A cell-in-cell process refers to the invasion of one living cell into another homotypic or heterotypic cell. Different from non-apoptotic death processes of internalized cells termed entosis or cannibalism, we previously reported an apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurring during heterotypic cell-in-cell formation. In this study, we further demonstrated that the apoptotic cell-in-cell death occurred only in internalized immune killer cells expressing granzyme B (GzmB). Vacuole wrapping around the internalized cells inside the target cells was the common hallmark during the early stage of all cell-in-cell processes, which resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent mitochondrial injury of encapsulated killer or non-cytotoxic immune cells. However, internalized killer cells mediated rapid bubbling of the vacuoles with the subsequent degranulation of GzmB inside the vacuole of the target cells and underwent the reuptake of GzmB by killer cells themselves. The confinement of GzmB inside the vacuole surpassed the lysosome-mediated cell death occurring in heterotypic or homotypic entosis processes, resulting in a GzmB-triggered caspase-dependent apoptotic cell-in-cell death of internalized killer cells. On the contrary, internalized killer cells from GzmB-deficient mice underwent a typical non-apoptotic entotic cell-in-cell death similar to that of non-cytotoxic immune cells or tumor cells. Our results thus demonstrated the critical involvement of immune cells with cytotoxic property in apoptotic cell-in-cell death, which we termed as emperitosis taken from emperipolesis and apoptosis. Whereas entosis or cannibalism may serve as a feed-on mechanism to exacerbate and nourish tumor cells, emperitosis of immune killer cells inside tumor cells may serve as an in-cell danger sensation model to prevent the killing of target cells from inside, implying a unique mechanism for tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance.
apoptotic cell-in-cell death; emperitosis; immune cytotoxic cells; granzyme B; vacuole formation
Quercetin (Que), a plant-derived flavonoid, has multiple benefical actions on the
cardiovascular system. The current study investigated whether Que
postconditioning has any protective effects on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion
(I/R) injury in vivo and its potential cardioprotective
mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to 5 groups (20
animals/group): sham, I/R, Que postconditioning, Que+LY294002 [a
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor], and
LY294002+I/R. I/R was produced by 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 2-h
reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion, myocardial infarct size and biochemical
changes were compared. Apoptosis was evaluated by both TUNEL staining and
measurement of activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity. The phosphorylation of Akt
and protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax were determined by Western blotting. Que
postconditioning significantly reduced infarct size and serum levels of creatine
kinase and lactate dehydrogenase compared with the I/R group (all P<0.05).
Apoptotic cardiomyocytes and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were also suppressed in
the Que postconditioning group compared with the I/R group (both P<0.05). Akt
phosphorylation and Bcl-2 expression increased after Que postconditioning, but
Bax expression decreased. These effects were inhibited by LY294002. The data
indicate that Que postconditioning can induce cardioprotection by activating the
PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and modulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax
Ischemia and reperfusion; Quercetin; Postconditioning; PI3K/Akt
Most genetic variants identified for type 2 diabetes have been discovered in European populations. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in a Chinese population with the aim of identifying novel variants for type 2 diabetes in Asians.
We performed a meta-analysis of three GWAS comprising 684 patients with type 2 diabetes and 955 controls of Southern Han Chinese descent. We followed up the top signals in two independent Southern Han Chinese cohorts (totalling 10,383 cases and 6,974 controls), and performed in silico replication in multiple populations.
We identified CDKN2A/B and four novel type 2 diabetes association signals with p < 1 × 10−5 from the meta-analysis. Thirteen variants within these four loci were followed up in two independent Chinese cohorts, and rs10229583 at 7q32 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in a combined analysis of 11,067 cases and 7,929 controls (pmeta = 2.6 × 10−8; OR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.25]). In silico replication revealed consistent associations across multiethnic groups, including five East Asian populations (pmeta = 2.3 × 10−10) and a population of European descent (p = 8.6 × 10−3). The rs10229583 risk variant was associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose, impaired beta cell function in controls, and an earlier age at diagnosis for the cases. The novel variant lies within an islet-selective cluster of open regulatory elements. There was significant heterogeneity of effect between Han Chinese and individuals of European descent, Malaysians and Indians.
Our study identifies rs10229583 near PAX4 as a novel locus for type 2 diabetes in Chinese and other populations and provides new insights into the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00125-013-2874-4) contains peer-reviewed but unedited supplementary material, which is available to authorised users.
Chinese; Diabetes; East Asians; Genetics; Genome-wide association study
Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species, which can contaminate food and feed. These compounds elicit a wide spectrum of toxic effects, including the capacity to alter normal immune function. In this study, the in vitro effects of the treatment of ConA-stimulated splenic lymphocytes with ZEN (0–25 μg/mL) were examined. ZEN modulates the expression of IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ. The IL-2 levels were up to fourfold higher (P < 0.05) compared with the levels in the control at toxin concentrations of 25 μg/mL after 48 h of treatment. The IL-6 levels were critically suppressed at this concentration; these changes were very statistically significant (P < 0.05). At lower ZEN concentrations (0.1, 0.4 and 1.6 μg/mL), the IFN-γ levels changed slightly; however at 6.25 and 25 μg/mL, the IFN-γ results reached statistical significance compared with the control levels (P < 0.05). These data suggest that ZEN has potent effects on the expression of chicken splenic lymphocytes cytokines at the mRNA level.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful new technique that allows numerical chromosome aberrations (aneuploidy) to be detected in interphase cells. In previous studies, FISH has been used to demonstrate that the benzene metabolites hydroquinone and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induce aneuploidy of chromosomes 7 and 9 in cultures of human cells. In the present study, we used an interphase FISH procedure to perform cytogenetic analyses on the blood cells of 43 workers exposed to benzene (median = 31 ppm, 8-hr time-weighted average) and 44 matched controls from Shanghai, China. High benzene exposure (> 31 ppm, n = 22) increased the hyperdiploid frequency of chromosome 9 (p < 0.01), but lower exposure (< or = 31 ppm, n = 21) did not. Trisomy 9 was the major form of benzene-induced hyperdiploidy. The level of hyperploidy in exposed workers correlated with their urinary phenol level (r = 0.58, p < 0.0001), a measure of internal benzene dose. A significant correlation was also found between hyperdiploidy and decreased absolute lymphocyte count, an indicator of benzene hematotoxicity, in the exposed group (r = -0.44, p = 0.003) but not in controls (r = -0.09, p = 0.58). These results show that high benzene exposure induces aneuploidy of chromosome 9 in nondiseased individuals, with trisomy being the most prevalent form. They further highlight the usefulness of interphase cytogenetics and FISH for the rapid and sensitive detection of aneuploidy in exposed human populations.
OBJECTIVES--Several studies have suggested that genetic predisposition to rheumatoid arthritis may be related to the presence of specific polymorphic HLA sequences that are often associated with HLA-DR4 haplotypes. This study was performed to determine if an association exists between Chinese with rheumatoid arthritis and a particular HLA-DR beta or DQ beta subtype. METHODS--This study used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify HLA-DR beta and DQ beta genes, and oligonucleotide probe hybridisation to examine the association of certain polymorphic sequences with rheumatoid arthritis in 23 Chinese patients from Shanghai. RESULTS--An HLA-DR4 associated sequence was significantly increased in the Chinese patients (43%) compared with healthy controls (14%) from the same location (relative risk = 4.6, 95% confidence limits 1.1 to 19.3). Analysis of the third hyperpolymorphic region of DR4 positive samples was performed to detect polymorphic sequences associated with Dw4, Dw10, Dw13, Dw14, Dw15, and KT2 cellular specificities. Examination of this region showed that 91% of patients had sequences encoding amino acids QRRAA (associated with Dw14 and Dw15) or QKRAA (associated with Dw4) compared with 64% of the DR4 positive controls. CONCLUSIONS--Rheumatoid arthritis in the Chinese is associated with HLA-DR4. There is a possible relationship between sequences within the third hyperpolymorphic region of the DRB allele and rheumatoid arthritis in the Chinese.
Blood glucose excursion is an important component of the glycaemic burden, but there are no indexes that can directly reflect them. The aim was to evaluate the values and significance of serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China and to elucidate the relationship between 1,5-AG and traditional indexes of glycaemic excursions by continuous glucose monitoring.
A total of 576 healthy adults and 292 patients were included, and their 1,5-AG, fasting blood glucose and postprandial blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin were measured. For the 34 patients, their mean blood glucose, standard deviation of blood glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursion, mean of daily differences, low blood glucose M-value index and the area under the curve for blood glucose above 180 mg/dL were calculated by use of a continuous glucose monitoring system.
Serum levels of 1,5-AG among healthy adults were 28.44 ± 8.76 µg/mL with a significant gender bias rather than age bias. The 1,5-AG levels in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus were 4.57 ± 3.71 µg/mL, which were lower than those seen in the healthy adults. There was a correlation between 1,5-AG and glycated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose, and postprandial blood glucose (r = −0.251, −0.195 and −0.349, respectively; all had p < 0.05). The continuous glucose monitoring system demonstrated that 1,5-AG presents a negative correlation with mean blood glucose, standard deviation of blood glucose, mean amplitude of glucose excursion and mean of daily differences for 7 days and with the area under the curve for blood glucose above 180 mg/dL on the third, fourth and seventh days.
1,5-AG may serve as a marker of hyperglycaemia and 7-day hyperglycaemic excursions as well as being a useful adjunct to glycated haemoglobin for blood glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
1,5-anhydroglucitol; type 2 diabetes mellitus; hyperglycaemic excursions
Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.
We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model – CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10–20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.
Over the next decade, a 10–20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8–3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5–1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5–0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320–620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14–27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.
A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.
Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α)-induced proliferation and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-mediated quiescence are intricately balanced in normal lung-tissue homeostasis but are deregulated during neoplastic progression of lung cancer. Here, we show that Cbp/p300-interacting transactivator with Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain 2 (CITED2), a novel MYC-interacting transcriptional modulator, responds to TGF-α induction and TGF-β suppression to orchestrate cellular proliferation and quiescence, respectively. Upon TGF-α induction, CITED2 was induced by MYC and further modulated MYC-mediated transcription in a feed-forward manner. CITED2 recruited p300 to promote MYC-p300-mediated transactivation of E2F3, leading to increased G1/S cell cycle progression. Moreover, CITED2 inhibited cellular quiescence by enhancing MYC-mediated suppression of p21CIP1. CITED2 interacted with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and potentiated MYC–HDAC1 complex formation. TGF-β stimulation provoked downregulation of CITED2, which abrogated MYC-HDAC1-mediated p21CIP1 suppression, causing cellular quiescence. Ectopic CITED2 expression enhanced tumor growth in nude mice; furthermore, CITED2 knockdown caused tumor shrinkage and increased overall host mouse survival rates. Expression of CITED2/MYC/E2F3/p21CIP1 signaling molecules was associated with poor prognosis of lung cancer patients. Thus, CITED2 functions as a molecular switch of TGF-α and TGF-β-induced growth control, and MYC-CITED2 signaling axis provides a new index for predicting clinical outcome.
CITED2; MYC; cytokine; transcriptional modulator; lung cancer
Atlantis II and Discovery are two hydrothermal and hypersaline deep-sea pools in the Red Sea rift that are characterized by strong thermohalo-stratification and temperatures steadily peaking near the bottom. We conducted comprehensive vertical profiling of the microbial populations in both pools and highlighted the influential environmental factors. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes revealed shifts in community structures vis-à-vis depth. High diversity and low abundance were features of the deepest convective layers despite the low cell density. Surprisingly, the brine interfaces had significantly higher cell counts than the overlying deep-sea water, yet they were lowest in diversity. Vertical stratification of the bacterial populations was apparent as we moved from the Alphaproteobacteria-dominated deep sea to the Planctomycetaceae- or Deferribacteres-dominated interfaces to the Gammaproteobacteria-dominated brine layers. Archaeal marine group I was dominant in the deep-sea water and interfaces, while several euryarchaeotic groups increased in the brine. Across sites, microbial phylotypes and abundances varied substantially in the brine interface of Discovery compared with Atlantis II, despite the near-identical populations in the overlying deep-sea waters. The lowest convective layers harbored interestingly similar microbial communities, even though temperature and heavy metal concentrations were very different. Multivariate analysis indicated that temperature and salinity were the major influences shaping the communities. The harsh conditions and the low-abundance phylotypes could explain the observed correlation in the brine pools.
The mortality rate of older patients with intertrochanteric fractures has been
increasing with the aging of populations in China. The purpose of this study was: 1)
to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) using clinical information to predict
the 1-year mortality of elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures, and 2) to
compare the ANN's predictive ability with that of logistic regression models. The ANN
model was tested against actual outcomes of an intertrochanteric femoral fracture
database in China. The ANN model was generated with eight clinical inputs and a
single output. ANN's performance was compared with a logistic regression model
created with the same inputs in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and
discriminability. The study population was composed of 2150 patients (679 males and
1471 females): 1432 in the training group and 718 new patients in the testing group.
The ANN model that had eight neurons in the hidden layer had the highest accuracies
among the four ANN models: 92.46 and 85.79% in both training and testing datasets,
respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of the
automatically selected ANN model for both datasets were 0.901 (95%CI=0.814-0.988) and
0.869 (95%CI=0.748-0.990), higher than the 0.745 (95%CI=0.612-0.879) and 0.728
(95%CI=0.595-0.862) of the logistic regression model. The ANN model can be used for
predicting 1-year mortality in elderly patients with intertrochanteric fractures. It
outperformed a logistic regression on multiple performance measures when given the
Artificial neural network; Intertrochanteric fracture; Outcome prediction; One-year mortality
We investigated the presence and alteration of lymphatic vessels in joints of arthritic mice using a whole-slide imaging system. Joints and long bone sections were cut from paraffin blocks of two mouse models of arthritis: meniscal-ligamentous injury (MLI)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) and TNF transgene (TNF-Tg)-induced rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MLI-OA mice were fed a high fat diet to accelerate OA development. TNF-Tg mice were treated with lymphatic growth factor VEGF-C virus to stimulate lymphangiogenesis. Sections were double immunofluorescence stained with anti-podoplanin and alpha-smooth muscle action. The area and number of lymphatic capillaries and mature lymphatic vessels were determined using a whole-slide imaging system and its associated software. Lymphatic vessels in joints were distributed in soft tissues mainly around the joint capsule, ligaments, fat pads and muscles. In long bones, enriched lymphatic vessels were present in the periosteal areas adjacent to the blood vessels. Occasionally, lymphatic vessels were observed in the cortical bone. Increased lymphatic capillaries, but decreased mature lymphatic vessels, were detected in both OA and RA joints. VEGF-C treatment increased lymphatic capillary and mature vessel formation in RA joints. We demonstrated decreased mature lymphatic vessels in the joints of mouse models of severe OA and RA. VEGF-C treatment increased the lymphatic vessel number and area in RA joints. Our findings suggest that the lymphatic system may play an important role in arthritis pathogenesis and treatment.
lymphatic vessels; mouse models; osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; VEGF-C; whole-slide imaging
The failure of adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increasingly considered as an important factor in the pathological correlates for memory decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Loss of adult-born neurons and abnormalities of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) within the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult hippocampus might contribute to this process. In this study, we showed that amyloid-β1–42 (Aβ42) oligomer triggers senescent phenotype of NSPCs in vitro. Oligomerized Aβ42 induced the production of senescence-associated biomarkers p16 and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) in adult mouse hippocampal NSPCs, as well as inhibited cells proliferation and differentiation. In the DG of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice, the number of senescent NSPCs was significantly increased and senescence-associated protein p16 was upregulated. Formylpeptide receptor 2 (FPR2), one of Aβ42 functional receptors, may be involved in NSPCs senescence. The FPR2 antagonist WRW4 significantly inhibited NSPCs senescence induced by Aβ42. In addition, the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was involved in NSPCs senescence induced by Aβ42. WRW4 inhibited the accumulation of ROS and the activation of p38 MAPK in NSPCs. Our data suggest that Aβ42 accelerates NSPCs senescence via FPR2-dependent activation of its downstream ROS-p38 MAPK signaling, which limits the function of NSPCs and contributes to failure of neurogenesis. This is the first demonstration of NSPCs senescence response to Aβ42.
Aβ42; adult hippocampal neural stem/progenitor cells; senescence; FPR2; ROS; p38 MAPK
Natural killer (NK) cells are important in host to eliminate circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in turn preventing the development of tumour cells into metastasis but the mechanisms are very poorly defined. Here we find that the expression level of miR-296-3p is much lower in the non-metastatic human prostate cancer (PCa) cell line P69 than that in the highly metastatic cell line M12, which is derived from P69. We demonstrate that miR-296-3p directly targets and inhibits the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in the malignant M12. The data from clinical tissue microarrays also show that miR-296-3p is frequently upregulated and ICAM-1 is reversely downregulated in PCa. Interestingly, ectopic expression of miR-296-3p in P69 increases the tolerance to NK cells whereas knockdown of miR-296-3p in M12 reduces the resistance to NK cells, which both phenotypes can be rescued by re-expression or silencing of ICAM-1 in P69 and M12, respectively. These results are also manifested in vivo by the decrease in the incidence of pulmonary tumour metastasis exhibited by knockdown of miR-296-3p in M12 when injected into athymic nude mice via tail vein, and consistently down-expression of ICAM-1 reverses this to increase extravasation of CTCs into lungs. Above results suggest that this newly identified miR-296-3p-ICAM-1 axis has a pivotal role in mediating PCa metastasis by possible enhancing survival of NK cell-resistant CTC. Our findings provide novel potential targets for PCa therapy and prognosis.
NK cells; ICAM-1; prostate cancer; miR-296-3p; metastasis
Pancreatic cancer is a multiple genetic disorder with many mutations identified during the progression. Two mouse pancreatic cancer cell lines were established which showed different phenotype in vivo: a non-metastatic cell line, Panc02, and a highly metastatic cell line, Panc02-H7, a derivative of Panc02. In order to investigate whether the genetic mutations of key genes in pancreatic cancer such as KRAS, TP53 (p53), CDKN2A (p16), SMAD4, ZIP4, and PDX-1 contribute to the phenotypic difference of these two mouse pancreatic cancer cells, we sequenced the exonic regions of these key genes in both cell lines and in the normal syngeneic mouse pancreas and compared them with the reference mouse genome sequence. The exons of KRAS, SMAD4, CDKN2A (p16), TP53 (p53), ZIP4, and PDX-1 genes were amplified and the genotype of these genes was determined by Sanger sequencing. The sequences were analyzed with Sequencher software. A mutation in SMAD4 was identified in both cell lines. This homozygote G to T mutation in the first position of codon 174 (GAA) generated a stop codon resulting in the translation of a truncated protein. Further functional analysis indicates that different TGF-β/SMAD signaling pathways were involved in those two mouse cell lines, which may explain the phonotypic difference between the two cells. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in KRAS gene (TAT to TAC at codon 32) was also identified in the normal pancreas DNA of the syngenic mouse and in both derived tumoral Panc02 and Panc02-H7 cells. No mutation or SNP was found in CDKN2A (p16), TP53 (p53), ZIP4, and PDX-1 genes in these two cell lines. The absence of mutations in genes such as KRAS, TP53, and CDKN2A, which are considered as key genes in the development of human pancreatic cancer suggests that SMAD4 might play a central and decisive role in mouse pancreatic cancer. These results also suggest that other mechanisms are involved in the substantial phenotypic difference between these two mouse pancreatic cancer cell lines. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the molecular pathways that lead to the aggressive metastatic potential of Panc02-H7.
CDKN2A (p16); genomic sequence; KRAS; mouse pancreatic cancer; PDX-1; SMAD4; TP53 (p53); ZIP4
Biofouling and tissue inflammation present major challenges toward the realization of long-term implantable glucose sensors. Following sensor implantation, proteins and cells adsorb on sensor surfaces to not only inhibit glucose flux but also signal a cascade of inflammatory events that eventually lead to permeability-reducing fibrotic encapsulation. The use of drug-eluting hydrogels as outer sensor coatings has shown considerable promise to mitigate these problems via the localized delivery of tissue response modifiers to suppress inflammation and fibrosis, along with reducing protein and cell absorption. Biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres encapsulated within a poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel matrix, presents a model coating where the localized delivery of the potent anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone has been shown to suppress inflammation over a period of 1-3 months. Here it is shown that the degradation of the PLGA microspheres provides an auxiliary venue to offset the negative effects of protein adsorption. This was realized by: 1) the creation of fresh porosity within the PVA hydrogel following microsphere degradation (which is sustained until the complete microsphere degradation); and 2) rigidification of the PVA hydrogel to prevent its complete collapse onto the newly created void space. Incubation of the coated sensors in PBS buffer led to a monotonic increase in glucose permeability (50%), with a corresponding enhancement in sensor sensitivity over a one-month period. Incubation in serum resulted in biofouling and consequent clogging of the hydrogel microporosity. This however, was partially offset by the generated macroscopic porosity following microsphere degradation. As a result of this, a two-fold recovery in sensor sensitivity for devices with microsphere/hydrogel composite coatings was observed as opposed to similar devices with blank hydrogel coatings. These findings suggest that the use of macroscopic porosity can reduce sensitivity drifts resulting from biofouling and this can be achieved synergistically with current efforts to mitigate negative tissue responses through localized and sustained drug delivery.
Tissue-specific amplification of glucocorticoid action through 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) affects the development of the metabolic syndrome. Hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) mediates intracellular NADPH availability for 11β-HSD1 and depends on the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT). Little is known about the tissue-specific alterations of H6PDH and G6PT and their contributions to local glucocorticoid action in db/db mice.
We characterised the role of H6PDH and G6PT in pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoids by examining the production of the hepatic 11β-HSD1-H6PDH–G6PT system in db/db mice.
We observed that increased production of hepatic H6PDH in db/db mice was paralleled by upregulation of hepatic G6PT production and responded to elevated circulating levels of corticosterone. Treatment of db/db mice with the glucocorticoid antagonist RU486 markedly reduced production of both H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 and improved hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. The reduction of H6PDH and 11β-HSD1 production by RU486 was accompanied by RU486-induced suppression of hepatic G6pt (also known as Slc37a4) mRNA. Incubation of mouse primary hepatocytes with corticosterone enhanced G6PT and H6PDH production with corresponding activation of 11β-HSD1 and PEPCK: effects that were blocked by RU486. Knockdown of H6pd by small interfering RNA showed effects comparable with those of RU486 for attenuating the corticosterone-induced H6PDH production and 11β-HSD1 reductase activity in these intact cells. Addition of the G6PT inhibitor chlorogenic acid to primary hepatocytes suppressed H6PDH production.
These findings suggest that increased hepatic H6PDH and G6PT production contribute to 11β-HSD1 upregulation of local glucocorticoid action that may be related to the development of type 2 diabetes.
11β-HSD1; G6PT; G6PT inhibitor; H6PDH; H6PDH siRNA; Insulin resistance; NADPH; Type 2 diabetes
Piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from the plant species Piper longum L., can selectively induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells by targeting the stress response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we show that PL induces cell death in the presence of benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartic acid (O-methyl)-fluoro-methylketone (zVAD-fmk), a pan-apoptotic inhibitor, and in the presence of necrostatin-1, a necrotic inhibitor. Instead PL-induced cell death can be suppressed by 3-methyladenine, an autophagy inhibitor, and substantially attenuated in cells lacking the autophagy-related 5 (Atg5) gene. We further show that PL enhances autophagy activity without blocking autophagy flux. Application of N-acetyl-cysteine, an antioxidant, markedly reduces PL-induced autophagy and cell death, suggesting an essential role for intracellular ROS in PL-induced autophagy. Furthermore, PL stimulates the activation of p38 protein kinase through ROS-induced stress response and p38 signaling is necessary for the action of PL as SB203580, a p38 inhibitor, or dominant-negative p38 can effectively reduce PL-mediated autophagy. Thus, we have characterized a new mechanism for PL-induced cell death through the ROS-p38 pathway. Our findings support the therapeutic potential of PL by triggering autophagic cell death.
piperlongumine; autophagy; p38; reactive oxygen species
To obtain positive contrast based on T1 weighting from magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP) using ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging and investigate quantitative relationship between positive contrast and the core size and concentration of IONPs.
Materials and Methods
Solutions of IONPs with different core sizes and concentrations were prepared. T1 and T2 relaxation times of IONPs were measured using the inversion recovery turbo spin echo (TSE) and multi-echo spin echo sequences at 3 Tesla. T1-weighted UTE gradient echo and T2-weighted TSE sequences were used to image IONP samples. U87MG glioblastoma cells bound with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide and IONP conjugates were scanned using UTE, T1 and T2-weighted sequences.
Positive contrast was obtained by UTE imaging from IONPs with different core sizes and concentrations. The relative-contrast-to-water ratio of UTE images was three to four times higher than those of T2-weighted TSE images. The signal intensity increases as the function of the core size and concentration. Positive contrast was also evident in cell samples bound with RGD-IONPs.
UTE imaging allows for imaging of IONPs and IONP bound tumor cells with positive contrast and provides contrast enhancement and potential quantification of IONPs in molecular imaging applications.
magnetic nanoparticle; magnetic resonance imaging; iron oxide; ultrashort TE; molecular Imaging
Nucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (NTP-PPase) functions as one of the mechanisms to guarantee the fidelity of DNA replication through the cleavage of non-canonical nucleotides into di- or monophosphates. Human NTP-PPase is poorly understood and investigated. In the present study, by using tissue microarrays with the paired cancer and adjacent regions, we found that with the prevalent expression of dCTP pyrophosphohydrase (DCTPP1) in the cytosol and nucleus in tumors investigated, DCTPP1 was inclined to accumulate in the nucleus of cancer cells compared to the paired adjacent tissue cells in multiple carcinomas including lung, breast, liver, cervical, gastric and esophagus cancer. More significantly, the higher DCTPP1 expression in the nucleus of lung, gastric and esophagus cancer cells was associated with histological subtypes. The nucleic accumulation of DCTPP1 was apparently observed as well when tumor cell line MCF-7 was treated with H2O2
in vitro. Considering the roles of DCTPP1 on restricting the concentration of non-canonical nucleotides in the nucleotide pool, accumulation of DCTPP1 in the nucleus of tumor cells might suffice for maintaining the proper DNA replication in order to fulfill the requirement for the survival and proliferation of tumor cells.
dCTP pyrophosphohydrase; carcinomas; nucleic accumulation; immunohistochemistry; tissue microarrays
OPRM1 A118G is a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the coding region of the human mu opioid receptor (MOPR) gene OPRM1. This SNP is associated with higher morphine doses required for postoperative analgesia as well as a variety of drug addiction phenotypes. A mouse model possessing the equivalent substitution (A112G) in the Oprm1 gene was generated to facilitate mechanistic studies. Mice homozygous for the G112 allele (G/G) displayed lower antinociception to morphine compared with those homozygous for A112 allele (A/A), similar to humans, suggesting that the mice are a good model to further characterize underlying factors contributing to phenotypes associated with this SNP. Here, we compared [3H]DAMGO binding to the MOPR in the brains of A/A and G/G mice using quantitative in vitro autoradiography. A/A mice exhibited higher [3H]DAMGO binding than G/G in the cingulate, motor, and insular cortices, nucleus accumbens core and shell, hypothalamus, thalamus, amygdala, periaqueductal gray, superficial gray of superior colliculus, and ventral tegmental area. No genotype differences were observed in somatosensory cortex, caudate putamen, and hippocampus. When males and females were examined separately, A/A mice showed higher [3H]DAMGO binding than G/G mice in more brain regions in males than in females. Radioligand binding using brain membranes also showed higher [3H]DAMGO binding in the cortex and thalamus in A/A mice than G/G mice but no genotype differences in the caudate putamen or hippocampus. Thus, the A112G SNP is associated with reduced MOPR expression in some, but not all, brain regions, and appears to have some sex differences. The elevated MOPR expression in periaqueductal gray and thalamus in A/A mice are consistent with their higher antinociceptive responses to morphine. The higher MOPR levels in nucleus accumbens and/or ventral tegmental area of A/A mice is consistent with the higher morphine-induced hyperactivity and locomotor sensitization observed in these mice. Thus, these results provide some insights into the observed decreased clinical opioid potency in humans with the A118G SNP.
A118G; knock-in mouse; mu opioid receptor; N-glycosylation; autoradiography
The gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is a rapidly renewing tissue in which apoptosis represents part of the overall homeostatic process. Regulation of apoptosis in the GI epithelium is complex with a precise relationship between cell position and apoptosis. Apoptosis occurs spontaneously and in response to radiation and cytotoxic drugs at the base of the crypts. By contrast, the villus epithelial cells are extremely resistant to apoptosis. The molecular mechanism underlying this loss of function of villus epithelial cells to undergo apoptosis shortly after their exit from the crypt is unknown. In this study we demonstrate for the first time, that deletion of two homologous actin-binding proteins, villin and gelsolin renders villus epithelial cells extremely sensitive to apoptosis. Ultrastructural analysis of the villin-gelsolin−/− double-knockout mice shows an abnormal accumulation of damaged mitochondria demonstrating that villin and gelsolin function on an early step in the apoptotic signaling at the level of the mitochondria. A characterization of functional and ligand-binding mutants demonstrate that regulated changes in actin dynamics determined by the actin severing activities of villin and gelsolin are required to maintain cellular homeostasis. Our study provides a molecular basis for the regulation of apoptosis in the GI epithelium and identifies cell biological mechanisms that couple changes in actin dynamics to apoptotic cell death.
villin; gelsolin; severing; apoptosis; intestine
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of monochrome liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with different resolutions on observer performance during detection of small solitary pulmonary nodules.
Chest images of digital radiography were selected online from the hospital's picture archiving and communication system. Of the 164 images selected, small solitary non-calcified pulmonary nodules were present in 63 images and absent in 101 images. Observer performance was assessed among 3 extremely experienced, 3 very experienced and 3 moderately experienced radiologists, who independently interpreted these images on 2, 3 and 5 megapixel greyscale LCDs. A five-point confidence level rating scale was used to represent the presence of nodules: definite absence, probable absence, indetermination, probable presence and definite presence. The observers were requested to rank each image on the given display according to the presence of the pulmonary nodule. Observer performance was analysed in terms of receiver operating characteristics (ROCs).
The areas under the ROC curves which represented the observer performance for the 2, 3 and 5 megapixel LCDs were found to be 0.705, 0.722 and 0.764, respectively, for the extremely experienced radiologists; 0.687, 0.712 and 0.721, respectively, for the very experienced radiologists; and 0.689, 0.696 and 0.711, respectively, for the moderately experienced radiologists. These differences were not statistically significant.
The observer performances for detection of small solitary non-calcified pulmonary nodules by radiologists with varying degrees of experience were comparable between the 2, 3 and 5 megapixel monochrome LCDs.
The aim of this study was to explore the technical feasibility of T1ρ MRI for the liver, and to determine the normal range of liver T1ρ in healthy subjects at clinical 3 T.
There were 15 healthy volunteers. Three representative axial slices were selected to cut through the upper, middle and lower liver. A rotary echo spin-lock pulse was implemented in a two-dimensional fast-field echo sequence. Spin-lock frequency was 500 Hz, and the spin-lock times of 1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ms were used for T1ρ mapping. The images were acquired slice by slice during breath-holding. Regions of interest (ROIs; n=5) were manually placed on each slice of the liver parenchyma region, excluding artefacts and vessels. The mean value of these ROIs (n=15) was regarded as the liver T1ρ value for the subject. Six subjects were scanned once at fasting status; six subjects were scanned once 2 h post meal; three subjects were scanned twice at fasting status; and seven subjects were scanned twice 2 h post meal.
When two readers measured the same 10 data sets, the interreader reproducibility (ICC: intraclass correlation coefficient) was 0.955. With the 10 subjects scanned twice, the ICC for scan–rescan reproducibility was 0.764. There was no significant difference for the liver T1ρ value at the fasting status (43.08±1.41 ms) and post-meal status (42.97±2.38 ms, p=0.867). Pooling together all the 32 scans in this study, the normal liver T1ρ value ranged from 38.6 to 48.3 ms (mean 43.0 ms, median 42.6 ms).
It is feasible to obtain consistent liver T1ρ measurement for human subjects at 3 T.