The present study examined the dose-dependent effect of vitamin E in reversing bone loss in ovariectomized (Ovx) rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were either Sham-operated (Sham) or Ovx and fed control diet for 120 days to lose bone. Subsequently, rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 12/group): Sham, Ovx-control, low dose (Ovx + 300 mg/kg diet; LD), medium dose (Ovx + 525 mg/kg diet; MD), and high dose (Ovx + 750 mg/kg diet; HD) of vitamin E and sacrificed after 100 days. Animals receiving MD and HD of vitamin E had increased serum alkaline phosphatase compared to the Ovx-control group. Bone histomorphometry analysis indicated a decrease in bone resorption as well as increased bone formation and mineralization in the Ovx groups supplemented with MD and HD of vitamin E. Microcomputed tomography findings indicated no effects of vitamin E on trabecular bone of fifth lumbar vertebrae. Animals receiving HD of vitamin E had enhanced fourth lumbar vertebra quality as evidenced by improved ultimate and yield load and stress when compared to Ovx-control group. These findings demonstrate that vitamin E improves bone quality, attenuates bone resorption, and enhances the rate of bone formation while being unable to restore bone density and trabecular bone structure.
Although high mammographic density (MD) is considered one of the strongest risk factors for invasive breast cancer, the genes involved in modulating this clinical feature are unknown. Tissues of high MD share key histological features with stromal components within malignant lesions of tumor tissues, specifically low adipocyte and high ECM content. We show that CD36, a transmembrane receptor that coordinately modulates multiple pro-tumorigenic phenotypes including adipocyte differentiation, angiogenesis, cell-ECM interactions, and immune signaling, is greatly repressed in multiple cell types of disease-free stroma associated with high MD and tumor stroma. Using both in vitro and in vivo assays, we demonstrate that CD36 repression is necessary and sufficient to recapitulate the abovementioned phenotypes observed in high MD and tumor tissues. Consistent with a functional role for this coordinated program in tumorigenesis, we observe that clinical outcomes are strongly associated with CD36 expression.
breast cancer; cell-cell interactions; CD36; mammographic density; stroma
Bacteria belonging to the normal colonic microbiota are associated with the etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC). Although several mucosal species have been implicated in the disease process, the organisms and mechanisms involved are unknown. The aim of this investigation was to characterize mucosal biofilm communities over time and to determine the relationship of these bacteria to patient age and disease severity and duration. Multiple rectal biopsy specimens were taken from 33 patients with active UC over a period of 1 year. Real-time PCR was used to quantify mucosal bacteria in UC patients compared to 18 noninflammatory bowel disease controls, and the relationship between indicators of disease severity and bacterial colonization was evaluated by linear regression analysis. Significant differences were detected in bacterial populations on the UC mucosa and in the control group, which varied over the study period. High clinical activity indices (CAI) and sigmoidoscopy scores (SS) were associated with enterobacteria, desulfovibrios, type E Clostridium perfringens, and Enterococcus faecalis, whereas the reverse was true for Clostridium butyricum, Ruminococcus albus, and Eubacterium rectale. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium numbers were linked with low CAI. Only E. rectale and Clostridium clostridioforme had a high age dependence. These findings demonstrated that longitudinal variations in mucosal bacterial populations occur in UC and that bacterial community structure is related to disease severity.
Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for cell counting and biomarker detection in biotechnology and medicine especially with regards to blood analysis. Standard flow cytometers perform cell type classification both by estimating size and granularity of cells using forward- and side-scattered light signals and through the collection of emission spectra of fluorescently-labeled cells. However, cell surface labeling as a means of marking cells is often undesirable as many reagents negatively impact cellular viability or provide activating/inhibitory signals, which can alter the behavior of the desired cellular subtypes for downstream applications or analysis. To eliminate the need for labeling, we introduce a label-free imaging-based flow cytometer that measures size and cell protein concentration simultaneously either as a stand-alone instrument or as an add-on to conventional flow cytometers. Cell protein concentration adds a parameter to cell classification, which improves the specificity and sensitivity of flow cytometers without the requirement of cell labeling. This system uses coherent dispersive Fourier transform to perform phase imaging at flow speeds as high as a few meters per second.
(170.0180) Microscopy; (170.1530) Cell analysis; (170.7160) Ultrafast technology; (100.5070) Phase retrieval; (170.3890) Medical optics instrumentation
Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) is a negative regulator of T-cell activation associated with several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Missense rs2476601 is associated with SLE in individuals with European ancestry. Since the rs2476601 risk allele frequency differs dramatically across ethnicities, we assessed robustness of PTPN22 association with SLE and its clinical sub-phenotypes across four ethnically diverse populations. Ten SNPs were genotyped in 8220 SLE cases and 7369 controls from in European-Americans (EA), African-Americans (AA), Asians (AS), and Hispanics (HS). We performed imputation-based association followed by conditional analysis to identify independent associations. Significantly associated SNPs were tested for association with SLE clinical sub-phenotypes, including autoantibody profiles. Multiple testing was accounted for by using false discovery rate. We successfully imputed and tested allelic association for 107 SNPs within the PTPN22 region and detected evidence of ethnic-specific associations from EA and HS. In EA, the strongest association was at rs2476601 (P = 4.7×10−9, OR = 1.40 (95% CI = 1.25–1.56)). Independent association with rs1217414 was also observed in EA, and both SNPs are correlated with increased European ancestry. For HS imputed intronic SNP, rs3765598, predicted to be a cis-eQTL, was associated (P = 0.007, OR = 0.79 and 95% CI = 0.67–0.94). No significant associations were observed in AA or AS. Case-only analysis using lupus-related clinical criteria revealed differences between EA SLE patients positive for moderate to high titers of IgG anti-cardiolipin (aCL IgG >20) versus negative aCL IgG at rs2476601 (P = 0.012, OR = 1.65). Association was reinforced when these cases were compared to controls (P = 2.7×10−5, OR = 2.11). Our results validate that rs2476601 is the most significantly associated SNP in individuals with European ancestry. Additionally, rs1217414 and rs3765598 may be associated with SLE. Further studies are required to confirm the involvement of rs2476601 with aCL IgG.
The unlimited differentiation and proliferation capacity of embryonic stem cells represents a great resource for regenerative medicine. Here, we describe a method for differentiating, isolating, and expanding endothelial cells (ECs) from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). First, mESCs are expanded on a mouse embryonic fibroblast (mEF) feeder layer and partially differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs) by growing the cells in an ultra-low attachment plate for up to 5 days. The EBs are then differentiated along the endothelial lineage using endothelial growth medium supplemented with 40 ng/mL vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The differentiated endothelial population expresses both Fetal Liver Kinase 1 (Flk-1) and VE-Cadherin on the cell surface which can be further purified using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) system and subsequently expanded on 0.1 % gelatin-coated plates. The differentiated cells can be analyzed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry to confirm enrichment of EC-specific genes and proteins.
Embryonic stem cells; Differentiation; FACS; Endothelial cells
Histological tissue sections provide rich information and continue to be the gold standard for the assessment of tissue neoplasm. However, there are a significant amount of technical and biological variations that impede analysis of large histological datasets. In this paper, we have proposed a novel approach for nuclear segmentation in tumor histology sections, which addresses the problem of technical and biological variations by incorporating information from both manually annotated reference patches and the original image. Subsequently, the solution is formulated within a multireference level set framework. This approach has been validated on manually annotated samples and then applied to the TCGA glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) dataset consisting of 440 whole mount tissue sections scanned with either a 20× or 40× objective, in which, each tissue section varies in size from 40k × 40k pixels to 100k × 100k pixels. Experimental results show a superior performance of the proposed method in comparison with present state of art techniques.
Multireference level set; nuclear segmentation; tumor histology sections
Automated analysis of whole mount tissue sections can provide insights into tumor subtypes and the underlying molecular basis of neoplasm. However, since tumor sections are collected from different laboratories, inherent technical and biological variations impede analysis for very large datasets such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our objective is to characterize tumor histopathology, through the delineation of the nuclear regions, from hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections. Such a representation can then be mined for intrinsic subtypes across a large dataset for prediction and molecular association. Furthermore, nuclear segmentation is formulated within a multi-reference graph framework with geodesic constraints, which enables computation of multidimensional representations, on a cell-by-cell basis, for functional enrichment and bioinformatics analysis. Here, we present a novel method, Multi-Reference Graph Cut (MRGC), for nuclear segmentation that overcomes technical variations associated with sample preparation by incorporating prior knowledge from manually annotated reference images and local image features. The proposed approach has been validated on manually annotated samples and then applied to a dataset of 377 Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) whole slide images from 146 patients. For the GBM cohort, multidimensional representation of the nuclear features and their organization have identified (i) statistically significant subtypes based on several morphometric indices, (ii) whether each subtype can be predictive or not, and (iii) that the molecular correlates of predictive subtypes are consistent with the literature.
Data and intermediaries for a number of tumor types (GBM, low grade glial, and kidney renal clear carcinoma) are available at: http://tcga.lbl.gov for correlation with TCGA molecular data. The website also provides an interface for panning and zooming of whole mount tissue sections with/without overlaid segmentation results for quality control.
Nuclear Segmentation; Tumor Histopathology; Subtyping; Molecular Pathology
Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare manifestation of an aggressive fungal infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are vitally important in improving outcome. We report an unusual case presenting with progressive necrotizing fasciitis due to mucormycosis following trauma and dressing by man-made herbal agents.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common systemic autoimmune disease with complex etiology but strong clustering in families (λS = ~30). We performed a genome-wide association scan using 317,501 SNPs in 720 women of European ancestry with SLE and in 2,337 controls, and we genotyped consistently associated SNPs in two additional independent sample sets totaling 1,846 affected women and 1,825 controls. Aside from the expected strong association between SLE and the HLA region on chromosome 6p21 and the previously confirmed non-HLA locus IRF5 on chromosome 7q32, we found evidence of association with replication (1.1 × 10−7 < Poverall < 1.6 × 10−23; odds ratio 0.82–1.62)in four regions: 16p11.2 (ITGAM), 11p15.5 (KIAA1542), 3p14.3 (PXK) and 1q25.1 (rs10798269). We also found evidence for association (P < 1 × 10−5) at FCGR2A, PTPN22 and STAT4, regions previously associated with SLE and other autoimmune diseases, as well as at ≥9 other loci (P < 2 × 10−7). Our results show that numerous genes, some with known immune-related functions, predispose to SLE.
During transportation, platelet concentrates (PC) usually undergo a long period without agitation. Whether this interruption improves quality and viability or, contrariwise, has deleterious effects on PC stored for 48 hours (h) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of metabolic resting (6 h of interruption of agitation) vs continue agitation of PC stored for 48 h in the blood bank of Tehran.
Materials and methods
PC were prepared from platelet-rich plasma and stored in permeable bags in a shaker/incubator for 42 h at room temperature (20–24 ºC). Then, simply by stopping the agitator, the PC remained stationary (“resting”) without agitation for 6 h (WCA6h), prior to transfusion. In vitro measurements of platelet quality were carried out just after completion of the resting period and the results were compared with those of PC continuously agitated in the same day (designated as the control group, CA6h). The in vitro variables measured were swirling, ristocetin-induced aggregation (GPIb-related function), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration, platelet factor 4 (PF4) release and P-selectin expression (activation markers).
The mean platelet counts of the control group (CA6h) and rested (WCA6h) PC were not statistically different (P =0.548). Likewise, the mean pH values were not significantly different: WCA6h (7.16±0.08) and CA6h (7.22±0.16) (P =0.300). Although ristocetin-induced aggregation did not differ significantly between CA6h (79.2±4.4) and WCA6h (66.65±28.55) (P =0.186), WCA6h showed significantly less PFA release (P =0.015) and lower P-selectin expression (P =0.006).
We observed that PC stored under agitation for 42 h at 22–24 ºC in permeable bags and then rested for 6 h had better preserved pH, swirling and LDH and less platelet activation then PC kept under continuous agitation for the whole 48 h storage period.
platelet resting; metabolism; agitation effect; PF4; P-selectin
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease with significant immune system aberrations resulting from complex heritable genetics as well as environmental factors. TRAF6 is a candidate gene for SLE, which has a major role in several signaling pathways that are important for immunity and organ development.
Fifteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), across TRAF6 were evaluated in 7,490 SLE and 6,780 control subjects from different ancestries. Population-based case-control association analyses and meta-analyses were performed. P values, false discovery rate q values, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Evidence of associations in multiple SNPs was detected. The best overall p values were obtained for SNPs rs5030437 and rs4755453 (p=7.85×10−5 and p=4.73×10−5, respectively) without significant heterogeneity among populations (p=0.67 and p=0.50 in Q-statistic). In addition, rs540386 previously reported to be associated with RA was found to be in LD with these two SNPs (r2= 0.95) and demonstrated evidence of association with SLE in the same direction (meta-analysis p=9.15×10−4, OR=0.89, 95%CI=0.83–0.95). Thrombocytopenia improved the overall results in different populations (meta-analysis p=1.99×10−6, OR=0.57, 95%CI=0.45–0.72, for rs5030470). Finally evidence of family based association in 34 African-American pedigrees with the presence of thrombocytopenia were detected in one available SNP rs5030437 with Z score magnitude of 2.28 (p=0.02) under a dominant model.
Our data indicate the presence of association of TRAF6 with SLE in agreement with the previous report of association with RA. These data provide further support for the involvement of TRAF6 in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.
TRAF6; polymorphism; systemic lupus erythematosus
European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model is a widely used quality management system (QMS) worldwide, including Iran. Current study aims to verify the quality assessment results of Iranian National Program for Hospital Evaluation (INPHE) based on those of EFQM.
This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 on a sample of emergency departments (EDs) affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Iran. The standard questionnaire of EFQM (V-2010) was used to gather appropriate data. The results were compared with those of INPHE. MS Excel was used to classify and display the findings.
The average assessment score of the EDs based on the INPHE and EFQM model were largely different (i.e. 86.4% and 31%, respectively). In addition, the variation range among five EDs’ scores according to each model was also considerable (22% for EFQM against 7% of INPHE), especially in the EDs with and without prior record of applying QMSs.
The INPHE’s assessment results were not confirmed by EFQM model. Moreover, the higher variation range among EDs’ scores using EFQM model could allude to its more differentiation power in assessing the performance comparing with INPHE. Therefore, a need for improvement in the latter drawing on other QMSs’ (such as EFQM) strengths, given the results emanated from its comparison with EFQM seems indispensable.
Quality Assessment; EFQM; INPHE; Emergency Department; Iran
Major depression is a mood disorder that causes changes in physical activity, appetite, sleep and weight. Regarding the role of zinc in the pathology of depression, the present study was aimed to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation in the treatment of this disease.
This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Forty four patients with major depression were randomly assigned to groups receiving zinc supplementation and placebo. Patients in Zinc group received daily supplementation with 25 mg zinc adjunct to antidepressant; Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), while the patients in placebo group received placebo with antidepressants (SSRIs) for twelve weeks. Severity of depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory at baseline and was repeated at the sixth and twelfth weeks. ANOVA with repeated measure was used to compare and track the changes during the study.
The mean score of Beck test decreased significantly in the zinc supplement group at the end of week 6 (P < 0.01) and 12 (P < 0.001) compared to the baseline. The mean score of Beck Depression Inventory reduced significantly compared to the placebo group at the end of 12th week (P < 0.05)
The results of the present study indicate that zinc supplementation together with SSRIs antidepressant drug improves major depressive disorders more effectively in patients with placebo plus antidepressants (SSRIs).
Major depressive disorder; Zinc supplement; placebo and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Early diagnosis of lung cancers and distinction between the tumor types (Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) and Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) are very important to increase the survival rate of patients. Herein, we propose a diagnostic system based on sequence-derived structural and physicochemical attributes of proteins that involved in both types of tumors via feature extraction, feature selection and prediction models. 1497 proteins attributes computed and important features selected by 12 attribute weighting models and finally machine learning models consist of seven SVM models, three ANN models and two NB models applied on original database and newly created ones from attribute weighting models; models accuracies calculated through 10-fold cross and wrapper validation (just for SVM algorithms). In line with our previous findings, dipeptide composition, autocorrelation and distribution descriptor were the most important protein features selected by bioinformatics tools. The algorithms performances in lung cancer tumor type prediction increased when they applied on datasets created by attribute weighting models rather than original dataset. Wrapper-Validation performed better than X-Validation; the best cancer type prediction resulted from SVM and SVM Linear models (82%). The best accuracy of ANN gained when Neural Net model applied on SVM dataset (88%). This is the first report suggesting that the combination of protein features and attribute weighting models with machine learning algorithms can be effectively used to predict the type of lung cancer tumors (SCLC and NSCLC).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-238) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Lung cancer; Prediction; Structural and physicochemical features; Attributes weighting; Support vector machine; Artificial neural network; Naïve bayes
Assessment of the quantity and integrity of genomic DNA (gDNA) is an important step in the preparation of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) libraries. Analysis of these samples prior to downstream NGS applications can prevent wasted time and resources. By implementation of a quality control method degraded gDNA can be excluded from further preparatory steps and from sequencing. A widely used method to assess gDNA quality are agarose gels, but in addition to being labor intensive and not automatable, limited quantitative data is offered. To ease this limit, we have developed a rapid, microfluidic assay for determining the quality of gDNA on the LabChip GX, an analytical platform that is also used for quantifying and sizing DNA and RNA in several other steps of the NGS sample preparation workflow. In this presentation we will describe the use of the assay for quantification and determination of gDNA sample integrity by a quality metric, the gDNA Quality Score (GQS). The GQS ranges from 0 to 5, with 5 representing the highest quality, and can be used to establish acceptance criteria for further analysis of a sample.
To provide the validated and standardized form of the Persian version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires as an appropriate developmental screening tool for evaluation of Iranian children’s development.
This was a cross-sectional study. Translation and back-translation, content validity determination, cultural and lingual modifications, pilot study on 100 parents and inter-rater reliability determinations were performed, respectively. The national and final stage was carried out 11000, 4–60 month-old children in selected cities throughout the country in order to determine the validity, standard deviation, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and mean scores points of the test.
The reliability, determined by cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.76 to 0.86 and the inter-rater reliability was 0.93. The validity determined by factor analysis was satisfactory. The mean scores of Iranian children were identified and compared with those of the normative sample as well as with three other populations of children. The developmental status of Iranian children was higher in the communication, problem-solving and personal-social domains, especially under the age of 24 months, after which their developmental status seems to deteriorate, especially in the motor domains.
The Persian version of the ASQ has appropriate validity and reliability for screening developmental disorders in Iran.
Screening tools; Developmental delay; Standardization; Child; Validity
Several recently developed therapies targeting motor disabilities in stroke sufferers have shown to be more effective than standard neurorehabilitation approaches. In this context, several basic studies demonstrated that music training produces rapid neuroplastic changes in motor-related brain areas. Music-supported therapy has been recently developed as a new motor rehabilitation intervention.
Methods and Results
In order to explore the plasticity effects of music-supported therapy, this therapeutic intervention was applied to twenty chronic stroke patients. Before and after the music-supported therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied for the assessment of excitability changes in the motor cortex and a 3D movement analyzer was used for the assessment of motor performance parameters such as velocity, acceleration and smoothness in a set of diadochokinetic movement tasks. Our results suggest that the music-supported therapy produces changes in cortical plasticity leading the improvement of the subjects' motor performance.
Our findings represent the first evidence of the neurophysiological changes induced by this therapy in chronic stroke patients, and their link with the amelioration of motor performance. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations.
Arginine (ARG) exerts many beneficial effects on animal body and enhanced angiogenesis, lactogenesis, which finally leads to the improvement in nitrogen (N) metabolism, reproduction, lactation, immunity and growth. Unfortunately, unprotected ARG will be degraded in the rumen and its price is high, thus feeding rumen-protected ARG seems to be uneconomical. Alternatively, N-carbamoyl glutamate (NCG) is structural analogue of N-acetyl glutamate, cofactor of cabamoyl phosphate synthetase1, is lower in rumen degradation compared to ARG. Additionally, rumen epithelial and duodenal cells have potentially utilized the NCG for ureagenesis. Supplementation of NCG to high yielding dairy cows increased plasma concentration of ARG and nitric oxide, decreased the plasma ammonia N and improved lactation performance and N utilization. Supplementation of NCG enhanced pregnancy rates in rats, improved litter size and fetal survival rate, thereby improved the reproductive performance of sows. Oral NCG supplementation increases plasma ARG and somatotropin levels, and increased growth rate and muscle protein synthesis in nursing piglets. The NCG is potential a relatively cheaper source of feed additive to offer vital compensation over oral administration of ARG, resulting in improved ruminant animal health and production. In this article, we reviewed the mechanism of ARG biosynthesis by NCG and their significance in growth, reproduction, milk production and N utilization in ruminant animals.
Arginine; Lactation; N-cabamoyl glutamate; Nitrogen utilization; Pregnancy; Ruminant animals
Obesity is a threat to the health of modern urban citizens, especially women. Aerobic is an effect of exercise which rapidly is developing among urban women. This study was designed to examine the effects of light and moderate aerobic intensity on body composition and serum lipid profile in obese/overweight women living in Isfahan.
Forty-five middle-aged obese/overweight volunteer women (25-40 years, and body mass index (BMI) ≥25 to 30 kg/m2) were randomly assigned into three groups: 1. Light aerobics [45-50% heart rate reserve maximum (HRRmax)], 2. Moderate aerobics (70-75% HRRmax), 3. No exercise training (control). Training program lasted for 10 weeks and included three sessions of 60 minutes aerobics per week. The intensity of aerobics was controlled by monitoring heart rate. Body composition was measured using skin fold thickness method. Serum lipid was measured.
Both light and moderate aerobics significantly improved weight (P < 0.000), fat percent (P < 0.045), BMI (P < 0.000), fat weight (P < 0/031), lean body weight (P < 0.02), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (P < 0.000), High-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P < 0.000).
Our findings showed that both light and moderate aerobics improved body composition and serum lipid profile in obese/overweight women. Our findings support the application of aerobics for obese/overweight women. Initially, they can start with light programs and proceed to more intense programs.
Aerobic; body composition; lipid profile; obese/overweight women
To compare corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) between normal and keratoconic eyes, and to investigate the association between elevation-based corneal topographic indices and corneal wavefront data in the latter group.
In this cross-sectional comparative study, 77 normal right eyes of 77 control subjects and 66 eyes of 36 keratoconic patients were included. In each eye, elevation- based corneal topographic indices including mean keratometry readings, best-fit sphere, maximum elevation, and 3-mm and 5-mm zone irregularity indices were measured using Orbscan II. The Galilei Scheimpflug analyzer was used to measure HOAs of the corneal surface. The independent student t-test was used to compare HOAs between the study groups. Spearman correlation was used to investigate possible associations between Orbscan and Galilei data in the keratoconus group.
All Zernike coefficients up to the 4th order except for horizontal trefoil, and vertical and horizontal tetrafoil were significantly greater in the keratoconus group than normal eyes (P<0.05). Root mean square (RMS) of HOAs up to the 6th order and total HOAs were significantly higher in the keratoconus group (P<0.05). In the keratoconus group, the strongest association was observed between vertical coma (r=-0.71, P<0.01) and total RMS of HOAs (r=0.94, P<0.01) with irregularity in the 3-mm zone. Spherical and vertical coma aberrations were significantly correlated with mean keratometry (P<0.05 for both comparisons).
Centrally located corneal HOAs are significantly greater in keratoconic eyes than normal controls. Anterior and inferior displacement of the cornea causes the majority of higher-order aberrations observed in keratoconus.
Keratoconus; Orbscan II; Galilei; Higher-order Aberrations
Producing sounds by a musical instrument can lead to audiomotor coupling, i.e. the joint activation of the auditory and motor system, even when only one modality is probed. The sonification of otherwise mute movements by sounds based on kinematic parameters of the movement has been shown to improve motor performance and perception of movements.
Here we demonstrate in a group of healthy young non-athletes that congruently (sounds match visual movement kinematics) vs. incongruently (no match) sonified breaststroke movements of a human avatar lead to better perceptual judgement of small differences in movement velocity. Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed enhanced activity in superior and medial posterior temporal regions including the superior temporal sulcus, known as an important multisensory integration site, as well as the insula bilaterally and the precentral gyrus on the right side. Functional connectivity analysis revealed pronounced connectivity of the STS with the basal ganglia and thalamus as well as frontal motor regions for the congruent stimuli. This was not seen to the same extent for the incongruent stimuli.
We conclude that sonification of movements amplifies the activity of the human action observation system including subcortical structures of the motor loop. Sonification may thus be an important method to enhance training and therapy effects in sports science and neurological rehabilitation.
Colorectal cancer is the third and fourth leading cause of cancer incidence and mortality among men and women, respectively in Iran. However, the role of dietary factors that could contribute to this high cancer incidence remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine major dietary patterns and its relationship with colorectal cancer.
This case–control study was conducted in four hospitals in Tehran city of Iran. A total of 71 patients (35 men and 36 women, aged 40–75 years) with incident clinically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 142 controls (70 men and 72 women, aged 40–75 years) admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic diseases were recruited and interviewed. Dietary data were assessed by 125-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between dietary patterns and risk of colorectal cancer.
Two major dietary patterns (Healthy pattern and Western pattern) were derived using principal component analysis. Each dietary pattern explained 11.9% (Healthy pattern) and 10.3% (Western pattern) of the variation in food intake, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, the Healthy dietary pattern was significantly associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (OR= 0.227; 95% CI=0.108–0.478) while an increased risk of colorectal cancer was observed with the Western dietary pattern (OR=2.616; 95% CI= 1.361-5.030).
Specific dietary patterns, which include healthy and western patterns, may be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. This diet-disease relationship can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of chronic disease, particularly colorectal cancer in the Iranian population.
Western dietary pattern; Healthy dietary pattern; Colorectal cancer; Case–control study; Iranian adults
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is the most common pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) that shows various resistance to antibiotics, acquires mucoidity and multiple genotypes. This survey was performed to study phenotypic and genotypic variations among P. aeruginosa isolates in CF patients at Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran.
Materials and Methods:
The isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from CF patients at Alzahra Hospital was identified by appropriate biochemical and microscopic tests, then performed antibiotic resistance tests and mucoid colony morphotyping. The genum of isolates extracted and confirmed on 16S rDNA-based PCR assay and typed on 16S rDNA-23SrDNA spacer, restricted with Hinf1 restriction enzyme.
P. aeruginosa was isolated from 21 of the 59 CF patients (35.5%), Out of 21 isolates 9 (42.8%) strains were revealed mucoid morphotype. 81.8% isolates of mucoid strains were resistance to at least one of four antibiotics (GM, AN, PIP and CP). Most of the isolates (86%) showed resistance to ceftazidime. Ribotyping revealed two patterns (P1, P5).
The isolates of P. aeruginosa showed meaningful difference between drug resistance to antibiotics. The majority of P. aeruginosa isolated from CF patients showed pattern1 of PCR-Ribotyping.
Cystic fibrosis; PCR–ribotyping; Pseudomonas aeruginosa