Ho | Hupp, Ted R. | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James B. | Hussain, Sabah N.A. | Hussey, Patrick J. | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Ilkhanizadeh, Shirin | Inoki, Ken | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L. | Ip, Nancy Y. | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Iwasaki, Akiko | Izquierdo, Marta | Izumi, Yotaro | Jaakkola, Panu M. | Jäättelä, Marja | Jackson, George R. | Jackson, William T. | Janji, Bassam | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Jean X. | Jiang, Ming | Jiang, Qing | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan V. | Joe, Cheol O. | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E. | Johnson, Gail V.W. | Jones, Nicola L. | Joseph, Bertrand | Joseph, Suresh K. | Joubert, Annie M. | Juhász, Gábor | Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne | Jung, Chang Hwa | Jung, Yong-Keun | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kadowaki, Motoni | Kågedal, Katarina | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O. | Kampinga, Harm H. | Kanamori, Hiromitsu | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Khong Bee | Kang, Kwang Il | Kang, Rui | Kang, Yoon-A | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G. | Kanthasamy, Arthi | Karantza, Vassiliki | Kaushal, Gur P. | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawazoe, Yoshinori | Ke, Po-Yuan | Kehrl, John H. | Kelekar, Ameeta | Kerkhoff, Claus | Kessel, David H. | Khalil, Hany | Kiel, Jan A.K.W. | Kiger, Amy A. | Kihara, Akio | Kim, Deok Ryong | Kim, Do-Hyung | Kim, Dong-Hou | Kim, Eun-Kyoung | Kim, Hyung-Ryong | Kim, Jae-Sung | Kim, Jeong Hun | Kim, Jin Cheon | Kim, John K. | Kim, Peter K. | Kim, Seong Who | Kim, Yong-Sun | Kim, Yonghyun | Kimchi, Adi | Kimmelman, Alec C. | King, Jason S. | Kinsella, Timothy J. | Kirkin, Vladimir | Kirshenbaum, Lorrie A. | Kitamoto, Katsuhiko | Kitazato, Kaio | Klein, Ludger | Klimecki, Walter T. | Klucken, Jochen | Knecht, Erwin | Ko, Ben C.B. | Koch, Jan C. | Koga, Hiroshi | Koh, Jae-Young | Koh, Young Ho | Koike, Masato | Komatsu, Masaaki | Kominami, Eiki | Kong, Hee Jeong | Kong, Wei-Jia | Korolchuk, Viktor I. | Kotake, Yaichiro | Koukourakis, Michael I. | Flores, Juan B. 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Angus | Meijer, Alfred J. | Meisler, Miriam H. | Meléndez, Alicia | Melia, Thomas J. | Melino, Gerry | Mena, Maria A. | Menendez, Javier A. | Menna-Barreto, Rubem F. 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Ashutosh | Rathmell, Jeffrey C. | Ravikumar, Brinda | Ray, Swapan K. | Reed, Bruce H. | Reed, John C. | Reggiori, Fulvio | Régnier-Vigouroux, Anne | Reichert, Andreas S. | Reiners, John J. | Reiter, Russel J. | Ren, Jun | Revuelta, José L. | Rhodes, Christopher J. | Ritis, Konstantinos | Rizzo, Elizete | Robbins, Jeffrey | Roberge, Michel | Roca, Hernan | Roccheri, Maria C. | Rocchi, Stephane | Rodemann, H. Peter | Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago | Rohrer, Bärbel | Roninson, Igor B. | Rosen, Kirill | Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena M. | Rouis, Mustapha | Rouschop, Kasper M.A. | Rovetta, Francesca | Rubin, Brian P. | Rubinsztein, David C. | Ruckdeschel, Klaus | Rucker, Edmund B. | Rudich, Assaf | Rudolf, Emil | Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson | Russo, Rossella | Rusten, Tor Erik | Ryan, Kevin M. | Ryter, Stefan W. | Sabatini, David M. | Sadoshima, Junichi | Saha, Tapas | Saitoh, Tatsuya | Sakagami, Hiroshi | Sakai, Yasuyoshi | Salekdeh, Ghasem Hoseini | Salomoni, Paolo | Salvaterra, Paul M. | Salvesen, Guy | Salvioli, Rosa | Sanchez, Anthony M.J. | Sánchez-Alcázar, José A. | Sánchez-Prieto, Ricardo | Sandri, Marco | Sankar, Uma | Sansanwal, Poonam | Santambrogio, Laura | Saran, Shweta | Sarkar, Sovan | Sarwal, Minnie | Sasakawa, Chihiro | Sasnauskiene, Ausra | Sass, Miklós | Sato, Ken | Sato, Miyuki | Schapira, Anthony H.V. | Scharl, Michael | Schätzl, Hermann M. | Scheper, Wiep | Schiaffino, Stefano | Schneider, Claudio | Schneider, Marion E. | Schneider-Stock, Regine | Schoenlein, Patricia V. | Schorderet, Daniel F. | Schüller, Christoph | Schwartz, Gary K. | Scorrano, Luca | Sealy, Linda | Seglen, Per O. | Segura-Aguilar, Juan | Seiliez, Iban | Seleverstov, Oleksandr | Sell, Christian | Seo, Jong Bok | Separovic, Duska | Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi | Setoguchi, Takao | Settembre, Carmine | Shacka, John J. | Shanmugam, Mala | Shapiro, Irving M. | Shaulian, Eitan | Shaw, Reuben J. | Shelhamer, James H. | Shen, Han-Ming | Shen, Wei-Chiang
Autophagy  2012;8(4):445-544.
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
doi:10.4161/auto.19496
PMCID: PMC3404883  PMID: 22966490
LC3; autolysosome; autophagosome; flux; lysosome; phagophore; stress; vacuole
6.  Characteristics of Non-typhoidal Salmonella Isolates from Human and Broiler-chickens in Southwestern Seoul, Korea 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2007;22(5):773-778.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is an important commensal microorganism. The purpose of this study was to determine the epidemiological relation between NTS isolates from livestock and NTS isolates from human by analyzing antimicrobial susceptibilities and performing molecular typing. We determined the serotypes of 36 human clinical isolates and 64 livestock isolates, performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 8 antibiotics, and determined the molecular types of isolated NTS spp. by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In human isolates, S. enteritidis was the most common serotype (17 isolates; 47.2%) and S. typhimurium the second most (8 isolates; 22.2%). In livestock isolates, S. typhimurium was the most common serotype (15 isolates; 23.44%), and S. enteritidis was the second most (14 isolates; 21.88%). Ampicillin and tetracycline resistance were 50% (32/64 isolates) each among broiler-chicken NTS isolates. No human or livestock NTS isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin, TMP-SMX, or ceftriaxone. However, 19.4% (7/36) and 46.8% (30/64) of the human and livestock NTS isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (MIC ≥16 mg/mL), respectively. The presence of the three identical PFGE molecular types from human and broiler-chicken NTS isolates suggests the possibility of transmission from livestock to humans.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2007.22.5.773
PMCID: PMC2693839  PMID: 17982221
Salmonella Infections; Salmonella Enteritidis; Salmonella Typhimurium; Epidemiology
7.  Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman 
Background
Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity.
Case presentation
A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen.
Conclusion
This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-6-154
PMCID: PMC1634852  PMID: 17054802
8.  Prognostic Significance of Infection Acquisition Sites in Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis: Nosocomial versus Community Acquired 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(4):666-671.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an ascitic fluid infection as a complication of end stage liver disease. The outcome is related to the severity of hepatorenal function, gastrointestinal bleeding, and many others; however it is not well known whether the infection acquisition sites have an effect on the prognosis of SBP. In order to identify the prognostic significance of the acquisition sites, we studied 106 patients who were diagnosed as culture positive SBP between October 1998 and August 2003. Thirty-two episodes were nosocomial and 74 were community acquired. Gram-negative bacilli such as Escherichia coli were dominant in both of the nosocomial and community-acquired SBPs. Despite significantly higher resistance to cefotaxime in nosocomial isolates compared to community-acquired isolates (77.8% vs. 13.6%, p=0.001), no difference was found regarding short or long term prognosis. Infection acquisition sites were not related to short or long term prognosis either. Shock, gastrointestinal bleeding and renal dysfunction were related to short term prognosis. Only Child-Pugh class C was identified as an independent prognostic factor of long-term survival.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.4.666
PMCID: PMC2729888  PMID: 16891810
Liver Cirrhosis; Peritonitis; Cross Infection; Community-Acquired Infections
9.  Rapid preparation of RNA samples for NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography 
Nucleic Acids Research  2004;32(10):e84.
Knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of RNA and its complexes is important for understanding the molecular mechanism of RNA recognition by proteins or ligands. Enzymatic synthesis using T7 bacteriophage RNA polymerase is used to prepare samples for NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. However, this run-off transcription method results in heterogeneity at the RNA 3-terminus. For structural studies, RNA purification requires a single nucleotide resolution. Usually PAGE purification is used, but it is tedious, time-consuming and cost ineffective. To overcome these problems in high-throughput RNA synthesis, we devised a method of RNA preparation that uses trans-acting DNAzyme and sequence-specific affinity column chromatography. A tag sequence is added at the 3′ end of RNA, and the tagged RNA is picked out using an affinity column that contains the complementary DNA sequence. The 3′ end tag is then removed by sequence-specific cleavage using trans-acting DNAzyme, the arm lengths of which are optimized for turnover number. This purification method is simpler and faster than the conventional method.
doi:10.1093/nar/gnh081
PMCID: PMC434460  PMID: 15199176
10.  A single-nucleotide natural variation (U4 to C4) in an influenza A virus promoter exhibits a large structural change: implications for differential viral RNA synthesis by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 
Nucleic Acids Research  2003;31(4):1216-1223.
The influenza A virus promoter is recognized by the influenza A virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and directs both transcription and replication of the viral RNA genome. Within the sequence of this promoter, flu strains exhibit a natural, unique variation, either a U or a C, at the fourth position from the 3′ end. Promoters that contain a C residue (C4 promoter), which are invariably found in genome segments that encode the three RNA polymerase subunits (PB1, PB2 and PA), down-regulate transcription but activate genome replication. Here, we have determined the structure of the C4 promoter by NMR spectroscopy and compared it with the structure of the U4 promoter, which was determined previously. The structure of the internal loop in the C4 promoter is similar to that of the U4 promoter. However, the terminal stem of the C4 promoter is strikingly different from that of the U4 promoter. These structural data suggest that the internal loop is important for polymerase binding to the promoter, and the terminal stem is crucial for differential regulation of transcription and replication.
PMCID: PMC150232  PMID: 12582241
11.  Structure of influenza virus panhandle RNA studied by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1999;27(5):1392-1397.
The structure of a 34 nucleotide RNA molecule in solution, which contains the conserved panhandle sequences, was determined by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. The partially double-strandedpanhandle structure of the influenza virus RNA serves to regulate initiation and termination of viral transcription as well as polyadenylation. The panhandle RNA consists of internal loop flanked by short helices. The nucleotides at or near the internal loop are crucial for polymerase binding and transcriptional activity. They show more flexible conformational character than the Watson-Crick base-paired region, especially for the backbone torsion angles of alpha, gamma and delta. Although residues A10 and A12 are stacked in the helix, the phosphodiester backbones are distorted. Residues A12, A13 and G25 show dynamic sugar conformations and the backbone conformations of these nucleotides are flexible. This backbone conformation and its associated flexibility may be important for protein-RNA interactions as well as base-specific interactions.
PMCID: PMC148329  PMID: 9973631
12.  Secondary structure of the panhandle RNA of influenza virus A studied by NMR spectroscopy. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1996;24(21):4197-4201.
The double-stranded panhandle structure of the influenza virus RNA is important for replication, transcription and packaging into the virion of the virion RNA. The solution structure of a 34 nt RNA which contains the conserved panhandle sequences has been investigated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. The partially complementary 5'- and 3'-ends of the RNA form a double helical structure which is, on average, close to A-form. The stem contains bulges at nucleotides A10, A12 and C26. In between these bulges, C11 and G25 form a Watson-Crick base pair. The structural features of the panhandle provide a framework for the explanation of mutational analysis and for a better understanding of RNA-polymerase interactions.
PMCID: PMC146218  PMID: 8932372
13.  Generalized Seizure in a Mauritian Woman Taking Bupropion 
PLoS Medicine  2004;1(1):e15.
PRESENTATION of CASE
A 24-y-old woman was admitted to the emergency department having had a generalized seizure (acute loss of consciousness, convulsive movements of her arms and legs, and confusion on regaining consciousness). She was on the sixth day of treatment with 300 mg daily of slow-release bupropion (Zyban SR) as an aid to smoking cessation. She had a past medical history of tonsillectomy and hay fever, for which she was taking budesonide nasal drops (two drops daily, each drop 200 mcg). She was on no other medication. There was no history of head trauma, liver disease, or alcohol withdrawal. Clinical examination, including neurological examination, was normal. The patient's weight was 48 kg. Her blood pressure was 130/80 mm Hg. Electrocardiogram showed a sinus tachycardia at 102 beats per minute. Radiography of the skull and a computed tomography scan of the brain without contrast were both normal. The patient's blood glucose, urea, electrolytes, and liver function tests were all normal. Her serum calcium was 2.01 mmol/l (normal range, 2.0–2.6 mmol/l) and her hemoglobin was 116 g/l (normal range, 120–140 g/l). The bupropion was discontinued, and the patient recovered without any further seizures or other neurological sequelae.
Bupropion recently came onto the Mauritian market as an aid to smoking cessation. This case report is a useful reminder to clinicians of the risks of taking the drug
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010015
PMCID: PMC523836  PMID: 15526043
14.  Neonatal white matter abnormality predicts childhood motor impairment in very preterm children 
AIM
Children born very preterm are at risk for impaired motor performance ranging from cerebral palsy (CP) to milder abnormalities, such as developmental coordination disorder. White matter abnormalities (WMA) at term have been associated with CP in very preterm children; however, little is known about the impact of WMA on the range of motor impairments. The aim of this study was to assess whether WMA were predictive of all levels of motor impairments in very preterm children.
METHOD
Two hundred and twenty-seven very preterm infants (<30wks’ gestational age or birthweight <1250g) had brain magnetic resonance imaging at term-equivalent age to assess for WMA, which were categorized as nil, mild, or moderate to severe. At 5 years of age children were classified as having a moderate to severe motor impairment if they were below the 5th centile or mild to severe motor impairment if their score placed them no higher than the 15th centile on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). WMA (nil vs mild and nil vs moderate–severe) were explored as predictors of motor impairment using logistic regression. Analyses were repeated adjusting for the effects of other perinatal variables and excluding children with CP.
RESULTS
Of the 193 very preterm children (97 males, 96 females) assessed with the MABC, 53 (27%) were classified as having a moderate to severe motor impairment and 96 (50%) a mild to severe motor impairment. WMA were predictive of motor impairment in very preterm children, with mild versus no WMA increasing the odds of moderate to severe motor impairment by over fivefold (odds ratio [OR] 5.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9–16.1; p=0.002) and mild to severe impairment by twofold (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.1–4.2; p=0.02). Compared with no WMA, moderate to severe WMA increased the odds for moderate to severe impairment 19-fold (OR 19.4; 95% CI 5.6–66.7; p<0.001) and for mild to severe motor impairment ninefold (OR 9.4; 95% CI 3.2–28.1; p<0.001). Results remained similar after controlling for several potential confounders and after excluding 14 children who had CP at age 2 years.
INTERPRETATION
WMA predict motor impairment at 5 years, with rates of impairment increasing with more severe WMA. Very preterm children with any WMA at term require follow-up throughout childhood.
doi:10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04095.x
PMCID: PMC4040368  PMID: 22014319
15.  Advantages of Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Yeasts and Mycobacteria in the Clinical Microbiological Laboratory 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2013;51(12):3981-3987.
Yeast and mycobacteria can cause infections in immunocompromised patients and normal hosts. The rapid identification of these organisms can significantly improve patient care. There has been an increasing number of studies on using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for rapid yeast and mycobacterial identifications. However, studies on direct comparisons between the Bruker Biotyper and bioMérieux Vitek MS systems for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria have been limited. This study compared the performance of the two systems in their identification of 98 yeast and 102 mycobacteria isolates. Among the 98 yeast isolates, both systems generated species-level identifications in >70% of the specimens, of which Candida albicans was the most commonly cultured species. At a genus-level identification, the Biotyper system identified more isolates than the Vitek MS system for Candida (75/78 [96.2%]versus 68/78 [87.2%], respectively; P = 0.0426) and non-Candida yeasts (18/20 [90.0%]versus 7/20 [35.0%], respectively; P = 0.0008). For mycobacterial identification, the Biotyper system generated reliable identifications for 89 (87.3%) and 64 (62.8%) clinical isolates at the genus and species levels, respectively, from solid culture media, whereas the Vitek MS system did not generate any reliable identification. The MS method differentiated 12/21 clinical species, despite the fact that no differentiation between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae was found by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In summary, the MALDI-TOF MS method provides short turnaround times and a standardized working protocol for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria. Our study demonstrates that MALDI-TOF MS is suitable as a first-line test for the identification of yeast and mycobacteria in clinical laboratories.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01437-13
PMCID: PMC3838092  PMID: 24048537
16.  Rice Small C2-Domain Proteins Are Phosphorylated by Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 
Molecules and Cells  2013;35(5):381-387.
We previously reported that OsERG1 and OsERG3 encode rice small C2-domain proteins with different biochemical properties in Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding assays. OsERG1 exhibited Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding, which was not observed with OsERG3. In the present study, we show that both OsERG1 and OsERG3 proteins exhibit oligomerization properties as determined by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiments. Furthermore, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal the phosphorylation of OsERG1 and OsERG3 by a rice calcium-dependent protein kinase, OsCDPK5. Our mutation analysis on putative serine phosphorylation sites shows that the first serine (Ser) at position 41 of OsERG1 may be an essential residue for phosphorylation by OsCDPK5. Mutation of Ser41 to alanine (OsERG1S41A) and aspartate (OsERG1S41D) abolishes the ability of OsERG1 to bind phospholipids regardless of the presence or absence of Ca2+ ions. In addition, unlike the OsERG1 wild-type form, the mutant OsERG1 (S41A)::smGFP construct lost the ability to translocate from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to calcium ions or fungal elicitor. These results indicate that Ser41 may be essential for the function of OsERG1.
doi:10.1007/s10059-013-2185-0
PMCID: PMC3887858  PMID: 23456295
Ca2+/phospholipid-binding; calcium-dependent protein kinase; oligomerization; phosphorylation; small C2-domain protein
17.  Dissecting the Critical Factors for Thermodynamic Stability of Modular Proteins Using Molecular Modeling Approach 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e98243.
Repeat proteins have recently attracted much attention as alternative scaffolds to immunoglobulin antibodies due to their unique structural and biophysical features. In particular, repeat proteins show high stability against temperature and chaotic agents. Despite many studies, structural features for the stability of repeat proteins remain poorly understood. Here we present an interesting result from in silico analyses pursuing the factors which affect the stability of repeat proteins. Previously developed repebody structure based on variable lymphocytes receptors (VLRs) which consists of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) modules was used as initial structure for the present study. We constructed extra six repebody structures with varying numbers of repeat modules and those structures were used for molecular dynamics simulations. For the structures, the intramolecular interactions including backbone H-bonds, van der Waals energy, and hydrophobicity were investigated and then the radius of gyration, solvent-accessible surface area, ratio of secondary structure, and hydration free energy were also calculated to find out the relationship between the number of LRR modules and stability of the protein. Our results show that the intramolecular interactions lead to more compact structure and smaller surface area of the repebodies, which are critical for the stability of repeat proteins. The other features were also well compatible with the experimental results. Based on our observations, the repebody-5 was proposed as the best structure from the all repebodies in structure optimization process. The present study successfully demonstrated that our computer-based molecular modeling approach can significantly contribute to the experiment-based protein engineering challenge.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098243
PMCID: PMC4029881  PMID: 24849801
18.  Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a novel mutation in the aquaporin 2 gene 
Biomedical Reports  2014;2(4):596-598.
Congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (CNDI) is a rare disorder caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin (AVP) V2 receptor or aquaporin 2 (AQP2) genes. The current study presented the case of CNDI in a 1-month-old male with a novel mutation in the AQP2 gene. The patient was referred due to the occurrence of hypernatremia and mild-intermittent fever since birth. An AVP stimulation test was compatible with CNDI as there was no significant response to desmopressin. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated two mutations in exon 1 of the AQP2 gene: C to T transition, which resulted in a missense mutation of 108Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG); and a 127, 128 delCA, which resulted in a deletion mutation of glutamine in position 43 at codon CAG as the first affected amino acid, with the new reading frame endign in a termination codon at position 62. The molecular genetic analysis of the parents showed that the missense mutation was inherited maternally and the deletion mutation was inherited paternally. The parents showed no signs or symptoms of CNDI, indicating autosomal recessive inheritance. The 108Thr (ACG) to Met (ATG) mutation was confirmed as a novel mutation. Therefore, the molecular identification of the AQP2 gene has clinical significance, as early recognition of CNDI in infants that show only non-specific symptoms, can be facilitated. Thus, repeated episodes of dehydration, which may cause physical and mental retardation can be avoided.
doi:10.3892/br.2014.283
PMCID: PMC4051480  PMID: 24944815
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; aquaporin 2 gene; missense mutation; deletion mutation
19.  Chemotherapeutic Activities of Carthami Flos and Its Reversal Effect on Multidrug Resistance in Cancer Cells 
Multidrug-resistance (MDR) represents a major cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy. The need for a reduction in MDR by natural-product-based drugs of low toxicity led to the current investigation of applying medicinal herbs in future cancer adjuvant therapy. Carthami Flos (CF), the dried flower of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), is one of the most popular traditional Chinese medicinal herbs used to alleviate pain, increase circulation, and reduce blood-stasis syndrome. The drug resistance index of the total extract of CF in MDR KB-V1 cells and its synergistic effects with other chemotherapeutic agents were studied. SRB cell viability assays were used to quantify growth inhibition after exposure to single drug and in combinations with other chemotherapeutic agents using the median effect principle. The combination indexes were then calculated according to the classic isobologram equation. The results revealed that CF showed a drug resistance index of 0.096. In combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, it enhanced their chemo-sensitivities by 2.8 to 4.0 folds and gave a general synergism in cytotoxic effect. These results indicate that CF could be a potential alternative adjuvant antitumour herbal medicine representing a promising approach to the treatment of some malignant and MDR cancers in the future.
PMCID: PMC3794388  PMID: 24146498
Carthami Flos; Safflower; Honghua; Carthamus tinctorius L; KB cells; MDR
20.  USP8 modulates ubiquitination of LRIG1 for Met degradation 
Scientific Reports  2014;4:4980.
The Met receptor tyrosine kinase is an attractive target for cancer therapy as it promotes invasive tumor growth. SAIT301 is a novel anti-Met antibody, which induces LRIG1-mediated Met degradation and inhibits tumor growth. However, detailed downstream mechanism by which LRIG1 mediates target protein down-regulation is unknown. In the present study, we discovered that SAIT301 induces ubiquitination of LRIG1, which in turn promotes recruitment of Met and LRIG1 complex to the lysosome through its interaction with Hrs, resulting in concomitant degradation of both LRIG1 and Met. We also identified USP8 as a LRIG1-specific deubiquitinating enzyme, reporting the interaction between USP8 and LRIG1 for the first time. SAIT301 triggers degradation of LRIG1 by inhibiting the interaction of LRIG1 and USP8, which regulates ubiquitin modification and stability of LRIG1. In summary, SAIT301 employs ubiquitination of LRIG1 for its highly effective Met degradation. This unique feature of SAIT301 enables it to function as a fully antagonistic antibody without Met activation. We found that USP8 is involved in deubiquitination of LRIG1, influencing the efficiency of Met degradation. The relation of Met, LRIG1 and USP8 strongly supports the potential clinical benefit of a combination treatment of a USP8 inhibitor and a Met inhibitor, such as SAIT301.
doi:10.1038/srep04980
PMCID: PMC4021411  PMID: 24828152
21.  Synthesis of a Nano-Silver Metal Ink for Use in Thick Conductive Film Fabrication Applied on a Semiconductor Package 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97484.
The success of printing technology in the electronics industry primarily depends on the availability of metal printing ink. Various types of commercially available metal ink are widely used in different industries such as the solar cell, radio frequency identification (RFID) and light emitting diode (LED) industries, with limited usage in semiconductor packaging. The use of printed ink in semiconductor IC packaging is limited by several factors such as poor electrical performance and mechanical strength. Poor adhesion of the printed metal track to the epoxy molding compound is another critical factor that has caused a decline in interest in the application of printing technology to the semiconductor industry. In this study, two different groups of adhesion promoters, based on metal and polymer groups, were used to promote adhesion between the printed ink and the epoxy molding substrate. The experimental data show that silver ink with a metal oxide adhesion promoter adheres better than silver ink with a polymer adhesion promoter. This result can be explained by the hydroxyl bonding between the metal oxide promoter and the silane grouping agent on the epoxy substrate, which contributes a greater adhesion strength compared to the polymer adhesion promoter. Hypotheses of the physical and chemical functions of both adhesion promoters are described in detail.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097484
PMCID: PMC4022582  PMID: 24830317
22.  Rational Design of Berberine-Based FtsZ Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e97514.
Inhibition of the functional activity of Filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) protein, an essential and highly conserved bacterial cytokinesis protein, is a promising approach for the development of a new class of antibacterial agents. Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid widely used in traditional Chinese and native American medicines for its antimicrobial properties, has been recently reported to inhibit FtsZ. Using a combination of in silico structure-based design and in vitro biological assays, 9-phenoxyalkyl berberine derivatives were identified as potent FtsZ inhibitors. Compared to the parent compound berberine, the derivatives showed a significant enhancement of antibacterial activity against clinically relevant bacteria, and an improved potency against the GTPase activity and polymerization of FtsZ. The most potent compound 2 strongly inhibited the proliferation of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, with MIC values between 2 and 4 µg/mL, and was active against the Gram-negative E. coli and K. pneumoniae, with MIC values of 32 and 64 µg/mL respectively. The compound perturbed the formation of cytokinetic Z-ring in E. coli. Also, the compound interfered with in vitro polymerization of S. aureus FtsZ. Taken together, the chemical modification of berberine with 9-phenoxyalkyl substituent groups greatly improved the antibacterial activity via targeting FtsZ.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097514
PMCID: PMC4019636  PMID: 24824618
23.  Dimensions of callousness in early childhood: Links to problem behavior and family intervention effectiveness 
Development and psychopathology  2013;25(2):347-363.
This study examined dimensions of callous behaviors in early childhood and the role of these behaviors in the development of conduct problems, as well as responsiveness to a family-centered preventative intervention. Caregiver reports of callous behaviors were examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Problem behavior was examined using within- and cross-informant reports of these behaviors. Parenting was measured using observational methods within the context of a randomized control trial of the Family Check-Up with a sample of 731 ethnically diverse boys and girls (followed from age 2 to 4) at high risk for later conduct problems. Results demonstrated that a measure of deceitful-callous (D-C) behaviors had acceptable factor loadings and internal consistency at ages 3 and 4. D-C behaviors at age 3 predicted problem behavior concurrently and longitudinally within and across informant. However, D-C behaviors did not reduce the effectiveness of the family preventative intervention. These findings have implications for our understanding of behaviors that may precede later callous-unemotional traits and for our understanding of the development and prevention of early starting conduct problems.
doi:10.1017/S0954579412001101
PMCID: PMC3641705  PMID: 23627949
Externalizing; Callous-Unemotional Traits; Conduct Problems; Early Childhood; Intervention
24.  Evaluation of Recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi Merozoite Surface Protein-133 for Detection of Human Malaria 
Plasmodium knowlesi is now known as the fifth Plasmodium species that can cause human malaria. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein (MSP) has been reported to be potential target for vaccination and diagnosis of malaria. MSP-133 has been shown to be immunogenic and its T cell epitopes could mediate cellular immune protection. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-133. In this study, an approximately 28-kDa recombinant P. knowlesi MSP-133 (pkMSP-133) was expressed by using an Escherichia coli system. The purified pkMSP-133 reacted with serum samples of patients infected with P. knowlesi (31 of 31, 100%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria (27 of 28, 96.43%) by Western blotting. The pkMSP-133 also reacted with P. knowlesi (25 of 31, 80.65%) and non-P. knowlesi malaria sera (20 of 28, 71.43%) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most of the non-malarial infection (49 of 52 in by Western blotting and 46 of 52 in the ELISA) and healthy donor serum samples (65 of 65 by Western blotting and ELISA) did not react with recombinant pkMSP-133.
doi:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0250
PMCID: PMC3752745  PMID: 23509118
25.  CT Findings of Gallbladder Metastases: Emphasis on Differences According to Primary Tumors 
Korean Journal of Radiology  2014;15(3):334-345.
Objective
To describe computed tomography (CT) features of metastatic gallbladder (GB) tumors (MGTs) from various primary tumors and to determine whether there are differential imaging features of MGTs according to different primary tumors.
Materials and Methods
Twenty-one patients who had pathologically confirmed MGTs and underwent CT were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical findings including presenting symptoms, type of surgery, and interval between primary and metastatic tumors were recorded. Histologic features of primary tumor and MGTs including depth of invasion were also reviewed. Imaging findings were analyzed for the location and morphology of MGTs, pattern and degree of enhancement, depth of invasion, presence of intact overlying mucosa, and concordance between imaging features of primary and metastatic tumors. Significant differences between the histologies of MGTs and imaging features were determined.
Results
The most common primary tumor metastasized to the GB was gastric cancer (n = 8), followed by renal cell carcinoma (n = 4) and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 3). All MGTs (n = 21) manifested as infiltrative wall thickenings (n = 15) or as polypoid lesions (n = 6) on CT, similar to the features of primary GB cancers. There were significant differences in the morphology of MGTs, enhancement pattern, enhancement degree, and depth of invasion according to the histology of primary tumors (p < 0.05). Metastatic adenocarcinomas of the GB manifested as infiltrative and persistently enhancing wall thickenings, while non-adenocarcinomatous metastases usually manifested as polypoid lesions with early wash-in and wash-out.
Conclusion
Although CT findings of MGTs are similar to those of primary GB cancer, they are significantly different between the various histologies of primary tumors.
doi:10.3348/kjr.2014.15.3.334
PMCID: PMC4023052  PMID: 24843238
Gallbladder; Neoplasms; Metastasis; CT; MRI

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