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1.  Pancreatitis in hand-foot-and-mouth disease caused by enterovirus 71 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(6):2149-2152.
Some viruses, including certain members of the enterovirus genus, have been reported to cause pancreatitis, especially Coxsackie virus. However, no case of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) associated with pancreatitis has been reported so far. We here report a case of EV71-induced hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) presenting with pancreatitis in a 2-year-old girl. This is the first report of a patient with acute pancreatitis in HFMD caused by EV71. We treated the patient conservatively with nasogastric suction, intravenous fluid and antivirals. The patient’s symptoms improved after 8 d, and recovered without complications. We conclude that EV71 can cause acute pancreatitis in HFMD, which should be considered in differential diagnosis, especially in cases of idiopathic pancreatitis.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i6.2149
PMCID: PMC4726688  PMID: 26877620
Pancreatitis; Enterovirus 71; Hand, foot and mouth disease
2.  Two Pear Glutathione S-Transferases Genes Are Regulated during Fruit Development and Involved in Response to Salicylic Acid, Auxin, and Glucose Signaling 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89926.
Two genes encoding putative glutathione S-transferase proteins were isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated PpGST1 and PpGST2. The deduced PpGST1 and PpGST2 proteins contain conserved Glutathione S-transferase N-terminal domain (GST_N) and Glutathione S-transferase, C-terminal domain (GST_C). Using PCR amplification technique, the genomic clones corresponding to PpGST1 and PpGST2 were isolated and shown to contain two introns and a singal intron respectively with typical GT/AG boundaries defining the splice junctions. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that PpGST1 belonged to Phi class of GST superfamilies and had high homology with apple MdGST, while PpGST2 was classified into the Tau class of GST superfamilies. The expression of PpGST1 and PpGST2 genes was developmentally regulated in fruit. Further study demonstrated that PpGST1 and PpGST2 expression was remarkably induced by glucose, salicylic acid (SA) and indole-3-aceticacid (IAA) treatments in pear fruit, and in diseased fruit. These data suggested that PpGST1 and PpGST2 might be involved in response to sugar, SA, and IAA signaling during fruit development of pear.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089926
PMCID: PMC3934943  PMID: 24587129
3.  Mathematical models for the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways and the crosstalk between them during somitogenesis 
Background
Somitogenesis is a fundamental characteristic feature of development in various animal embryos. Molecular evidence has proved that the Notch and Wnt pathways play important roles in regulating the process of somitogenesis and there is crosstalk between these two pathways. However, it is difficult to investigate the detailed mechanism of these two pathways and their interactions in somitogenesis through biological experiments. In recent years some mathematical models have been proposed for the purpose of studying the dynamics of the Notch and Wnt pathways in somitogenesis. Unfortunately, only a few of these models have explored the interactions between them.
Results
In this study, we have proposed three mathematical models for the Notch signalling pathway alone, the Wnt signalling pathway alone, and the interactions between them. These models can simulate the dynamics of the Notch and Wnt pathways in somitogenesis, and are capable of reproducing the observations derived from wet experiments. They were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the Notch and Wnt pathways and their crosstalk in somitogenesis through the model simulations.
Conclusions
Three mathematical models are proposed for the Notch and Wnt pathways and their interaction during somitogenesis. The simulations demonstrate that the extracellular Notch and Wnt signals are essential for the oscillating expressions of both Notch and Wnt target genes. Moreover, the internal negative feedback loops and the three levels of crosstalk between these pathways play important but distinct roles in maintaining the system oscillation. In addition, the results of the parameter sensitivity analysis of the models indicate that the Notch pathway is more sensitive to perturbation in somitogenesis.
doi:10.1186/1742-4682-10-27
PMCID: PMC3648501  PMID: 23602012
4.  Glucocorticoid receptor expression on acute lung injury induced by endotoxin in rats 
BACKGROUND:
In cases of severe sepsis and septic shock, a series of pathophysiological changes lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the expression of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the rat lung following endotoxin (LPS) induced shock.
METHODS:
Totally 56 SD rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: LPS shock group (n=16), LPS+vasoactive intestinal peptide group(VIP) group, (n=16), LPS+VIP+ glucocorticoid (GC) group, (n=16),and control group (n=8). LPS shock was induced by intravenous injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) in rats. Within 15 minutes after LPS injection, rats in the treatment groups received VIP (5 nmol/kg) or VIP and methylprednisolone (3 mg/kg). The control group was given normal saline instead of LPS. The rats of the four groups were sacrificed at 6 hours,24 hours after injection respectively, and the lung tissues were collected. Pathological changes of the lungs were examined by light microscopy and electron microscopy. GRmRNA expression in the lung tissues was evaluated by RT-PCR.
RESULTS:
In the LPS shock group, lung histopathology demonstrated destruction of the alveolar space,widening of the inter-alveolar space, inflammatory cell infiltration and interstitial edema. However,pathological changes in the LPS+ VIP group and LPS+ VIP+GC group were milder than those in the LPS shock group. Six hours after LPS injection, GR mRNA expression was down-regulated in the LPS group (0.72± 0.24) and LPS+ VIP group (0.88±0.27) (P<0.05) as compared with the control group (1.17±0.22). The LPS shock group showed a more significant down-regualtion than the LPS+VIP group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). In contrast, GRmRNA expression in the LPS+ VIP+GC group was significantly up-regulated at 6 hours and further at 24 hours (1.45±0.32 and 1.91±0.46 respectively) (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION:
GrmRNA expression decreased in LPS induced lung injury in rats. Combined treatment with VIP and GC mitigated lung injury ang inflammation. The mechanism may be related to up-regulation of GR mRNA expression.
PMCID: PMC4129762  PMID: 25214944
Glucocorticoid; GRmRNA; Vasoactive intestinal peptide; LPS; Shock; Inflammation; Lung injury; Rat
5.  Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination 
Journal of Virology  2015;89(20):10532-10547.
ABSTRACT
Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS-CoV ORF8 originated from SARSr-CoVs of greater horseshoe bats through recombination, which may be important for animal-to-human transmission.
IMPORTANCE Although horseshoe bats are the primary reservoir of SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), it is still unclear how these bat viruses have evolved to cross the species barrier to infect civets and humans. Most human SARS-CoV epidemic strains contain a signature 29-nucleotide deletion in ORF8, compared to civet SARSr-CoVs, suggesting that ORF8 may be important for interspecies transmission. However, the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8 remains obscure. In particular, SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs from Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) exhibited <40% amino acid identities to human/civet SARS-CoV in the ORF8 protein. We detected diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses among various bat species in Yunnan, China, including two SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs from greater horseshoe bats that possessed ORF8 proteins with exceptionally high amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. We demonstrated recombination events around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. Our findings offer insight into the evolutionary origin of SARS-CoV ORF8 protein, which was likely acquired from SARSr-CoVs of greater horseshoe bats through recombination.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01048-15
PMCID: PMC4580176  PMID: 26269185
6.  Cutaneous clear cell/signet-ring cell squamous cell carcinoma arising in the right thigh of a patient with type 2 diabetes: combined morphologic, immunohistochemical, and etiologic analysis 
Diagnostic Pathology  2016;11:36.
Background
The clear cell/signet-ring cell variant of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is extremely rare. Its carcinogenesis has consistently been linked to ultraviolet radiation and HPV in the literature. However, there is little definite information about the contribution of diabetes mellitus (DM) to cSCC.
Case presentation
A 78-year-old Chinese woman with type 2 DM presented with a mushroom-like lump in her right thigh. Histological findings revealed that the lesion was mainly composed of clear cells and signet-ring cells. The septa of vacuoles in cytoplasm displayed positivity for periodic acid schiff (PAS) and cytokeratins such as AE1/AE3, CK5/6, CK14, and CK19. Malignant cells did not express CK7, CK8, CK18, CK20, p16, p53, or c-erbB-2, and the Ki-67 index was less than 5 %. We further explored the etiology of clear cell/signet-ring cell cSCC using human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific PCR and genotyping and confirmed that the patient was not infected with HPV. Nucleus positivity for p63 indicated the involvement of the p53 family in the lesion. Meanwhile, the expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2), a downstream effector of p63, was upregulated in tumor cells.
Conclusions
This study provides the first report on the clear cell/signet-ring cell variant of cSCC found in the right thigh of a patient with type 2 DM. Metabolic imbalance in addition to conventional pathogens such as UV and HPV may contribute to the development of the lesion via p63/FGFR2 axis.
doi:10.1186/s13000-016-0487-1
PMCID: PMC4827219  PMID: 27066782
Clear cell; Signet-ring cell; HPV; Diabetes mellitus; Squamous cell carcinoma
7.  Dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic model of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(13):3652-3662.
AIM: To investigate the feasibility of a dual-input two-compartment tracer kinetic model for evaluating tumorous microvascular properties in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: From January 2014 to April 2015, we prospectively measured and analyzed pharmacokinetic parameters [transfer constant (Ktrans), plasma flow (Fp), permeability surface area product (PS), efflux rate constant (kep), extravascular extracellular space volume ratio (ve), blood plasma volume ratio (vp), and hepatic perfusion index (HPI)] using dual-input two-compartment tracer kinetic models [a dual-input extended Tofts model and a dual-input 2-compartment exchange model (2CXM)] in 28 consecutive HCC patients. A well-known consensus that HCC is a hypervascular tumor supplied by the hepatic artery and the portal vein was used as a reference standard. A paired Student’s t-test and a nonparametric paired Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the equivalent pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the two models, and Pearson correlation analysis was also applied to observe the correlations among all equivalent parameters. The tumor size and pharmacokinetic parameters were tested by Pearson correlation analysis, while correlations among stage, tumor size and all pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis.
RESULTS: The Fp value was greater than the PS value (FP = 1.07 mL/mL per minute, PS = 0.19 mL/mL per minute) in the dual-input 2CXM; HPI was 0.66 and 0.63 in the dual-input extended Tofts model and the dual-input 2CXM, respectively. There were no significant differences in the kep, vp, or HPI between the dual-input extended Tofts model and the dual-input 2CXM (P = 0.524, 0.569, and 0.622, respectively). All equivalent pharmacokinetic parameters, except for ve, were correlated in the two dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic models; both Fp and PS in the dual-input 2CXM were correlated with Ktrans derived from the dual-input extended Tofts model (P = 0.002, r = 0.566; P = 0.002, r = 0.570); kep, vp, and HPI between the two kinetic models were positively correlated (P = 0.001, r = 0.594; P = 0.0001, r = 0.686; P = 0.04, r = 0.391, respectively). In the dual input extended Tofts model, ve was significantly less than that in the dual input 2CXM (P = 0.004), and no significant correlation was seen between the two tracer kinetic models (P = 0.156, r = 0.276). Neither tumor size nor tumor stage was significantly correlated with any of the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from the two models (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: A dual-input two-compartment pharmacokinetic model (a dual-input extended Tofts model and a dual-input 2CXM) can be used in assessing the microvascular physiopathological properties before the treatment of advanced HCC. The dual-input extended Tofts model may be more stable in measuring the ve; however, the dual-input 2CXM may be more detailed and accurate in measuring microvascular permeability.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i13.3652
PMCID: PMC4814651  PMID: 27053857
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; Pharmacokinetics
8.  Exopolysaccharides Play a Role in the Swarming of the Benthic Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 
Most marine bacteria secrete exopolysaccharide (EPS), which is important for bacterial survival in the marine environment. However, it is still unclear whether the self-secreted EPS is involved in marine bacterial motility. Here we studied the role of EPS in the lateral flagella-driven swarming motility of benthic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 (SM9913) by a comparison of wild SM9913 and ΔepsT, an EPS synthesis defective mutant. Reduction of EPS production in ΔepsT did not affect the growth rate or the swimming motility, but significantly decreased the swarming motility on a swarming plate, suggesting that the EPS may play a role in SM9913 swarming. However, the expression and assembly of lateral flagella in ΔepsT were not affected. Instead, ΔepsT had a different swarming behavior from wild SM9913. The swarming of ΔepsT did not have an obvious rapid swarming period, and its rate became much lower than that of wild SM9913 after 35 h incubation. An addition of surfactin or SM9913 EPS on the surface of the swarming plate could rescue the swarming level. These results indicate that the self-secreted EPS is required for the swarming of SM9913. This study widens our understanding of the function of the EPS of benthic bacteria.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00473
PMCID: PMC4820436  PMID: 27092127
exopolysaccharide; swarming; marine sediment; benthic bacteria; flagella
9.  Discovery of piRNAs Pathway Associated with Early-Stage Spermatogenesis in Chicken 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(4):e0151780.
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play a key role in spermatogenesis. Here, we describe the piRNAs profiling of primordial germ cells (PGCs), spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), and the spermatogonium (Sp) during early-stage spermatogenesis in chicken. We obtained 31,361,989 reads from PGCs, 31,757,666 reads from SSCs, and 46,448,327 reads from Sp cells. The length distribution of piRNAs in the three samples showed peaks at 33 nt. The resulting genes were subsequently annotated against the Gene Ontology (GO) database. Five genes (RPL7A, HSPA8, Pum1, CPXM2, and PRKCA) were found to be involved in cellular processes. Interactive pathway analysis (IPA) further revealed three important pathways in early-stage spermatogenesis including the FGF, Wnt, and EGF receptor signaling pathways. The gene Pum1 was found to promote germline stem cell proliferation, but it also plays a role in spermatogenesis. In conclusion, we revealed characteristics of piRNAs during early spermatogonial development in chicken and provided the basis for future research.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151780
PMCID: PMC4821617  PMID: 27045806
10.  Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia 
Objectives
To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia.
Methods
Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2 mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending.
Results
Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength.
Significance
While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia.
doi:10.1016/j.dental.2015.01.013
PMCID: PMC4374004  PMID: 25687628
ceramic restorative materials; surface modification; zirconia; graded zirconia; alumina coating; indentation flexural load; flexural strength
11.  High Incidence of Somatic BAP1 Alterations in Sporadic Malignant Mesothelioma 
Background
BAP1 is a nuclear deubiquitinase that regulates gene expression, transcription, DNA repair, and more. Several findings underscore the apparent “driver” role of BAP1 in malignant mesothelioma (MM). However the reported frequency of somatic BAP1 mutations in MM varies considerably, a discrepancy that appeared related to either methodological or ethnical differences across various studies.
Methods
To address this discrepancy, we carried out comprehensive genomic and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses to detect somatic BAP1 gene alterations in 22 frozen MM biopsies from US MM patients.
Results
By combining Sanger sequencing, Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification, copy number analysis and cDNA sequencing, we found alteration of BAP1 in 14/22 biopsies (63.6%). No changes in methylation were observed. IHC revealed normal nuclear BAP1 staining in the 8 MM containing wild-type BAP1, while no nuclear staining was detected in the 14 MM biopsies containing tumor cells with mutated BAP1. Thus, IHC results were in agreement with those obtained by genomic analyses. We then extended IHC analysis to an independent cohort of 70 MM biopsies, of which there was insufficient material to perform molecular studies. IHC revealed loss of BAP1 nuclear staining in 47 out of these 70 MM biopsies (67.1%).
Conclusions
Our findings conclusively establish BAP1 as the most commonly mutated gene in MM, regardless of ethnic background or other clinical characteristics. Our data point to IHC as the most accessible and reliable technique to detect BAP1 status in MM biopsies.
doi:10.1097/JTO.0000000000000471
PMCID: PMC4408084  PMID: 25658628
Sporadic Malignant Mesothelioma; Somatic BAP1 mutation; MLPA
12.  Negative CD4+TIM-3 Signaling Confers Resistance Against Cold Preservation Damage in Mouse Liver Transplantation 
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an innate immunity-driven local inflammation, remains the major problem in clinical organ transplantation. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM-3) – Galectin-9 (Gal-9) signaling regulates CD4+ Th1 immune responses. Here, we explored TIM-3 – Gal-9 function in a clinically relevant murine model of hepatic cold storage and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). C57BL/6 livers, preserved for 20h at 4°C in UW solution, were transplanted to syngeneic mouse recipients. Up-regulation of TIM-3 on OLT-infiltrating activated CD4+ T cells was observed in the early IRI phase (1h). By 6h of reperfusion, OLTs in recipients treated with a blocking anti-TIM-3 Ab were characterized by: 1/ enhanced hepatocellular damage (sALT levels, liver Suzuki's histological score); 2/ polarized cell infiltrate towards Th1/Th17-type phenotype; 3/ depressed T cell exhaustion markers (PD-1, LAG3); and 4/ elevated neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation. In parallel studies, adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from naïve WT, but not from TIM-3 Tg donors, readily recreated OLT damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG−/− test recipients. Furthermore, pre-treatment of mice with rGal-9 promoted hepatoprotection against preservation-association liver damage, accompanied by enhanced TIM-3 expression in OLTs. Thus, CD4+ T cell-dependent “negative” TIM-3 costimulation is essential for hepatic homeostasis and resistance against IR stress in OLTs.
doi:10.1111/ajt.13067
PMCID: PMC4729306  PMID: 25676534
13.  Association of the Serotonin Receptor 3E Gene as a Functional Variant in the MicroRNA-510 Target Site with Diarrhea Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Chinese Women 
Background/Aims
The functional variant (rs56109847) in the 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTR) of the serotonin receptor 3E (HTR3E) gene is associated with female diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) in British populations. However, the relationship of the polymorphism both to HTR3E expression in the intestine and to the occurrence of Chinese functional gastrointestinal disorders has yet to be examined.
Methods
Polymerase chain reaction amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were employed to detect polymorphisms among Chinese Han women, particularly 107 patients with IBS-D, 99 patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), 115 patients with mixed IBS and 69 patients with IBS-D + FD. We also assessed microRNA-510 (miR-510) and HTR3E expression in human colonic mucosal tissues with immunohistochemistry and other methods. Dual-luciferase reporter assays were conducted to examine the binding ability of miR-510 and HTR3E 3′-UTR.
Results
Genotyping data showed the variant rs56109847 was significantly associated with IBS-D, but not with FD, mixed-IBS, or FD + IBS-D. HTR3E was abundantly expressed around the colonic mucosal glands but less expressed in the stroma. miR-510 expression decreased, whereas HTR3E expression increased in the colonic mucosal tissue of patients with IBS-D compared with those in controls. HTR3E expression was significantly higher in patients with the GA genotype than that in patients with the GG genotype. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms disrupted the binding site of miR-510 and significantly upregulated luciferase expression in HEK293 and HT-29 cells.
Conclusions
The single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs56109847 led to reduced microRNA binding and overexpression of the target gene in intestinal cells, thereby increasing IBS-D risk in the Chinese Han population. The decreased expression of miR-510 might contribute to IBS-D.
doi:10.5056/jnm15138
PMCID: PMC4819866  PMID: 26787495
Female; Functional gastrointestinal disorders; MicroRNA-510; Receptors; Serotonin; 5-HT3
14.  Rutaecarpine ameliorates hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rats via regulating the IRS-1/PI3K/Akt and AMPK/ACC2 signaling pathways 
Acta Pharmacologica Sinica  2016;37(4):483-496.
Aim:
We have shown that rutaecarpine extracted from the dried fruit of Chinese herb Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss) Benth (Wu Zhu Yu) promotes glucose consumption and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in insulin-resistant primary skeletal muscle cells. In this study we investigated whether rutaecarpine ameliorated the obesity profiles, lipid abnormality, glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in rat model of hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia.
Methods:
Rats fed on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks, followed by injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, ip) to induce hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. One week after streptozotocin injection, the fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rats were orally treated with rutaecarpine (25 mg·kg−1·d−1) or a positive control drug metformin (250 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 7 weeks. The body weight, visceral fat, blood lipid profiles and glucose levels, insulin sensitivity were measured. Serum levels of inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. IRS-1 and Akt/PKB phosphorylation, PI3K and NF-κB protein levels in liver tissues were assessed; pathological changes of livers and pancreases were examined. Glucose uptake and AMPK/ACC2 phosphorylation were studied in cultured rat skeletal muscle cells in vitro.
Results:
Administration of rutaecarpine or metformin significantly decreased obesity, visceral fat accumulation, water consumption, and serum TC, TG and LDL-cholesterol levels in fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rats. The two drugs also attenuated hyperglycemia and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the two drugs significantly decreased NF-κB protein levels in liver tissues and plasma TNF-α, IL-6, CRP and MCP-1 levels, and ameliorated the pathological changes in livers and pancreases. In addition, the two drugs increased PI3K p85 subunit levels and Akt/PKB phosphorylation, but decreased IRS-1 phosphorylation in liver tissues. Treatment of cultured skeletal muscle cells with rutaecarpine (20–180 μmol/L) or metformin (20 μmol/L) promoted the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC2, and increased glucose uptake.
Conclusion:
Rutaecarpine ameliorates hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia in fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rats via regulating IRS-1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in liver and AMPK/ACC2 signaling pathway in skeletal muscles.
doi:10.1038/aps.2015.167
PMCID: PMC4820804  PMID: 26972495
rutaecarpine; metformin; fat-fed, streptozotocin-treated rats; metabolic syndrome; type 2 diabetes; hyperlipidemia; insulin receptor substrate-1; AMPK; acetyl-CoA carboxylase
15.  Assessment of Micro-Basin Tillage as a Soil and Water Conservation Practice in the Black Soil Region of Northeast China 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(3):e0152313.
Micro-basin tillage is a soil and water conservation practice that requires building individual earth blocks along furrows. In this study, plot experiments were conducted to assess the efficiency of micro-basin tillage on sloping croplands between 2012 and 2013 (5°and 7°). The conceptual, optimal, block interval model was used to design micro-basins which are meant to capture the maximum amount of water per unit area. Results indicated that when compared to the up-down slope tillage, micro-basin tillage could increase soil water content and maize yield by about 45% and 17%, and reduce runoff, sediment and nutrients loads by about 63%, 96% and 86%, respectively. Meanwhile, micro-basin tillage could reduce the peak runoff rates and delay the initial runoff-yielding time. In addition, micro-basin tillage with the optimal block interval proved to be the best one among all treatments with different intervals. Compared with treatments of other block intervals, the optimal block interval treatments increased soil moisture by around 10% and reduced runoff rate by around 15%. In general, micro-basin tillage with optimal block interval represents an effective soil and water conservation practice for sloping farmland of the black soil region.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152313
PMCID: PMC4816346  PMID: 27031339
16.  Auphen and dibutyryl cAMP suppress growth of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating expression of aquaporins 3 and 9 in vivo 
World Journal of Gastroenterology  2016;22(12):3341-3354.
AIM: To investigate whether the regulation of aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and AQP9 induced by Auphen and dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP) inhibits hepatic tumorigenesis.
METHODS: Expression of AQP3 and AQP9 was detected by Western blot, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and RT-PCR in HCC samples and paired non-cancerous liver tissue samples from 30 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. A xenograft tumor model was used in vivo. Nine nude mice were divided into control, Auphen-treated, and dbcAMP-treated groups (n = 3 for each group). AQP3 and AQP9 protein expression after induction of xenograft tumors was detected by IHC and mRNA by RT-PCR analysis. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay and histological evaluation were used to detect apoptosis of tumor cells, and the concentration of serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) was measured using RT-PCR and an ELISA kit.
RESULTS: The volumes and weights of tumors decreased significantly in the Auphen- and dbcAMP-treated mice compared with the control mice (P < 0.01). The levels of AQP3 were significantly lower in the Auphen treatment group, and levels of AQP9 were significantly higher in thedbcAMP treatment mice than in the control mice (P < 0.01). The reduction of AQP3 by Auphen and increase of AQP9 by dbcAMP in nude mice suppressed tumor growth of HCC, which resulted in reduced AFP levels in serum and tissues, and apoptosis of tumor cells in the Auphen- and dbcAMP-treated mice, when compared with control mice (P < 0.01). Compared with para-carcinoma tissues, AQP3 expression increased in tumor tissues whereas the expression of AQP9 decreased. By correlating clinicopathological and expression levels, we demonstrated that the expression of AQP3 and AQP9 was correlated with clinical progression of HCC and disease outcomes.
CONCLUSION: AQP3 increases in HCC while AQP9 decreases. Regulation of AQP3 and AQP9 expression by Auphen and dbcAMP inhibits the development and growth of HCC.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v22.i12.3341
PMCID: PMC4806192  PMID: 27022216
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Nude mice; Auphen; Dibutyryl cAMP; Aquaporin 3; Xenograft tumor model; Aquaporin 9
17.  Ploidy Level and DNA Content of Erianthus arundinaceus as Determined by Flow Cytometry and the Association with Biological Characteristics 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(3):e0151948.
Erianthus arundinaceus is not only an important germplasm resource for sugarcane breeding but also a potential bioenergy plant. Making clear the distribution of the chromosome ploidy of wild E. arundinaceus in china is the premise of the research and utilization of this species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the ploidy level and DNA content of the 55 E. arundinaceus accessions using flow cytometry and to identify the correlation between ploidy and phenotypic traits. Among the 55 accessions, four tetraploids and 51 hexaploids were identified. The four tetraploids originated from Mengma Yunnan, Shuangjiang Yunnan, Gaozhou Guangdong and Chengle Sichuan. The mean DNA content was 4.82 pg/2C for the tetraploid and 7.30 pg/2C for the hexaploid plants. The ploidy was negatively correlated with cellulose content and positively correlated (P<0.05) with plant height, stem diameter, leaf width, dry weight per plant, fresh weight per plant and hemicellulose content. However, ploidy was not correlated with leaf length, tiller number and the ratio of dry weight and fresh weight. This study will be useful for revealing the distribution of the ploidy of wild E. arundinaceus in Chin, traits markers analysis, and utilization of this species, such as cultivar improvement and sugarcane breeding in the future.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151948
PMCID: PMC4806844  PMID: 27010798
18.  A comparison of a short versus a conventional femoral cementless stem in total hip arthroplasty in patients 70 years and older 
Background
The aim of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between a short femoral cementless stem and a conventional femoral cementless stem in total hip arthroplasty in patients 70 years and older.
Methods
From December 2011 and July 2013, we retrospectively reviewed 50 patients (55 hips) 70 years and older treated with a short femoral cementless stem and 53 patients (58 hips) 70 years and older treated with a conventional femoral cementless stem. Their mean age was 74 ± 13.2 years and 75 ± 10.4 years, respectively. The mean follow-up was 40 ± 3.6 months and 42 ± 5.2 month, respectively. They were pre- and postoperatively evaluated by the clinical and radiological examination.
Results
There was no difference in terms of average operative time, average estimated blood loss, and average hemoglobin at discharge between the short stem and the conventional stem. No patients with the short stem had intra-operative fracture, but five patients with the conventional stem had intra-operative fracture. At final follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in Harris Hip Score, and radiographic review level between two stems. No hip with the short stem had thigh pain, but six hips with the conventional stem had thigh pain at the final follow-up. No component was revised for aseptic loosening in either group.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrated that both short cementless stem and conventional cementless stem provided stable fixation and achieved a satisfactory result in patients 70 years and older and the short cementless stem had a low incidence of thigh pain and intra-operative fracture.
doi:10.1186/s13018-016-0367-0
PMCID: PMC4802877  PMID: 27005904
Total hip arthroplasty; Elderly; Short femoral stem; Conventional femoral stem
19.  Prognostic and Predictive Values of Subcellular Localisation of RET in Renal Clear-Cell Carcinoma 
Disease Markers  2016;2016:6870470.
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) presents a poor prognosis and an unpredictable course. To date, no validated biomarkers can predict the outcome of RCC. Ongoing efforts are conducted to identify the molecular markers of RCC progression, as well as the targets for novel therapeutic approaches. RET is a tyrosine kinase receptor which has been investigated as a possible target in other cancers because it is involved in oncogenic activation. To evaluate the predictive and prognostic functions of RET in ccRCC, a tissue microarray study was conducted on 273 ccRCC patients. Results showed that both RET cytoplasmic and nuclear expression were independently associated with PFS and OS, and the combined RET cytoplasmic and nuclear statuses demonstrated that the ratio of high nuclear RET and cytoplasmic RET was the strongest predictor of both PFS and OS. The high cytoplasmic RET expression retained its independent poor prognostic value in targeted drug treated patients. The RET nuclear expression was associated with distant metastasis. Moreover, the RET nuclear expression was an independent predictor of ccRCC postoperative metastasis. In conclusion, RET may be useful in prognostication and can be used at initial diagnosis to identify patients with high potential to develop metastasis.
doi:10.1155/2016/6870470
PMCID: PMC4820605  PMID: 27092013
20.  3D-printed guiding templates for improved osteosarcoma resection 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:23335.
Osteosarcoma resection is challenging due to the variable location of tumors and their proximity with surrounding tissues. It also carries a high risk of postoperative complications. To overcome the challenge in precise osteosarcoma resection, computer-aided design (CAD) was used to design patient-specific guiding templates for osteosarcoma resection on the basis of the computer tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the osteosarcoma of human patients. Then 3D printing technique was used to fabricate the guiding templates. The guiding templates were used to guide the osteosarcoma surgery, leading to more precise resection of the tumorous bone and the implantation of the bone implants, less blood loss, shorter operation time and reduced radiation exposure during the operation. Follow-up studies show that the patients recovered well to reach a mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society score of 27.125.
doi:10.1038/srep23335
PMCID: PMC4800413  PMID: 26997197
21.  Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) as potent therapeutic strategy to ameliorates L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-OHDA parkinsonian rats 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:23527.
Levodopa (L-dopa) is the dominating therapy drug for exogenous dopaminergic substitution and can alleviate most of the manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but long-term therapy is associated with the emergence of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Evidence points towards an involvement of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in development of LID. In the present study, we found that animals rendered dyskinetic by L-dopa treatment, administration of TDZD8 (2mg/kg) obviously prevented the severity of AIM score, as well as improvement in motor function (P < 0.05). Moreover, the TDZD8-induced reduction in dyskinetic behavior correlated with a reduction in molecular correlates of LID. TDZD8 reduced the phosphorylation levels of tau, DARPP32, ERK and PKA protein, which represent molecular markers of LID, as well as reduced L-dopa-induced FosB mRNA and PPEB mRNA levels in the lesioned striatum. In addition, we found that TDZD8 antidyskinetic properties were overcome by D1 receptor, as pretreatment with SKF38393 (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, reapectively), a D1 receptor agonist, blocked TDZD8 antidyskinetic actions. This study supported the hypothesis that GSK-3β played an important role in the development and expression of LID. Inhibition of GSK-3β with TDZD8 reduced the development of ALO AIM score and associated molecular changes in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.
doi:10.1038/srep23527
PMCID: PMC4800499  PMID: 26997328
22.  Extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Flower Exhibit Antidiabetic Effects via the Inhibition of α-Glucosidase Activity 
Journal of Diabetes Research  2016;2016:2340276.
The aim of this study was to assay the effects of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. flower extracts on hyperglycemia of diet-induced obese mice and the underlying mechanisms. Coreopsis tinctoria flower was extracted with ethanol and water, respectively. The total phenol, flavonoid levels, and the constituents of the extracts were measured. For the animal experiments, C57BL/6 mice were fed with a chow diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet mixed with 0.4% (w/w) water and ethanol extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria flower for 8 weeks. The inhibitory effects of the extracts on α-glucosidase activity and the antioxidant properties were assayed in vitro. We found that the extracts blocked the increase of fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride (TG), insulin, leptin, and liver lipid levels and prevented the development of glucose tolerance impairment and insulin resistance in the C57BL/6 mice induced by a high-fat diet. The extracts inhibited α-glycosidase activity and increased oxidant activity in vitro. In conclusion, Coreopsis tinctoria flower extracts may ameliorate high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underling mechanism may be via the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. Our data indicate that Coreopsis tinctoria flower could be used as a beverage supplement and a potential source of drugs for treatment of diabetics.
doi:10.1155/2016/2340276
PMCID: PMC4819113  PMID: 27088095
23.  Metabolic Investigation in Gluconacetobacter xylinus and Its Bacterial Cellulose Production under a Direct Current Electric Field 
The effects of a direct current (DC) electric field on the growth and metabolism of Gluconacetobacter xylinus were investigated in static culture. When a DC electric field at 10 mA was applied using platinum electrodes to the culture broth, bacterial cellulose (BC) production was promoted in 12 h but was inhibited in the last 12 h as compared to the control (without DC electric field). At the cathode, the presence of the hydrogen generated a strong reductive environment that is beneficial to cell growth. As compared to the control, the activities of glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle, as well as BC productivity were observed to be slightly higher in the first 12 h. However, due to the absence of sufficient oxygen, lactic acid was accumulated from pyruvic acid at 18 h, which was not in favor of BC production. At the anode, DC inhibited cell growth in 6 h when compared to the control. The metabolic activity in G. xylinus was inhibited through the suppression of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glycolysis. At 18–24 h, cell density was observed to decrease, which might be due to the electrolysis of water that significantly dropped the pH of cultural broth far beyond the optimal range. Meanwhile, metabolites for self-protection were accumulated, for instance proline, glutamic acid, gluconic acid, and fatty acids. Notably, the accumulation of gluconic acid and lactic acid made it a really tough acid stress to cells at the anode and finally led to depression of cell growth.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00331
PMCID: PMC4794480  PMID: 27014248
bacterial cellulose; Gluconacetobacter xylinus; metabolic profiles; lactic acid; water electrolysis
24.  Gene expression profiling gut microbiota in different races of humans 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:23075.
The gut microbiome is shaped and modified by the polymorphisms of microorganisms in the intestinal tract. Its composition shows strong individual specificity and may play a crucial role in the human digestive system and metabolism. Several factors can affect the composition of the gut microbiome, such as eating habits, living environment, and antibiotic usage. Thus, various races are characterized by different gut microbiome characteristics. In this present study, we studied the gut microbiomes of three different races, including individuals of Asian, European and American races. The gut microbiome and the expression levels of gut microbiome genes were analyzed in these individuals. Advanced feature selection methods (minimum redundancy maximum relevance and incremental feature selection) and four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, nearest neighbor algorithm, sequential minimal optimization, Dagging) were employed to capture key differentially expressed genes. As a result, sequential minimal optimization was found to yield the best performance using the 454 genes, which could effectively distinguish the gut microbiomes of different races. Our analyses of extracted genes support the widely accepted hypotheses that eating habits, living environments and metabolic levels in different races can influence the characteristics of the gut microbiome.
doi:10.1038/srep23075
PMCID: PMC4791684  PMID: 26975620
25.  Hybrid Microscopy: Enabling Inexpensive High-Performance Imaging through Combined Physical and Optical Magnifications 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:22691.
To date, much effort has been expended on making high-performance microscopes through better instrumentation. Recently, it was discovered that physical magnification of specimens was possible, through a technique called expansion microscopy (ExM), raising the question of whether physical magnification, coupled to inexpensive optics, could together match the performance of high-end optical equipment, at a tiny fraction of the price. Here we show that such “hybrid microscopy” methods—combining physical and optical magnifications—can indeed achieve high performance at low cost. By physically magnifying objects, then imaging them on cheap miniature fluorescence microscopes (“mini-microscopes”), it is possible to image at a resolution comparable to that previously attainable only with benchtop microscopes that present costs orders of magnitude higher. We believe that this unprecedented hybrid technology that combines expansion microscopy, based on physical magnification, and mini-microscopy, relying on conventional optics—a process we refer to as Expansion Mini-Microscopy (ExMM)—is a highly promising alternative method for performing cost-effective, high-resolution imaging of biological samples. With further advancement of the technology, we believe that ExMM will find widespread applications for high-resolution imaging particularly in research and healthcare scenarios in undeveloped countries or remote places.
doi:10.1038/srep22691
PMCID: PMC4792139  PMID: 26975883

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