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1.  De novo entecavir+adefovir dipivoxil+lamivudine triple-resistance mutations resulting from sequential therapy with adefovir dipivoxil, and lamivudine 
Entecavir-resistance mutations are commonly induced by entecavir treatment in chronic hepatitis B patients. However, entecavir+adefovir dipivoxil+lamivudine triple-resistance mutations induced by sequential or combination treatment with lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil have never been reported.
We retrospectively reviewed 1200 patients who had been tested for anti-HBV drug resistance at Beijing Ditan Hospital of Capital Medical University, and five patients showing multidrug resistance to lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil were enrolled. Stored serum samples were used for genetic analysis, which yielded a total of 135 clones. Entecavir+adefovir dipivoxil+lamivudine triple-resistance mutations were identified in 60 % (3/5) entecavir-naïve patients who received sequential therapy with adefovir dipivoxil and lamivudine. Specifically, we found one rtM204I+rtL180 M+rtM250 V+rtA181 V clone among 23 clones from patient 1 (4.35 %), one rtM204 V+vrtL180 M +rtM250 V+rtA181 V clone among 24 clones from patient 2 (4.17 %), and 2 clones harboring rtM204 V+rtL180 M+rtM250 V+rtA181 V and rtM204 V+rtL180 M+rtI169 V+rtA181 V among 20 clones from patient 3 (10.0 %). The other 2 patients showed multidrug resistance after lamivudine/telbivudine and adefovir dipivoxil combination therapy, but no entecavir-resistance mutations were found in these two patients.
De novo entecavir+adefovir dipivoxil+lamivudine triple-resistance mutations can be induced by sequential therapy with adefovir dipivoxil and lamivudine in patients who never take entecavir. These results provide important information for sequential therapy with adefovir dipivoxil and lamivudine and the use of entecavir as a rescue therapy for these patients with multidrug resistance.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12941-016-0138-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4832522  PMID: 27079793
Hepatitis B virus; Multidrug resistance; Entecavir; Adefovir dipivoxil; Lamivudine
2.  Comprehensive molecular characterization of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 adapted for 1-butanol tolerance 
The toxicity of alcohols is one of the major roadblocks of biological fermentation for biofuels production. Methylobacterium extorquens AM1, a facultative methylotrophic α-proteobacterium, has been engineered to generate 1-butanol from cheap carbon feedstocks through a synthetic metabolic pathway. However, M. extorquens AM1 is vulnerable to solvent stress, which impedes further development for 1-butanol production. Only a few studies have reported the general stress response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress. Therefore, it is highly desirable to obtain a strain with ameliorated 1-butanol tolerance and elucidate the molecular mechanism of 1-butnaol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1 for future strain improvement.
In this work, adaptive laboratory evolution was used as a tool to isolate mutants with 1-butanol tolerance up to 0.5 %. The evolved strains, BHBT3 and BHBT5, demonstrated increased growth rates and higher survival rates with the existence of 1-butanol. Whole genome sequencing revealed a SNP mutation at kefB in BHBT5, which was confirmed to be responsible for increasing 1-butanol tolerance through an allelic exchange experiment. Global metabolomic analysis further discovered that the pools of multiple key metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, and disaccharides, were increased in BHBT5 in response to 1-butanol stress. Additionally, the carotenoid synthesis pathway was significantly down-regulated in BHBT5.
We successfully screened mutants resistant to 1-butanol and provided insights into the molecular mechanism of 1-butanol tolerance in M. extorquens AM1. This research will be useful for uncovering the mechanism of cellular response of M. extorquens AM1 to solvent stress, and will provide the genetic blueprint for the rational design of a strain of M. extorquens AM1 with increased 1-butanol tolerance in the future.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13068-016-0497-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4827201  PMID: 27069508
Methylobacterium extorquens AM1; 1-Butanol tolerance; Adaptive evolution; Whole genome sequencing; Global metabolome analysis; Carotenoid
3.  A CRISPR/Cas9 vector system for tissue-specific gene disruption in zebrafish 
Developmental cell  2015;32(6):756-764.
CRISPR/Cas9 technology of genome editing has greatly facilitated the targeted inactivation of genes in vitro and in vivo in a wide range of organisms. In zebrafish it allows the rapid generation of knock-out lines by simply injecting a guide RNA (gRNA) and Cas9 mRNA into one-cell stage embryos. Here, we report a simple and scalable CRISPR-based vector system for tissue-specific gene inactivation in zebrafish. As proof of principle, we used our vector with the gata1 promoter driving Cas9 expression to silence the urod gene, implicated in heme biosynthesis, specifically in the erythrocytic lineage. Urod targeting yielded red fluorescent erythrocytes in zebrafish embryos, recapitulating the phenotype observed in the yquem mutant. While F0 embryos displayed mosaic gene disruption, the phenotype appeared very penetrant in stable F1 fish. This vector system constitutes a unique tool to spatially control gene knock-out and greatly broadens the scope of loss-of-function studies in zebrafish.
PMCID: PMC4379706  PMID: 25752963
4.  VAMP8 facilitates cellular proliferation and temozolomide resistance in human glioma cells 
Neuro-Oncology  2014;17(3):407-418.
Malignant glioma is a common and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Here we identified a novel oncoprotein, vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8), and investigated its roles in tumorigenisis and chemoresistance in glioma.
The expression of gene and protein were determined by quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. Histological analysis of 282 glioma samples and 12 normal controls was performed by Pearson's chi-squared test. Survival analysis was performed using the log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression. Cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay were conducted using Cell Counting Kit-8. Autophagy was detected by confocal microscopy and Western blot.
VAMP8 was significantly overexpressed in human glioma specimens and could become a potential novel prognostic and treatment-predictive marker for glioma patients. Overexpression of VAMP8 promoted cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of VAMP8 attenuated glioma growth by arresting cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, VAMP8 contributed to temozolomide (TMZ) resistance by elevating the expression levels of autophagy proteins and the number of autophagosomes. Further inhibition of autophagy via siRNA-mediated knockdown of autophagy-related gene 5 (ATG5) or syntaxin 17 (STX17) reversed TMZ resistance in VAMP8-overexpressing cells, while silencing of VAMP8 impaired the autophagic flux and alleviated TMZ resistance in glioma cells.
Our findings identified VAMP8 as a novel oncogene by promoting cell proliferation and therapeutic resistance in glioma. Targeting VAMP8 may serve as a potential therapeutic regimen for the treatment of glioma.
PMCID: PMC4483099  PMID: 25209430
autophagy; glioma; proliferation; TMZ resistance; VAMP8
5.  New Strategies and Methods to Study Interactions between Tobacco Mosaic Virus Coat Protein and Its Inhibitors 
Studies of the targets of anti-viral compounds are hot topics in the field of pesticide research. Various efficient anti-TMV (Tobacco Mosaic Virus) compounds, such as Ningnanmycin (NNM), Antofine (ATF), Dufulin (DFL) and Bingqingxiao (BQX) are available. However, the mechanisms of the action of these compounds on targets remain unclear. To further study the mechanism of the action of the anti-TMV inhibitors, the TMV coat protein (TMV CP) was expressed and self-assembled into four-layer aggregate disks in vitro, which could be reassembled into infectious virus particles with TMV RNA. The interactions between the anti-TMV compounds and the TMV CP disk were analyzed by size exclusion chromatography, isothermal titration calorimetry and native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods. The results revealed that assembly of the four-layer aggregate disk was inhibited by NNM; it changed the four-layer aggregate disk into trimers, and affected the regular assembly of TMV CP and TMV RNA. The four-layer aggregate disk of TMV CP was little inhibited by ATF, DFL and BQX. Our results provide original data, as well as new strategies and methods, for research on the mechanism of action of anti-viral drugs.
PMCID: PMC4813129  PMID: 26927077
coat protein; anti-TMV compounds; strategies and methods; interactions
6.  Macrophage migration inhibitory factor regulating the expression of VEGF-C through MAPK signal pathways in breast cancer MCF-7 cell 
As a kind of versatility of cytokines, overexpression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) have been reported in a wide variety of tumors. However, the correlation and mechanism between MIF and VEGF-C are still not clear. As an important signal transduction system, MAPK signaling pathways participate in a variety of biological behavior of cells. The purposes of this study are to study the relationship between MIF and VEGF-C and discuss the role of MAPK signal pathway in the relationship.
In this study, we first knocked down the MIF using small interfering RNA (siRNA) and built the stable low expression MIF breast cancer cells (siRNA-MIF-MCF-7) and the negative control cells (siRNA-NC-MCF-7). And then, we evaluated the expression of MIF using Western blot to confirm the effect of transfection. Using real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent experiment, we respectively examined the different expression of VEGF-C between siRNA-MIF-MCF-7 and siRNA-NC-MCF-7 and breast cancer cells MCF-7. Moreover, we investigated the expression of p38 MAPK, P-p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK, and P-p44/42 MAPK in the three kinds of cells by Western blot to analyze the regulatory mechanism to VEGF-C.
We found that MIF siRNA markedly reduced the expression of MIF. And the expression level of VEGF-C, p38 MAPK, P-p38-MAPK, p44/42-MAPK, and P-p44/42 MAPK in siRNA-MIF-MCF-7 cells had different degree of decrease compared with siRNA-NC-MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 cells.
These results suggest that MIF can regulate the expression of VEGF-C in breast cancer cells. And its regulatory mechanism may work by activating the MAPK signaling pathway.
PMCID: PMC4765021  PMID: 26911617
MIF; VEGF-C; MAPK; Breast cancer
7.  The Interaction Between Prenatal Exposure to Home Renovation and Reactive Oxygen Species Genes in Cord Blood IgE Response is Modified by Maternal Atopy 
Although home renovation exposure during childhood has been identified as a risk factor for the development of allergy, there is limited information on the association between prenatal exposure to home renovation and cord blood (CB) IgE response. The aims of this study were to identify the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB IgE levels, and to investigate whether this exposure interacts with neonatal genes and whether the effect can be modified by maternal atopy.
This study included 1,002 mother-neonate pairs from the COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA). Prenatal environmental factors were collected using a questionnaire. The levels of CB IgE were measured by the ImmunoCAP system, and DNA was extracted from CB.
Exposure to home renovation during the prenatal period was associated with significantly higher levels of CB IgE only in neonates from atopic mothers, and the effect of renovation exposure on CB IgE levels persisted from 31 months before birth. Furthermore, prenatal exposure to home renovation increased the risk of CB IgE response interacting with polymorphisms of NRF2 and GSTP1 genes only in neonates from atopic mothers.
Maternal atopy modified the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on CB serum IgE response as well as the interaction between the exposure and neonatal genes involved in the oxidative stress pathway. These findings suggest that the genetically susceptible offspring of atopic mothers may be more vulnerable to the effect of prenatal exposure to home renovation on the development of allergy.
PMCID: PMC4695407  PMID: 26540500
Cord blood; gene-environment interaction; IgE; prenatal; reactive oxygen species; renovation; single nucleotide polymorphism
8.  Bilateral Neuropathy of Primary Sensory Neurons by the Chronic Compression of Multiple Unilateral DRGs 
Neural Plasticity  2015;2016:2130901.
To mimic multilevel nerve root compression and intervertebral foramina stenosis in human, we established a new animal model of the chronic compression of unilateral multiple lumbar DRGs (mCCD) in the rat. A higher occurrence of signs of spontaneous pain behaviors, such as wet-dog shaking and spontaneous hind paw shrinking behaviors, was firstly observed from day 1 onward. In the meantime, the unilateral mCCD rat exhibited significant bilateral hind paw mechanical and cold allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as a thermal preference to 30°C plate between 30 and 35°C. The expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was significantly increased in the ipsilateral and contralateral all-sized DRG neurons after the mCCD. And the expression of CGRP was significantly increased in the ipsilateral and contralateral large- and medium-sized DRG neurons. ATF3 and CGRP expressions correlated to evoked pain hypersensitivities such as mechanical and cold allodynia on postoperative day 1. The results suggested that bilateral neuropathy of primary sensory neurons might contribute to bilateral hypersensitivity in the mCCD rat.
PMCID: PMC4706945  PMID: 26819761
9.  Microcatheter Looping Facilitates Access to Both the Acutely Angled Parent Artery and Cerebral Aneurysms for Effective Embolization  
Interventional Neuroradiology  null;20(6):669-676.
Aneurysms with an acutely angled parent artery are difficult to access for coiling. This study aimed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of microcatheter looping for embolization of cerebral aneurysms with access difficulty.
Ten patients (male:female=5:5) with cerebral aneurysms treated with the microcatheter looping technique were analyzed retrospectively. The parent artery formed an acute angle with the major artery in five aneurysms. The microcatheter was looped into a “α” loop for treatment in the anterior temporal artery aneurysm and a “U” loop in the remaining nine aneurysms.
All ten aneurysms were successfully treated with the microcatheter looping technique. The microcatheter tip was successfully navigated into the aneurysm sac and remained stable throughout the embolization process. All aneurysms were occluded with total occlusion in five and near-total occlusion in five, and the parent artery remained patent in all cases. No complications occurred peri-procedurally. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was 5 in all patients before discharge. Follow-up angiography six to 12 months later revealed a good occlusion status of the aneurysms.
The microcatheter looping technique is effective when the conventional embolization technique fails to treat cerebral aneurysms with difficult access especially when the parent artery forming an acute angle with the major artery exacerbates difficult access to the aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC4295238  PMID: 25496676
intracranial aneurysm; micocatheter looping; endovascular treatment; acute angle; complications
10.  High degree of supervision improves adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2015;58(12):472-477.
Adherence to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a critical determinant of asthma control. The objective of this study was to assess factors that determine adherence to ICS therapy in children with asthma.
Fifty-eight children with asthma, aged 5 to 16 years, used ICS with or without a spacer for 3 months. Adherence rates as measured from questionnaires and canisters, asthma symptom scores, and inhalation technique scores were assessed every 30 days. The degree of supervision by caregivers was assessed at day 30.
Adherence rates measured using canisters were lower at day 60 than at day 30 (P=0.044) and did not change thereafter (74.4%±17.4% at day 30, 66.5%±18.4% at day 60, and 67.4%±22.2% at day 90). Adherence rates at days 60 and 90 and during the total study period were significantly different when measured by using questionnaires versus canisters (P<0.001, P=0.022, and P=0.001, respectively). In the comparison of adherence rates repeatedly measured at days 30, 60, and 90 and adherence rates during the total study period among the 3 groups, adherence rates in the high-degree supervision group were significantly higher than those in the low-degree supervision group (82.0±16.0 vs. 66.1±14.5, 75.4±14.4 vs. 56.2±18.4, 75.0±18.3 vs. 55.0±19.7 [P=0.027]; 77.9±12.2 vs. 59.1±11.4 [P=0.021]) after adjustment for sex and age.
The level of caregiver supervision is an important factor affecting adherence to ICS therapy in children with asthma. Therefore, a high degree of supervision may be required to increase adherence to ICS therapy in children with asthma.
PMCID: PMC4705327  PMID: 26770222
Asthma; Adherence; Child; Inhaled corticosteroids; Supervision
11.  Prenatal Particulate Matter/Tobacco Smoke Increases Infants' Respiratory Infections: COCOA Study 
To investigate whether prenatal exposure to indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) affects susceptibility to respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in infancy, to compare their effects between prenatal and postnatal exposure, and to determine whether genetic factors modify these environmental effects.
The study population consisted of 307 birth cohort infants. A diagnosis of RTIs was based on parental report of a physician's diagnosis. Indoor PM2.5 and ETS levels were measured during pregnancy and infancy. TaqMan was used for genotyping of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) (rs6726395), glutathione-S-transferase-pi (GSTP) 1 (rs1695), and glutathione-S-transferase-mu (GSTM) 1. Microarrays were used for genome-wide methylation analysis.
Prenatal exposure to indoor PM2.5 increased the susceptibility of lower RTIs (LRTIs) in infancy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.11). In terms of combined exposure to both indoor PM2.5 and ETS, prenatal exposure to both pollutants increased susceptibility to LRTIs (aOR=6.56); however, this association was not found for postnatal exposure. The Nrf2 GG (aOR=23.69), GSTM1 null (aOR=8.18), and GSTP1 AG or GG (aOR=7.37) genotypes increased the combined LRTIs-promoting effects of prenatal exposure to the 2 indoor pollutants. Such effects of prenatal indoor PM2.5 and ETS exposure were not found for upper RTIs.
Prenatal exposure to both indoor PM2.5 and ETS may increase susceptibility to LRTIs. This effect can be modified by polymorphisms in reactive oxygen species-related genes.
PMCID: PMC4605930  PMID: 26333704
Prenatal exposure; particulate matter; tobacco smoke; respiratory tract infections; polymorphism; methylation
12.  Functionally conserved enhancers with divergent sequences in distant vertebrates 
BMC Genomics  2015;16:882.
To examine the contributions of sequence and function conservation in the evolution of enhancers, we systematically identified enhancers whose sequences are not conserved among distant groups of vertebrate species, but have homologous function and are likely to be derived from a common ancestral sequence. Our approach combined comparative genomics and epigenomics to identify potential enhancer sequences in the genomes of three groups of distantly related vertebrate species.
We searched for sequences that were conserved within groups of closely related species but not between groups of more distant species, and were associated with an epigenetic mark of enhancer activity. To facilitate inferring orthology between non-conserved sequences, we limited our search to introns whose orthology could be unambiguously established by mapping the bracketing exons. We show that a subset of these non-conserved but syntenic sequences from the mouse and zebrafish genomes have homologous functions in a zebrafish transgenic enhancer assay. The conserved expression patterns driven by these enhancers are probably associated with short transcription factor-binding motifs present in the divergent sequences.
We have identified numerous potential enhancers with divergent sequences but a conserved function. These results indicate that selection on function, rather than sequence, may be a common mode of enhancer evolution; evidence for selection at the sequence level is not a necessary criterion to define a gene regulatory element.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12864-015-2070-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4628251  PMID: 26519295
13.  Modification of additive effect between vitamins and ETS on childhood asthma risk according to GSTP1 polymorphism : a cross -sectional study 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2015;15:125.
Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation, and bronchial airways are particularly susceptible to oxidant-induced tissue damage.
To investigate the effect of dietary antioxidant intake and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on the risk of childhood asthma according to genotypes susceptible to airway diseases.
This cross-sectional study included 1124 elementary school children aged 7–12 years old. Asthma symptoms and smoking history were measured using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Intake of vitamin A (including retinol and β-carotene), C, and E was measured by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). GSTP1 polymorphisms were genotyped from peripheral blood samples.
ETS was significantly associated with presence of asthma symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.48; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.29–4.76) and diagnosis (aOR, 1.91; 95 % CI, 1.19–3.06). Dietary antioxidant intake was not associated with asthma symptoms, although ETS plus low vitamin A intake showed a significant positive association with asthma diagnosis (aOR, 2.23; 95 % CI, 1.10–4.54). Children with AA at nucleotide 1695 in GSTP1 who had been exposed to ETS and a low vitamin A intake have an increased risk of asthma diagnosis (aOR, 4.44; 95 % CI,1.58–12.52) compared with children who had not been exposed to the two risk factors. However, ETS exposure and low vitamin A intake did not significantly increase odds of asthma diagnosis in children with AG or GG genotypes.
Low vitamin A intake and ETS exposure may increase oxidative stress and thereby risk for childhood asthma. These relationships may be modified by gene susceptibility alleles of GSTP1.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12890-015-0093-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4618939  PMID: 26490046
Asthma; Vitamin A; Antioxidant; Environmental tobacco smoke; Oxidative stress; Polymorphism
14.  Common Variants in TGFBR2 and miR-518 Genes Are Associated With Hypertension in the Chinese Population 
American Journal of Hypertension  2014;27(10):1268-1276.
An animal study reported that TGF-β1 maturation was linked to the homeostasis of blood pressure and elastogenesis of essential hypertension (EH). Recent advances require further research of TGF-β1 receptor in EH.
A case–control study comprised of 2,012 adult hypertension case patients and 2,210 adult control subjects was conducted, and the association with blood pressure was further tested in children. Logistic regression and calculated genetic risk score were used to evaluate the effects of one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and multiple SNPs on EH, respectively.
The genetic risk score of 10 SNPs showed a significant association with hypertension; the odds ratio of the upper quartile vs. the lower quartile was 1.282 (P = 4.67×10−3). rs7256241 in miR-518 was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) change in control subjects (P = 0.002), and this association was also observed in children (P = 0.04). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP of female patients taking reserpine were higher with the C and G alleles of rs3773661 (P = 0.004) and rs7256241 (P = 0.002), respectively. In patients taking Zhen Ju Jiang Ya tablets, SBP and DBP decreased linearly with rs749794 (P = 0.004 and P = 0.048, respectively). SBP decreased linearly with rs1155705 (P = 0.007) and rs11709624 (P = 0.04), but increased with rs1036096 (P = 0.03) in male patients. In male patients taking Jiang Ya tablets, SBP increased linearly with rs11709624 (P = 0.007), DBP increased linearly with rs1155705 (P = 0.03) whereas decreased with rs7256241 (P = 0.04).
Our results suggest that TGFBR2 and miR-518 harbor variants that increase the risk of EH and affect blood pressure homeostasis as well as efficacy of antihypertensive agents.
PMCID: PMC4815702  PMID: 24687999
association studies; blood pressure; hypertension; miR-518 gene; transforming growth factor β1; TGF-β1 receptor 2 gene.
15.  A Zebrafish Model of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Produced through tet2 Genomic Editing 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2014;35(5):789-804.
The ten-eleven translocation 2 gene (TET2) encodes a member of the TET family of DNA methylcytosine oxidases that converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) to initiate the demethylation of DNA within genomic CpG islands. Somatic loss-of-function mutations of TET2 are frequently observed in human myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), which is a clonal malignancy characterized by dysplastic changes of developing blood cell progenitors, leading to ineffective hematopoiesis. We used genome-editing technology to disrupt the zebrafish Tet2 catalytic domain. tet2m/m (homozygous for the mutation) zebrafish exhibited normal embryonic and larval hematopoiesis but developed progressive clonal myelodysplasia as they aged, culminating in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) at 24 months of age, with dysplasia of myeloid progenitor cells and anemia with abnormal circulating erythrocytes. The resultant tet2m/m mutant zebrafish lines show decreased levels of 5hmC in hematopoietic cells of the kidney marrow but not in other cell types, most likely reflecting the ability of other Tet family members to provide this enzymatic activity in nonhematopoietic tissues but not in hematopoietic cells. tet2m/m zebrafish are viable and fertile, providing an ideal model to dissect altered pathways in hematopoietic cells and, for small-molecule screens in embryos, to identify compounds with specific activity against tet2 mutant cells.
PMCID: PMC4323485  PMID: 25512612
16.  Application and Progress of Combined Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation in the Treatment of Ischemic Cardiomyopathy 
BioMed Research International  2015;2015:568502.
Treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy caused by myocardial infarction (MI) using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation is a widely researched field, with promising clinical application. However, the low survival rate of transplanted cells has a severe impact on treatment outcome. Currently, research is focused on investigating the strategy of combining genetic engineering, tissue engineering materials, and drug/hypoxia preconditioning to improve ischemic cardiomyopathy treatment outcome using MSC transplantation treatment (MSCTT). This review discusses the application and progress of these techniques.
PMCID: PMC4532814  PMID: 26295041
17.  Hepatitis C virus genotype and subtype distribution in Chinese chronic hepatitis C patients: nationwide spread of HCV genotypes 3 and 6 
Virology Journal  2015;12:109.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype and subtype are related to disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. Current HCV genotype and subtype distribution data, especially for genotypes 3 and 6, are limited in China. Our purpose was to investigate the current HCV genotype and subtype distributions in chronic hepatitis C patients in China.
Chronic hepatitis C patients (n = 1012) were enrolled, and demographic information and possible transmission risk factors were collected. Serum samples were subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, followed by direct DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the NS5B and core/E1 regions to determine HCV genotypes/subtypes. The geographical distributions of HCV genotypes/subtypes were analyzed. Demographic information and transmission risk factors were compared between different HCV genotypes/subtypes.
Four genotypes and seven subtypes of HCV were detected in 970 patients. Subtypes 1b, 2a, 3a, 6a, 3b, 6n, and 1a were detected at frequencies of 71.96 %, 19.90 %, 3.20 %, 2.16 %, 1.96 %, 0.41 %, and 0.41 %, respectively. Genotypes 3 and 6 showed an increasingly wide geographic distribution over time. Patients with subtypes 1b and 2a were older than those with 3a, 3b, 6a, and 6n subtypes (p < 0.05 in all subtypes). More genotype 1 and 2 patients underwent blood transfusion than those with genotype 3 (all p < 0.05). More genotype 3 and 6 patients had a history of intravenous drug use than those with genotypes 1 and 2 (all p < 0.05).
Though subtypes 1b and 2a are still the most prevalent HCV subtypes in China, genotype 3 and 6 HCV infections have already spread nationwide from southern and western China.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12985-015-0341-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4513753  PMID: 26206422
Hepatitis C virus (HCV); Genotype; Phylogenetic analysis
18.  Downregulation of KIF1B mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues correlates with poor prognosis 
AIM: To compare kinesin family member 1B (KIF1B) expression with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
METHODS: KIF1B protein and mRNA expression was assessed in HCC and paracarcinomatous (PC) tissues from 68 patients with HCC using Western blot and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR, respectively. Student’s t-tests were used to analyze relationships between clinicopathologic parameters and KIF1B expression, the Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze survival outcomes, and the log-rank test was used to compare survival differences between groups.
RESULTS: Mean protein and mRNA levels of KIF1B were similar between HCC and PC tissues. However, HCC tissues with vein invasions had significantly lower KIF1B protein levels compared to those without vein invasions (2.30 ± 0.82 relative units vs 2.77 ± 0.84 relative units, P < 0.05). KIF1B protein levels in HCC tissues from patients with recurrence during the follow-up period were significantly lower than those without recurrence (2.31 ± 0.92 relative units vs 2.80 ± 0.80 relative units, P < 0.05). However, KIF1B protein and mRNA expression in HCC patients was not associated with other clinicopathologic parameters. Ratios of KIF1B mRNA expression in HCC tissues to those in PC tissues were correlated with overall survival (13.5 mo vs 20.0 mo, P < 0.05) and disease-free survival (11.5 mo vs 19.5 mo, P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Downregulation of KIF1B in HCC tissues is associated with poor prognosis; additional clinical studies are needed to confirm whether KIF1B can serve as a prognostic marker.
PMCID: PMC4507112  PMID: 26217094
Clinicopathologic correlation; Kinesin family member 1B; Liver cancer; Survival; Tumor progression
19.  The Association of Lung Function, Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness, and Exhaled Nitric Oxide Differs Between Atopic and Non-atopic Asthma in Children 
Although many previous studies have attempted to identify differences between atopic asthma (AA) and non-atopic asthma (NAA), they have mainly focused on the difference of each variable of lung function and airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate relationships between lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and the exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels in children with AA and NAA.
One hundred and thirty six asthmatic children aged 5-15 years and 40 normal controls were recruited. Asthma cases were classified as AA (n=100) or NAA (n=36) from skin prick test results. Lung function, BHR to methacholine and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP), eNO, blood eosinophils, and serum total IgE were measured.
The AA and NAA cases shared common features including a reduced small airway function and increased BHR to methacholine. However, children with AA showed higher BHR to AMP and eNO levels than those with NAA. When the relationships among these variables in the AA and NAA cases were evaluated, the AA group showed significant relationships between lung function, BHR to AMP or methacholine and eNO levels. However, the children in the NAA group showed an association between small airway function and BHR to methacholine only.
These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of NAA may differ from that of AA during childhood in terms of the relationship between lung function, airway inflammation and BHR.
PMCID: PMC4446632  PMID: 25749776
Asthma; atopy; child; lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness; exhaled nitric oxide
20.  Deformation twinning evolution from a single crystal in a face-centered-cubic ternary alloy 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:11290.
Deformation twinning evolution from a single crystal is conducted by molecular dynamics simulations, to elucidate a twinned face-centered-cubic alloy in an experiment with hardness up to 100 times as that of single crystals, and with ductility simultaneously. Critical twinning stress of cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) calculated is 1.38 GPa. All the twin boundaries are along the (11-1) orientation, except the one with the (-111) plane that supports the indentation, interpreting the unidirectional and boundary-free characteristics, confirmed in the experiment. Three twin thicknesses after unloading are 3.2, 3.5, and 16 nm, which is consistent with the experimentally repeated pattern of a lamellar twin with thickness larger than 12.7 nm, followed by one or several twins with thicknesses smaller than 12.7 nm. An inverse triangle of a twin combining with three twins generate a synergistic strengthening effect through the hardening and softening functions, illuminating the ultrahigh hardness demonstrated in the experiment. Twinning takes place in loading, and detwinning occurs in unloading, which expounds the high ductility observed in the experiment.
PMCID: PMC4462139  PMID: 26060979
21.  Interactions Between Innate Immunity Genes and Early-Life Risk Factors in Allergic Rhinitis 
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a common chronic disease. Many factors could affect the development of AR. We investigated early-life factors, such as delivery mode, feeding method, and use of antibiotics during infancy, which could affect the development of AR. In addition, how interactions between these factors and innate gene polymorphisms influence the development of AR was investigated.
A cross-sectional study of 1,828 children aged 9-12 years was conducted. Three early-life factors and AR were assessed by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were done. Polymorphisms of TLR4 (rs1927911) and CD14 (rs2569190) were genotyped.
Use of antibiotics during infancy increased the risk of AR (aOR [95% CI] 1.511 [1.222-2.037]) and atopic AR (aOR [95% CI], 1.565 [1.078-2.272]). There were synergistic interactions between caesarean delivery, formula feeding, and use of antibiotics in the rate of atopic AR (aOR [95% CI], 3.038 [1.256-7.347]). Additional analyses revealed that the risk for the development of AR or atopic AR subjects with the TLR4 CC genotype were highest when all the 3 early-life factors were present (aOR [95% CI], 5.127 [1.265-20.780] for AR; 6.078 [1.499-24.649] for atopic AR). In addition, the risk for the development of AR or atopic AR in subjects with the CD14 TT genotype were highest when all the 3 early-life factors were present (aOR [95% CI], 5.960 [1.421-15.002] for AR; 6.714 [1.440-31.312] for atopic AR).
Delivery mode, feeding method, and use of antibiotics during infancy appeared to have synergistic interactions in the development of AR. Gene-environment interactions between polymorphism of innate genes and early- life risk factors might affect the development of AR.
PMCID: PMC4397364  PMID: 25840711
Obstetric delivery; infant food; antibiotics; gene-environment interaction, allergic rhinitis
22.  Gene-gene interactions among CX3CL1, LEPR and IL-6 related to coronary artery disease in Chinese Han population 
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the interactions among CX3CL1 (rs170364 and rs614230), LEPR (rs6700896), and IL-6 (rs2066992) polymorphisms on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in Chinese Han population. Methods: 120 CAD patients and 109 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing methods were used to analyze the genotypes of CX3CL1, LEPR, and IL-6 polymorphisms. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) software was utilized to analyze gene-gene interactions. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used for evaluating the association between gene polymorphisms or gene-gene interactions and CAD risk. Results: In the study, TT genotype of rs170364 in CX3CL1 might decrease the CAD risk (OR=0.39, 95% CI=0.16-0.98). No significant correlation was found between T allele of rs170364 and CAD risk (P>0.05). CC genotype and C allele in rs614230 (CX3CL1) were significantly related with decreased risk of CAD (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.17-0.86; OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.45-0.97). For IL-6 rs2066992 polymorphism. GG genotype could increase the risk of CAD (OR=2.32, 95% CI=1.04-5.17). Whereas, no significant correlation was observed between LEPR rs6700896 and CAD susceptibility. MDR analysis showed that CX3CL1, LEPR and IL-6 genes might jointly promote the occurrence of CAD. Conclusions: The interactions of CX3CL1, LEPR and IL-6 genes might increase the risk of CAD.
PMCID: PMC4503200  PMID: 26191329
CX3CL1; LEPR; IL-6; interaction; coronary artery disease
23.  Helicobacter pylori infection in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation 
To explore the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and atrial fibrillation (AF) in Chinese patients.
A total of 285 hospitalized patients with AF and 300 patients from Health Screening Center who matched age and sex with AF group were enrolled. AF patients were divided into two groups: the short-standing AF category (less than a year) and the long-standing AF category (more than a year). All patients had laboratory testing of 13C urea breath test, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and left atrial diameter (LAD). We analyzed the difference of these factors in all groups and explored the correlation between Hp infection and AF using logistic regression analysis.
Both AF groups had more hypertension, diabetes, and Hp infection than the control group. The Hp value and the hs-CRP level in patients with long-standing AF were higher than those in the short-standing AF and the control groups (for Hp value: P<0.001 for both and for hs-CRP level: P=0.003, 0.002, respectively). The LAD of patients in the long-standing AF group was significantly larger than those in the short-standing AF group and control group (P=0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). The values of Hp, hs-CRP, and LAD in the long-standing AF category were significantly higher than those in the short-standing AF category (all P<0.05). After controlling the potential confounders, Hp value ≥4‰, hs-CRP >5 mg/L, and LAD >36 mm were significantly related to long-standing AF.
The values of Hp in patients with long-standing AF were significantly higher than those in short-standing AF and control groups. Hp δ value ≥4‰ is an independent predictor for long-standing AF.
PMCID: PMC4423503  PMID: 25960645
high sensitivity C-reactive protein; left atrial diameter; 13C urea breath test
24.  Correlations of Human Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 Overexpression with MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, p53, and Clinicopathological Characteristics in Gastric Cancer Patients with Curative Resection 
Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between HER2 overexpression in the tumor and MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and p53 status and clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer patients. Methods. This retrospective study included 282 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery at the Kosin University Gospel Hospital between April 2011 and December 2012. All tumor samples were examined for HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, and p53 expression by staining. A retrospective review of the medical records was conducted to determine the correlation between the presence of HER2 overexpression and clinicopathological factors. Results. The HER2-positive rate was 18.1%. Although no association was found between HER2 expression and MUC5AC, the expression of MUC2, MUC6, and p53 was significantly correlated with HER2 positivity, respectively (P = 0.004, 0.037, 0.002). Multivariate analysis revealed that HER2 overexpression and nodal status were independent prognostic factors. Conclusions. HER2 overexpression in gastric carcinoma is an independent poor prognostic factor.
PMCID: PMC4427822  PMID: 26060493
25.  Transcutaneous electrical stimulation at auricular acupoints innervated by auricular branch of vagus nerve pairing tone for tinnitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial 
Trials  2015;16:101.
Subjective tinnitus is a phantom sensation experienced in the absence of any source of sound. Its mechanism remains unclear, and no approved drugs are available. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an exciting new method to treat tinnitus, but direct electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus has disadvantages. This randomized controlled clinical trial aims to overcome these limitations by stimulating the auricular branch of vagus nerve (ABVN) on the outer ear. Since the ABVN is the only peripheral branch of the vagus nerve distributed on the ear’s surface, it should be possible to achieve analogous efficacy to VNS by activating the central vagal pathways. However, researches have indicated that the curative effect lies in a combination of auditory and vagal nerve stimulation. Moreover, from traditional Chinese theory, auricular acupoints used to treat tinnitus are mainly in the regions supplied by the ABVN. Whether stimulation at the auricular acupoints is due to unintentional stimulation of vagal afferent fibers also needs evidence.
A total of 120 subjects with subjective tinnitus are randomized equally into four groups: (1) electrical stimulation at auricular acupoints (CO10, CO11, CO12, and TF4) innervated by the ABVN; (2) electrical stimulation at auricular acupoints (CO10, CO11, CO12, and TF4) innervated by ABVN pairing tones; (3) electrical stimulation at auricular acupoints innervated by non-ABVN pairing tones; (4) electrical acupuncture. Patients will be treated for 30 minutes every other day for 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory. The secondary outcome measure combines a visual analogue scale to measure tinnitus disturbance and loudness with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Assessment is planned at baseline (before treatment) and in the 4th and 8th week, with further follow-up visits after termination of the treatment at the 12th week. Any adverse events will be promptly documented.
Completion of this trial will help to confirm whether ABVN or the combination of ABVN and sound stimulus plays a more important role in treating tinnitus. Moreover, the result of this clinical trial will enhance our understanding of specific auricular acupoints.
Trial registration
Chinese Clinical Trials Register ChiCTR-TRC-14004940.
PMCID: PMC4384366  PMID: 25872506
auricular acupoints; auricular branch of vagus nerve (ABVN); randomized controlled trial; subjective tinnitus; tones

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