A cell-in-cell process refers to the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. Different from non-apoptotic death processes of internalized cells termed entosis or cannibalism, we previously reported an apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurring during heterotypic cell-in-cell formation. In this study, we further demonstrated that the apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurred only in internalized immune killer cells expressing granzyme B (GzmB). Vacuole wrapping around the internalized cells inside the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes, which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However, internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes, resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary, internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor cells. Our results thus demonstrated the critical involvement of immune cells with cytotoxic property in apoptotic cell-in-cell death, which we termed as emperitosis taken from emperipolesis and apoptosis. Whereas entosis or cannibalism may serve as a feed-on mechanism to exacerbate and nourish tumor cells, emperitosis of immune killer cells inside tumor cells may serve as an in-cell danger sensation model to prevent the killing of target cells from inside, implying a unique mechanism for tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance.
apoptotic cell-in-cell death; emperitosis; immune cytotoxic cells; granzyme B; vacuole formation
Quercetin (Que), a plant-derived flavonoid, has multiple benefical actions on the
cardiovascular system. The current study investigated whether Que
postconditioning has any protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion
(I/R) injury in vivo and its potential cardioprotective
mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 5 groups (20
animals/group): sham, I/R, Que postconditioning, Que+LY294002 [a
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor], and
LY294002+I/R. I/R was produced by 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 2-h
reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion, myocardial infarct size and biochemical
changes were compared. Apoptosis was evaluated by both TUNEL staining and
measurement of activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity. The phosphorylation of Akt
and protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by Western blotting. Que
postconditioning significantly reduced infarct size and serum levels of creatine
kinase and lactate dehydrogenase compared with the I/R group (all P<0.05).
Apoptotic cardiomyocytes and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were also suppressed in
the Que postconditioning group compared with the I/R group (both P<0.05). Akt
phosphorylation and Bcl-2 expression increased after Que postconditioning, but
Bax expression decreased. These effects were inhibited by LY294002. The data
indicate that Que postconditioning can induce cardioprotection by activating the
PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and modulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax
Ischemia and reperfusion; Quercetin; Postconditioning; PI3K/Akt
Most genetic variants identified for type 2 diabetes have been discovered in European populations. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a Chinese population with the aim of identifying novel variants for type 2 diabetes in Asians.
We performed a meta-analysis of three GWAS comprising 684 patients with type 2 diabetes and 955 controls of Southern Han Chinese descent. We followed up the top signals in two independent Southern Han Chinese cohorts (totalling 10,383 cases and 6,974 controls), and performed in silico replication in multiple populations.
We identified CDKN2A/B and four novel type 2 diabetes association signals with p < 1 × 10−5 from the meta-analysis. Thirteen variants within these four loci were followed up in two independent Chinese cohorts, and rs10229583 at 7q32 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in a combined analysis of 11,067 cases and 7,929 controls (pmeta = 2.6 × 10−8; OR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.25]). In silico replication revealed consistent associations across multiethnic groups, including five East Asian populations (pmeta = 2.3 × 10−10) and a population of European descent (p = 8.6 × 10−3). The rs10229583 risk variant was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose, impaired beta cell function in controls, and an earlier age at diagnosis for the cases. The novel variant lies within an islet-selective cluster of open regulatory elements. There was significant heterogeneity of effect between Han Chinese and individuals of European descent, Malaysians and Indians.
Our study identifies rs10229583 near PAX4 as a novel locus for type 2 diabetes in Chinese and other populations and provides new insights into the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-013-2874-4) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Chinese; Diabetes; East Asians; Genetics; Genome-wide association study
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species, which can contaminate food and feed. These compounds elicit a wide spectrum of toxic effects, including the capacity to alter normal immune function. In this study, the in vitro effects of the treatment of ConA-stimulated splenic lymphocytes with ZEN (0–25 μg/mL) were examined. ZEN modulates the expression of IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The IL-2 levels were up to fourfold higher (P < 0.05) compared with the levels in the control at toxin concentrations of 25 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment. The IL-6 levels were critically suppressed at this concentration; these changes were very statistically significant (P < 0.05). At lower ZEN concentrations (0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 μg/mL), the IFN-γ levels changed slightly; however at 6.25 and 25 μg/mL, the IFN-γ results reached statistical significance compared with the control levels (P < 0.05). These data suggest that ZEN has potent effects on the expression of chicken splenic lymphocytes cytokines at the mRNA level.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median = 31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (> 31 ppm, n = 22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p < 0.01), but lower exposure (< or = 31 ppm, n = 21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene dose. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploidy and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r = -0.44, p = 0.003) but not in controls (r = -0.09, p = 0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations.
OBJECTIVES--Several studies have suggested that genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis may be related to the presence of specific polymorphic HLA sequences that are often associated with HLA-DR4 haplotypes. This study was performed to determine if an association exists between Chinese with rheumatoid arthritis and a particular HLA-DR beta or DQ beta subtype. METHODS--This study used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify HLA-DR beta and DQ beta genes, and oligonucleotide probe hybridisation to examine the association of certain polymorphic sequences with rheumatoid arthritis in 23 Chinese patients from Shanghai. RESULTS--An HLA-DR4 associated sequence was significantly increased in the Chinese patients (43%) compared with healthy controls (14%) from the same location (relative risk = 4.6, 95% confidence limits 1.1 to 19.3). Analysis of the third hyperpolymorphic region of DR4 positive samples was performed to detect polymorphic sequences associated with Dw4, Dw10, Dw13, Dw14, Dw15, and KT2 cellular specificities. Examination of this region showed that 91% of patients had sequences encoding amino acids QRRAA (associated with Dw14 and Dw15) or QKRAA (associated with Dw4) compared with 64% of the DR4 positive controls. CONCLUSIONS--Rheumatoid arthritis in the Chinese is associated with HLA-DR4. There is a possible relationship between sequences within the third hyperpolymorphic region of the DRB allele and rheumatoid arthritis in the Chinese.
Blood glucose excursion is an important component of the glycaemic burden, but there are no indexes that can directly reflect them. The aim was to evaluate the values and significance of serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China and to elucidate the relationship between 1,5-AG and traditional indexes of glycaemic excursions by continuous glucose monitoring.
A total of 576 healthy adults and 292 patients were included, and their 1,5-AG, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin were measured. For the 34 patients, their mean blood glucose, standard deviation of blood glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursion, mean of daily differences, low blood glucose M-value index and the area under the curve for blood glucose above 180 mg/dL were calculated by use of a continuous glucose monitoring system.
Serum levels of 1,5-AG among healthy adults were 28.44 ± 8.76 µg/mL with a significant gender bias rather than age bias. The 1,5-AG levels in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus were 4.57 ± 3.71 µg/mL, which were lower than those seen in the healthy adults. There was a correlation between 1,5-AG and glycated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, and postprandial blood glucose (r = −0.251, −0.195 and −0.349, respectively; all had p < 0.05). The continuous glucose monitoring system demonstrated that 1,5-AG presents a negative correlation with mean blood glucose, standard deviation of blood glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursion and mean of daily differences for 7 days and with the area under the curve for blood glucose above 180 mg/dL on the third, fourth and seventh days.
1,5-AG may serve as a marker of hyperglycaemia and 7-day hyperglycaemic excursions as well as being a useful adjunct to glycated haemoglobin for blood glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
1,5-anhydroglucitol; type 2 diabetes mellitus; hyperglycaemic excursions
The protein complex of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)1 and TSC2 tumor suppressors is a key negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Hyperactive mTOR signaling due to the loss-of-function of mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2 gene causes TSC, an autosomal dominant disorder featured with benign tumors in multiple organs. As the ubiquitous second messenger calcium (Ca2+) regulates various cellular processes involved in tumorigenesis, we explored the potential role of mTOR in modulation of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and in turn the effect of Ca2+ signaling in TSC-related tumor development. We found that loss of Tsc2 potentiated store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in an mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent way. The endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), was upregulated in Tsc2-deficient cells, and was suppressed by mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. In addition, SOCE repressed AKT1 phosphorylation. Blocking SOCE either by depleting STIM1 or ectopically expressing dominant-negative Orai1 accelerated TSC-related tumor development, likely because of restored AKT1 activity and enhanced tumor angiogenesis. Our data, therefore, suggest that mTORC1 enhancement of store-operated Ca2+ signaling hinders TSC-related tumor growth through suppression of AKT1 signaling. The augmented SOCE by hyperactive mTORC1-STIM1 cascade may contribute to the benign nature of TSC-related tumors. Application of SOCE agonists could thus be a contraindication for TSC patients. In contrast, SOCE agonists should attenuate mTOR inhibitors-mediated AKT reactivation and consequently potentiate their efficacy in the treatment of the patients with TSC.
TSC; mTORC1; STIM1; calcium; tumorigenesis
Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for type I diabetes mellitus, with both islet yield and islet size playing important roles in transplant outcomes. Some key factors influencing islet yield have been identified, but with conflicting results. In this study, we analyzed 276 islet isolations performed at a single center to identify variables that influence islet yield, and additionally, influence islet size and size distribution. Pearson correlation analyses demonstrated that donor BMI had a positive correlation with pancreas size, actual islet count (AIC), and islet equivalent (IEq)/g (all p ≤ 0.009), while CIT had a negative correlation with AIC and IEq/g (all p ≤ 0.003). However, neither BMI nor CIT had any correlation with islet size or islet size distribution. Donor age, sex, and organ preservation solutions were shown to have no correlation with islet yields and size distribution. Finding a balance between digestion time and digestion rate is important for islet yield and size distribution this is demonstrated when an isolation is overdigested (median split: >74%) there is an increase in islet counts, however there is also an increase in smaller islets produced. Of the three collagenases analyzed, Sigma V had the lowest digestion rate, (mean=65%), approximately 5% and 10% lower than Roche Liberase HI (p = 0.04) and Serva NB1(p = 0.0003), respectively; however the Sigma V group showed better islet size preservation than the other two enzymes. Yet, overall the enzymes resulted in similar IEq/g digested tissue. Among 276 isolations, 70.2% of the isolated islets were smaller than 150 μm, the average in situ size, and contributed only 20.4% to total IEq, while 7.4% of islets were larger than 250 μm, but contributed 42.4% to total IEq. In summary, BMI and CIT are the most useful donor variables for predicting islet yield, but selection of enzyme and balancing digestion time and digestion rate are also important for isolation success.
Pancreatic Islet of Langerhans; Islet Isolation; Human Islet Transplantation; AIC; IEq/g; Islet Size; and Size Distribution
The oxidation of PTH(1-34) catalyzed by ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is site-specific. The oxidation of PTH(1-34) is localized primarily to the residues Met and His. Beyond the transformation of Met and His into methionine sulfoxide and 2-oxo-histidine, respectively, we observed a hydrolytic cleavage between Met and His. This hydrolysis requires the presence of FeII and oxygen and can be prevented by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and phosphate buffer. Conditions leading to this site-specific hydrolysis also promote the transformation of Met into homocysteine, indicating that the hydrolysis and transformation of homocysteine may proceed through a common intermediate.
parathyroid hormone; alanine; methionine; homocysteine; methionine radical cation; Fenton reaction; hydrolysis; mass spectrometry
Characterizing time-evolution of allele frequencies in a population is a fundamental problem in population genetics. In the Wright-Fisher diffusion, such dynamics is captured by the transition density function, which satisfies well-known partial differential equations. For a multi-allelic model with general diploid selection, various theoretical results exist on representations of the transition density, but finding an explicit formula has remained a difficult problem. In this paper, a technique recently developed for a diallelic model is extended to find an explicit transition density for an arbitrary number of alleles, under a general diploid selection model with recurrent parent-independent mutation. Specifically, the method finds the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the generator associated with the multi-allelic diffusion, thus yielding an accurate spectral representation of the transition density. Furthermore, this approach allows for efficient, accurate computation of various other quantities of interest, including the normalizing constant of the stationary distribution and the rate of convergence to this distribution.
Simulation models designed to evaluate cancer prevention strategies make assumptions on background mortality–the competing risk of death from causes other than the cancer being studied. Researchers often use the U.S. lifetables and assume homogeneous other-cause mortality rates. However, this can lead to bias because common risk factors such as smoking and obesity also predispose individuals for deaths from other causes such as cardiovascular disease.
We obtained calendar year-, age- and sex-specific other-cause mortality rates by removing deaths due to a specific cancer from U.S. all-cause life tables. Prevalence across 12 risk factor groups (3 smoking (never, past, and current smoker) and 4 body mass index (BMI) categories (<25, 25-30, 30-35, 35+ kg/m2) were estimated from national surveys (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1971-2004). Using NHANES linked-mortality data, we estimated hazard ratios for death by BMI/smoking using a Poisson regression model. Finally, we combined these results to create 12 sets of BMI and smoking-specific other-cause life tables for U.S. adults aged 40 and older that can be used in simulation models of lung, colorectal, or breast cancer.
We found substantial differences in background mortality when accounting for BMI and smoking. Ignoring the heterogeneity in background mortality in cancer simulation models can lead to underestimation of competing risk of deaths for higher risk individuals (e.g. male, 60-year old, white obese smokers) by as high as 45%.
Not properly accounting for competing risks of death may introduce bias when using simulation modeling to evaluate population health strategies for prevention, screening, or treatment. Further research is warranted on how these biases may impact cancer screening strategies targeted to high-risk individuals.
Photoresists are light-sensitive resins used in a variety of technological applications. In most applications, however, photoresists are generally used as sacrificial layers or a structural layer that remains on the fabrication substrate. Thin layers of patterned 1002F photoresist were fabricated and released to form a freestanding film. Films of thickness in the range of 4.5–250 μm were patterned with through-holes to a resolution of 5 μm and an aspect ratio of up to 6:1. Photoresist films could be reliably released from the substrate after a 12-hour immersion in water. The Young’s modulus of a 50 μm-thick film was 1.43 ± 0.20 GPa. Use of the films as stencils for patterning sputtered metal onto a surface was demonstrated. These 1002F stencils were used multiple times without deterioration in feature quality. Furthermore, the films provided biocompatible, transparent surfaces of low autofluorescence on which cells could be grown. Culture of cells on a film with an isolated small pore enabled a single cell to be accessed through the underlying channel and loaded with exogenous molecules independently of nearby cells. Thus 1002F photoresist was patterned into thin, flexible, free-standing films that will have numerous applications in the biological and MEMS fields.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from almost all tissues and effectively expanded in vitro. Although their true in situ properties and biological functions remain to be elucidated, these in vitro expanded cells have been shown to possess potential to differentiate into specific cell lineages. It is speculated that MSCs in situ have important roles in tissue cellular homeostasis by replacing dead or dysfunctional cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that in vitro expanded MSCs of various origins have great capacity to modulate immune responses and change the progression of different inflammatory diseases. As tissue injuries are often accompanied by inflammation, inflammatory factors may provide cues to mobilize MSCs to tissue sites with damage. Before carrying out tissue repair functions, MSCs first prepare the microenvironment by modulating inflammatory processes and releasing various growth factors in response to the inflammation status. In this review, we focus on the crosstalk between MSCs and immune responses and their potential clinical applications, especially in inflammatory diseases.
mesenchymal stem cells; inflammatory diseases; immunoregulation; nitric oxide; indoleamine 2; 3-dioxygenase; engraftment
We report cadmium-free, biocompatible (Zn)CuInS2 quantum dots with long fluorescence lifetimes as superior bioimaging probes using time-gated detection to suppress cell autofluorescence and improve the signal:background ratio by an order of magnitude. These results will be important for developing non-toxic fluorescence imaging probes for ultrasensitive biomedical diagnostics.
Defect sinks, such as grain boundaries and phase boundaries, have been widely accepted to improve the irradiation resistance of metallic materials. However, free surface, an ideal defect sink, has received little attention in bulk materials as surface-to-volume ratio is typically low. Here by using in situ Kr ion irradiation technique in a transmission electron microscope, we show that nanoporous (NP) Ag has enhanced radiation tolerance. Besides direct evidence of free surface induced frequent removal of various types of defect clusters, we determined, for the first time, the global and instantaneous diffusivity of defect clusters in both coarse-grained (CG) and NP Ag. Opposite to conventional wisdom, both types of diffusivities are lower in NP Ag. Such a surprise is largely related to the reduced interaction energy between isolated defect clusters in NP Ag. Determination of kinetics of defect clusters is essential to understand and model their migration and clustering in irradiated materials.
Osteocytes; Bone; AFM; Nanomechanics
Obesity interventions can result in weight loss, but accurate prediction of the bodyweight time course requires properly accounting for dynamic energy imbalances. In this report, we describe a mathematical modelling approach to adult human metabolism that simulates energy expenditure adaptations during weight loss. We also present a web-based simulator for prediction of weight change dynamics. We show that the bodyweight response to a change of energy intake is slow, with half times of about 1 year. Furthermore, adults with greater adiposity have a larger expected weight loss for the same change of energy intake, and to reach their steady-state weight will take longer than it would for those with less initial body fat. Using a population-averaged model, we calculated the energy-balance dynamics corresponding to the development of the US adult obesity epidemic. A small persistent average daily energy imbalance gap between intake and expenditure of about 30 kJ per day underlies the observed average weight gain. However, energy intake must have risen to keep pace with increased expenditure associated with increased weight. The average increase of energy intake needed to sustain the increased weight (the maintenance energy gap) has amounted to about 0·9 MJ per day and quantifies the public health challenge to reverse the obesity epidemic.
Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium, is a commensal organism in human skin. Like human cells, the bacteria produce porphyrins, which exhibit fluorescence properties and make bacteria visible with a Wood’s lamp. In this review, we compare the porphyrin biosynthesis in humans and P. acnes. Also, since P. acnes living on the surface of skin receive the same radiation exposure as humans, we envision that the changes in porphyrin profiles (the absorption spectra and/or metabolism) of P. acnes by radiation may mirror the response of human cells to radiation. The porphyrin profiles of P. acnes may be a more accurate reflection of radiation risk to the patient than other biodosimeters/biomarkers such as gene up-/down-regulation, which may be non-specific due to patient related factors such as autoimmune diseases. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and possible solutions for using the P. acnes response to predict the radiation risk.
Biomarker; biosynthesis; commensal bacteria; cancer; gamma radiation; microbiome; P. acnes; porphyrins; radiation risk; skin
To demonstrate diffuse optical tomography (DOT) corrected fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) for quantitatively imaging tumor-targeted contrast agents in a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model.
In the first set of experiments, we validated our DOT corrected FMT method using subcutaneously injected 4T1 cells pre-labeled with a near-infrared (NIR) Cy 5.5 dye labeled recombinant amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of the receptor binding domain of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), which binds to uPA receptor (uPAR) that is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. Next, we apply the DOT corrected FMT method to quantitatively evaluate the ability of sensitive tumor imaging after systemic delivery of new uPAR-targeted optical imaging probes in the mice bearing 4T1 mammary tumors. These uPAR-targeted optical imaging probes are ATF peptides labeled with a newly developed NIR-830 dye being conjugated to magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs).
Our results have shown that DOT corrected FMT can accurately quantify and localize the injected imaging probe labeled 4T1 cells. Following systemic delivery of the targeted imaging nanoprobes into the mice bearing orthotopic mammary tumors, specific accumulation of the imaging probes in the orthotopic mammary tumors was detected in the mice that received uPAR targeted NIR-830-ATF-IONP probes but not in the mice injected with non-targeted NIR-830-mouse serum albumin (MSA)-IONPs. Additionally, DOT corrected FMT also enables the detection of both locally recurrent tumor and lung metastasis in the mammary tumor model 72 hrs after systemic administration of the uPAR-targeted NIR-830-labeled ATF peptide imaging probes.
DOT corrected FMT and uPAR-targeted optical imaging probes have great potential for detection of breast cancer, recurrent tumor and metastasis in small animals.
DOT fluorescence tomography targeted contrast agents
Interviewer observations made during the process of data collection are currently used to inform responsive design decisions, to expand the set of covariates for nonresponse adjustments, to explain participation in surveys, and to assess nonresponse bias. However, little effort has been made to assess the quality of such interviewer observations. Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighbourhood Survey (L.A.FANS), this paper examines measurement error properties of interviewer observations of neighbourhood characteristics. Block level and interviewer covariates are used in multilevel models to explain interviewer variation in the observations of neighbourhood features.
Complete removal of tumors by surgery is the most important prognostic factor for cancer patients with the early stage cancers. The ability to identify invasive tumor edges of the primary tumor, locally invaded small tumor lesions, and drug resistant residual tumors following neoadjuvant therapy during surgery should significantly reduce the incidence of local tumor recurrence and improve survival of cancer patients. In this study, we report that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) are the ligand/cell surface target pair for the development of targeted optical imaging probes for enhancing imaging contrasts in the tumor border. Recombinant peptides of the amino terminal fragment (ATF) of the receptor binding domain of uPA were labeled with near infrared fluorescence (NIR) dye molecules either as peptide-imaging or peptide-conjugated nanoparticle imaging probes. Systemic delivery of the uPAR-targeted imaging probes in mice bearing orthotopic human breast or pancreatic tumor xenografts or mouse mammary tumors led to the accumulation of the probes in the tumor and stromal cells, resulting in strong signals for optical imaging of tumors and identification of tumor margins. Histological analysis showed that a high level of uPAR-targeted nanoparticles was present in the tumor edge or active tumor stroma immediately adjacent to the tumor cells. Furthermore, following targeted therapy using uPAR-targeted theranostic nanoparticles, residual tumors were detectable by optical imaging through the imaging contrasts produced by NIR-dye-labeled theranostic nanoparticles in drug resistant tumor cells. Therefore, results of our study support the potential of the development of uPAR-targeted imaging and theranostic agents for image-guided surgery.
uPAR; optical imaging; theranostic nanoparticles; tumor margin; and image-guided surgery
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-tethered collagenase primarily involved in the mechanical destruction of extracellular matrix proteins. MT1-MMP has also been shown to be upregulated in several types of cancers. Many coordinated functions of MT1-MMP during migration and invasion remain to be determined. In this paper, live cells from the invasive cell line HT-1080 were imaged using an intracellular Förster resonance energy transfer-based biosensor specific for MT1-MMP; a substrate specific for MT1-MMP was hybridized with the mOrange2 and mCherry fluorescent proteins to form the Förster resonance energy transfer-based sensor. The configuration of the biosensor was determined with fluorescence lifetime-resolved imaging microscopy using both a polar plot-based analysis and a rapid data acquisition modality of fluorescence lifetime-resolved imaging microscopy known as phase suppression. Both configurations of the biosensor (with or without cleavage by MT1-MMP) were clearly resolvable in the same cell. Changes in the configuration of the MT1-MMP biosensor were observed primarily along the edge of the cell following the removal of the MMP inhibitor GM6001. The intensities highlighted by phase suppression correlated well with the fractional intensities derived from the polar plot.
Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM); fluorescent proteins; HT-1080 cells; membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP); phase suppression; polar plot
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.
We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model – CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10–20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.
Over the next decade, a 10–20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8–3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5–1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5–0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320–620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14–27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.
A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.