Patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and heterotaxy show high postsurgical morbidity/mortality, with some developing respiratory complications. Although this finding is often attributed to the CHD, airway clearance and left-right patterning both require motile cilia function. Thus, airway ciliary dysfunction (CD) similar to that of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) may contribute to increased respiratory complications in heterotaxy patients.
Methods and Results
We assessed 43 CHD patients with heterotaxy for airway CD. Videomicrocopy was used to examine ciliary motion in nasal tissue, and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) was measured; nNO level is typically low with PCD. Eighteen patients exhibited CD characterized by abnormal ciliary motion and nNO levels below or near the PCD cutoff values. Patients with CD aged >6 years show increased respiratory symptoms similar to those seen in PCD. Sequencing of all 14 known PCD genes in 13 heterotaxy patients with CD, 12 without CD, 10 PCD disease controls, and 13 healthy controls yielded 0.769, 0.417, 1.0, and 0.077 novel variants per patient, respectively. One heterotaxy patient with CD had the PCD causing DNAI1 founder mutation. Another with hyperkinetic ciliary beat had 2 mutations in DNAH11, the only PCD gene known to cause hyperkinetic beat. Among PCD patients, 2 had known PCD causing CCDC39 and CCDC40 mutations.
Our studies show that CHD patients with heterotaxy have substantial risk for CD and increased respiratory disease. Heterotaxy patients with CD were enriched for mutations in PCD genes. Future studies are needed to assess the potential benefit of prescreening and prophylactically treating heterotaxy patients for CD.
genomic studies; heart defects; congenital; heterotaxy; nitric oxide; primary ciliary dyskinesia
Despite progress in the design of advanced surgical techniques, stenosis recurs in a large percentage of vascular anastomosis. In this study, a novel heparin-poloxamer (HP) hydrogel was designed and its effects for improving the quality and safety of vascular anastomosis were studied. HP copolymer was synthesized and its structure was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR). Hydrogels containing HP were prepared and their important characteristics related to the application in vascular anastomosis including gelation temperature, rheological behaviour and micromorphology were measured. Vascular anastomosis were performed on the right common carotid arteries of rabbits, and the in vivo efficiency and safety of HP hydrogel to achieve vascular anastomosis was verified and compared with Poloxamer 407 hydrogel and the conventional hand-sewn method using Doppler ultrasound, CT angiograms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histological technique. Our results showed that HP copolymer displayed special gel-sol-gel phase transition behavior with increasing temperature from 5 to 60 °C. HP hydrogel prepared from 18 wt% HP solution had a porous sponge-like structure, with gelation temperature at approximately 38 °C and maximum elastic modulus at 10,000 Pa. In animal studies, imaging and histological examination of rabbit common jugular artery confirmed that HP hydrogel group had similar equivalent patency, flow and burst strength as Poloxamer 407 group. Moreover, HP hydrogel was superior to poloxamer 407 hydrogel and hand-sewn method for restoring the functions and epithelial structure of the broken vessel junctions after operation. By combining the advantages of heparin and poloxamer 407, HP hydrogel holds high promise for improving vascular anastomosis quality and safety.
Coral harbor diverse and specific bacteria play significant roles in coral holobiont function. Bacteria associated with three of the common and phylogenetically divergent reef-building corals in the South China Sea, Porites lutea, Galaxea fascicularis and Acropora millepora, were investigated using 454 barcoded-pyrosequencing. Three colonies of each species were sampled, and 16S rRNA gene libraries were constructed individually. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities associated with the three coral species were more diverse than previous estimates based on corals from the Caribbean Sea, Indo-Pacific reefs and the Red Sea. Three candidate phyla, including BRC1, OD1 and SR1, were found for the first time in corals. Bacterial communities were separated into three groups: P. lutea and G. fascicular, A. millepora and seawater. P. lutea and G. fascicular displayed more similar bacterial communities, and bacterial communities associated with A. millepora differed from the other two coral species. The three coral species shared only 22 OTUs, which were distributed in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and an unclassified bacterial group. The composition of bacterial communities within each colony of each coral species also showed variation. The relatively small common and large specific bacterial communities in these corals implies that bacterial associations may be structured by multiple factors at different scales and that corals may associate with microbes in terms of similar function, rather than identical species.
We previously demonstrated upregulation of c-myc, survivin, and cyclin D1 in CD34+ bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) of patients with trisomy 8 and monosomy 7 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). “Knockdown” of cyclin D1 by RNA interference decreased trisomy 8 cell growth, suggesting that this might be a therapeutic target in MDS.
We performed preclinical studies using BMMNCs from patients with MDS and AML to examine the effects of the styryl sulfone ON 01910.Na on cyclin D1 accumulation, aneuploidy, and CD34+ blast percentage. We next treated twelve patients with higher risk MDS and two trisomy 8 AML patients with ON01910.Na on a phase I clinical protocol (NCT00533416).
ON 01910.Na inhibited cyclin D1 expression, and was selectively toxic to trisomy 8 cells in vitro. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated increased mature CD15+ myeloid cells and decreased CD34+ blasts. Three patients treated with ON01910.Na on a clinical had decreased bone marrow blasts by ≥50%, and three patients had hematologic improvements, one of which was sustained for 33 months. Patients with hematologic responses to ON 01910.Na had decreased cyclin D1 expression in their CD34+ cells.
The preclinical results and responses of patients on a clinical trial warrant further investigation of ON 01910.Na as a potential novel targeted therapy for higher risk MDS patients.
MDS; Treatment; ON 01910.Na; Cyclin D1
Patients with ALK gene rearrangements often manifest dramatic responses to crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor. Accurate identification of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential for the clinical application of ALK-targeted therapy. However, assessing EML4-ALK rearrangement in NSCLC remains challenging in routine pathology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FISH, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (QPCR) methodologies for detection of EML4-ALK rearrangement in NSCLC and to appraise immunohistochemistry as a pre-screening tool. In this study, a total of 473 paraffin-embedded NSCLC samples from surgical resections and biopsies were analyzed by IHC with ALK antibody. ALK rearrangement was further confirmed by FISH and QPCR. ALK protein expression was detected in twenty patients (20/473, 4.2%). Of the 20 ALK-positive cases by IHC, 15 cases were further confirmed as ALK rearrangement by FISH, and 5 cases were not interpretable. Also, we evaluated 13 out of the 20 IHC-positive tissues by QPCR in additional to FISH, and found that 9 cases were positive and 2 cases were equivocal, whereas 2 cases were negative although they were positive by both IHC and FISH. The ALK status was concordant in 5 out of 8 cases that were interpretable by three methods. Additionally, none of the 110 IHC-negative cases with adenocarcinoma histology showed ALK rearrangements by FISH. Histologically, almost all the ALK-rearranged cases were adenocarcinoma, except that one case was sarcomatoid carcinoma. A solid signet-ring cell pattern or mucinous cribriform pattern was presented at least focally in all ALK-positive tumors. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ALK rearrangement was associated with ALK protein expression. The conventional IHC assay is a valuable tool for the pre-screening of patients with ALK rearrangement in clinical practice and a combination of FISH and QPCR is required for further confirmation.
Baicalin, a flavonoid compound isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, has been shown to possess antiinflammatory, antiviral, antitumour, and immune regulatory properties. The present study evaluated the potential herb-drug interaction between baicalin and midazolam in rats. Coadministration of a single dose of baicalin (0.225, 0.45, and 0.90 g/kg, i.v.) with midazolam (10 mg/kg, i.v.) in rats resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in clearance (CL) from 25% (P < 0.05) to 34% (P < 0.001) with an increase in AUC0−∞
from 47% (P < 0.05) to 53% (P < 0.01). Pretreatment of baicalin (0.90 g/kg, i.v., once daily for 7 days) also reduced midazolam CL by 43% (P < 0.001), with an increase in AUC0−∞
by 87% (P < 0.01). Multiple doses of baicalin decreased the expression of hepatic CYP3A2 by approximately 58% (P < 0.01) and reduced midazolam 1′-hydroxylation by 23% (P < 0.001) and 4′-hydroxylation by 21% (P < 0.01) in the liver. In addition, baicalin competitively inhibited midazolam metabolism in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. Our data demonstrated that baicalin induced changes in the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in rats, which might be due to its inhibition of the hydroxylation activity and expression of CYP3A in the liver.
Gene transfer using a nanoparticle vector is a promising new approach for the safe delivery of therapeutic genes in human disease. The Tat peptide-decorated gelatin-siloxane (Tat-GS) nanoparticle has been demonstrated to be biocompatible as a vector, and to have enhanced gene transfection efficiency compared with the commercial reagent. This study investigated whether intracisternal administration of Tat-GS nanoparticles carrying the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) gene can attenuate cerebral vasospasm and improve neurological outcomes in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.
A series of gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles with controlled size and surface charge was synthesized by a two-step sol-gel process, and then modified with the Tat peptide. The efficiency of Tat-GS nanoparticle-mediated gene transfer of pLXSN-CGRP was investigated in vitro using brain capillary endothelial cells and in vivo using a double-hemorrhage rat model. For in vivo analysis, we delivered Tat-GS nanoparticles encapsulating pLXSN-CGRP intracisternally using a double-hemorrhage rat model.
In vitro, Tat-GS nanoparticles encapsulating pLXSN-CGRP showed 1.71 times higher sustained CGRP expression in endothelial cells than gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles encapsulating pLXSN-CGRP, and 6.92 times higher CGRP expression than naked pLXSN-CGRP. However, there were no significant differences in pLXSN-CGRP entrapment efficiency and cellular uptake between the Tat-GS nanoparticles and gelatin-siloxane nanoparticles. On day 7 of the in vivo experiment, the data indicated better neurological outcomes and reduced vasospasm in the subarachnoid hemorrhage group that received Tat-GS nanoparticles encapsulating pLXSN-CGRP than in the group receiving Tat-GS nanoparticles encapsulating pLXSN alone because of enhanced vasodilatory CGRP expression in cerebrospinal fluid.
Overexpression of CGRP attenuated vasospasm and improved neurological outcomes in an experimental rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Tat-GS nanoparticle-mediated CGRP gene delivery could be an innovative strategy for treatment of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
gene transfer; nanoparticles; calcitonin gene-related peptide; cerebral vasospasm
Autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease results from mutations in PRKCSH or SEC63. The respective gene products, glucosidase IIβ and SEC63p, function in protein translocation and quality control pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we show that glucosidase IIα and Sec63p are required in mice for adequate expression of a functional complex of the polycystic kidney disease gene products, polycystin-1 and polycystin-2. We find that polycystin-1 is the rate-limiting component of this complex and that there is a dose-response relationship between cystic dilation and levels of functional polycystin-1 following mutation of Prkcsh or Sec63. Reduced expression of polycystin-1 also serves to sensitize the kidney to cyst formation resulting from mutations in Pkhd1, the recessive polycystic kidney disease gene. Finally, we show that proteasome inhibition increases steady-state levels of polycystin-1 in cells lacking glucosidase IIβ and that treatment with a proteasome inhibitor reduces cystic disease in orthologous gene models of human autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease.
A near-infrared (NIR)-responsive Aurod@pNIPAAm-PEGMA nanogel was synthesized in two steps, growing a PEGMA monolayer on the surface of gold nanorods (AuNRs), followed by in situ polymerization and cross-linking of N-iso-propylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and poly-(ethylene glycol)-methacrylate (PEGMA). The AuNRs and Aurod@pNIPAAm-PEGMA nanogel were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The lower critical solution temperature of the Aurod@pNIPAAm-PEGMA nanogel could be tuned by changing the molar ratio of NIPAAm/PEGMA. The NIR-mediated drug release behavior of the Aurod@pNIPAAm-PEGMA nanogel was studied with zinc phthalocyanines (ZnPc4) as a drug model. It was also demonstrated that the loaded ZnPc4 could keep the capability of generating singlet oxygen, and the in vitro study showed a great photodynamic therapy (PDT) effect on Hela cells. It thus indicated the potential of this Aurod@pNIPAAm-PEGMA nanogel for application as a drug carrier in PDT, which might make contributions to oncotherapy.
NIR-responsive; Aurod@pNIPAAm-PEGMA nanogel; LCST; singlet oxygen; PDT
♦ Background: Accelerated cardiovascular disease (CVD), including peripheral arterial disease (PAD), is very common in patients with end-stage renal disease. Residual renal function (RRF) is a strong predictor of patient survival that is suggested to be linked to the degree of CVD. However, the relationship between PAD and decline in RRF has not previously been measured.
♦ Methods: We studied incident continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients from Peking University Third Hospital. An ankle brachial index of less than 0.9 was used to diagnose PAD. Residual renal function (RRF) was determined as the mean of 24-hour urea and creatinine clearances (glomerular filtration rate). The Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors predicting loss of RRF.
♦ Results: The study included 86 patients (age: 61 ± 14 years; men: 51%), 23 of whom had PAD at baseline. Mean follow-up was 19 months (median: 18 months; range: 6 – 30 months). In univariate analysis, baseline PAD, peritonitis during follow-up, inflammation (C-reactive protein), serum uric acid, Ca×P, and serum phosphate were all significantly associated with a greater-than-50% decrease in RRF during follow-up. In multivariate analysis, only baseline PAD, Ca×P, and peritonitis were independently associated with a decline in RRF.
♦ Conclusions: Our study suggests that PAD may be a clinically important marker of CVD predicting the loss of RRF. It remains to be determined whether interventions aimed at decreasing PAD may also improve renal vascular status and thus slow the rate of RRF decline.
Ankle brachial index; end-stage renal disease; cardiovascular disease; inflammation; nutrition; atherosclerosis
Somatic alterations of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)-cyclin E complex have been shown to contribute to breast cancer (BC) development and progression. This study aimed to explore the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CDK2 and CCNE1 (a gene encoding G1/S specific cyclin E1 protein, formerly called cyclin E) on BC risk, progression and survival in a Chinese Han population.
We herein genotyped 6 haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNPs) of CCNE1 and 2 htSNPs of CDK2 in 1207 BC cases and 1207 age-matched controls among Chinese Han women, and then reconstructed haplotype blocks according to our genotyping data and linkage disequilibrium status of these htSNPs. For CCNE1, the minor allele homozygotes of three htSNPs were associated with BC risk (rs3218035: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.69–6.67; rs3218038: aOR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.22–2.70; rs3218042: aOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.31–5.34), and these three loci showed a dose-dependent manner in increasing BC risk (Ptrend = 0.0001). Moreover, the 5-SNP haplotype CCGTC, which carried none of minor alleles of the 3 at-risk SNPs, was associated with a favorable event-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32–0.90). Stratified analysis suggested that the minor-allele homozygote carriers of rs3218038 had a worse event-free survival among patients with aggressive tumours (in tumour size>2 cm group: HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.06–3.99; in positive lymph node metastasis group: HR = 2.41, 95% CI = 1.15–5.03; in stage II–IV group: HR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.09–3.79). For CDK2, no significant association was found.
This study indicates that genetic variants in CCNE1 may contribute to BC risk and survival in Chinese Han population. They may become molecular markers for individual evaluation of BC susceptibility and prognosis. Nevertheless, further validation studies are needed.
In 2009, China implemented the national essential medicines system by enacting the National Essential Medicines List 2009. According to the policy of this system, primary health care institutions can only stock and use essential medicines on the prescribed List. Meanwhile, each province can choose to make its own list of supplemented medicines. The goal of the study is to provide suggestions for emerging problems and identify future policy-making trends.
In this study, we statistically analyzed the National Essential Medicines List 2009 and lists of supplemented medicines of all 29 provinces. We also examined the rationality of such medicines based on the DELPHI method and literature review, after which we studied the provincial supplements in relation to the national essential medicines system.
We demonstrated that the National Essential Medicines List 2009 provides a comprehensive coverage of diseases as well as reasonable varieties of drugs for their treatment. The average number of supplemented medicines in 29 provinces is 207, with each medicine included in 2.9 provincial lists on average. Only 2.6% supplemented medicines are included by more than half of the provinces (>15), indicating great regional variance. Among the 32 most frequently supplemented medicines, only 18 meet the selection principles, including two with strict usage restrictions.
The structure and selection of the National Essential Medicines List 2009 are relatively reasonable. The main problems, however, include the excessive and non-scientific selection of medicines on the supplemented medicines list. The function of the provincial lists of supplemented medicines has not been achieved, which has influenced the effectiveness of the national essential medicines system in China.
Essential medicines list; Supplemented list; Policy
Nanoparticle exposure in pregnancy may result in placental damage and fetotoxicity; however, the factors that determine fetal nanoparticle exposure are unclear. Here we have assessed the effect of gestational age and nanoparticle composition on fetal accumulation of maternally-administered nanomaterials in mice. We determined the placental and fetal uptake of 13 nm gold nanoparticles with different surface modifications (ferritin, PEG and citrate) following intravenous administration at E5.5-15.5. We showed that prior to E11.5, all tested nanoparticles could be visualized and detected in fetal tissues in significant amounts; however, fetal gold levels declined dramatically post-E11.5. In contrast, Au-nanoparticle accumulation in the extraembryonic tissues (EET) increased 6–15 fold with gestational age. Fetal and EET accumulation of ferritin- and PEG-modified nanoparticles was considerably greater than citrate-capped nanoparticles. No signs of toxicity were observed. Fetal exposure to nanoparticles in murine pregnancy is, therefore, influenced by both stage of embryonic/placental maturation and nanoparticle surface composition.
We investigate a change-point approach for modeling and estimating the regression effects caused by a concomitant intervention in a longitudinal study. Since a concomitant intervention is often introduced when a patient's health status exhibits undesirable trends, statistical models without properly incorporating the intervention and its starting time may lead to biased estimates of the intervention effects. We propose a shared parameter change-point model to evaluate the pre- and postintervention time trends of the response and develop a likelihood-based method for estimating the intervention effects and other parameters. Application and statistical properties of our method are demonstrated through a longitudinal clinical trial in depression and heart disease and a simulation study.
Change-point model; Concomitant intervention; Likelihood; Longitudinal study; Shared parameter model
Progressive disruption of renal tubular integrity in the setting of increased cellular proliferation and apoptosis is a feature of ADPKD. Here we evaluated the effect of these processes on the expression of NGAL and IL-18, markers of tubular injury, in rodent models and in the cyst fluid and urine of patients with ADPKD. Two mouse models where Pkd2 was inactivated which resulted in early or adult onset cysts, were used to evaluate NGAL levels. Further, the Han:SPRD rat model of polycystic disease was used to study IL-18 levels. In four annual serial urine samples from 107 patients with ADPKD in the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging for the Study of Polycystic Kidney Disease (CRISP) study, NGAL and IL-18 excretion rates were determined in conjunction with measures of total kidney volume and estimated GFR (eGFR) by the MDRD equation. Kidneys from affected mice and rats showed prominent expression of NGAL and IL-18/IL-18R, respectively, in epithelial cells lining kidney cysts. In human ADPKD cyst fluid, both NGAL and IL-18 were elevated. In CRISP patients, the mean percentage increase in total kidney volume was 5.4 /year and the mean decline in eGFR 2.4 mL/min/year. The trend of increased mean urine NGAL and IL-18 over three years was statistically significant; however, there was no association of tertiles of IL-18 or quartiles of NGAL and the change in total kidney volume or eGFR over this period. Thus, urinary NGAL and IL-18 excretion are mildly and stably elevated in ADPKD, but do not correlate with changes in total kidney volume or kidney function. This may be due, in part, to the lack of communication between individual cysts and the urinary collecting system in this disorder.
surrogate; NGAL; IL-18; biomarker
Patients receiving lenalidomide are at an increased risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Here, we prospectively investigated the DVT risk in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia treated with lenalidomide (n=32). Five patients developed six incidents of DVT over one year for an annual incidence of 16%. Three of these were considered drug-related. Median time to DVT was 105 days (range 56–259 days). No pulmonary embolism was detected. Hypercoagulability screen before study entry was negative in all patients who subsequently developed DVTs. Compared to normal volunteers CLL patients had increased baseline levels of D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin, soluble vascular endothelial adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), and thrombomodulin (P<0.001). After one week on lenalidomide D-dimer, thrombomodulin, sVCAM-1, factor VIII, TNFα, and C-reactive protein were significantly increased while protein C was decreased (P<0.001). In patients with lenalidomide-related DVTs, TNFα, and sVCAM-1 were more strongly upregulated than in all other patients (P<0.05) and TNFα and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P<0.001). These data link lenalidomide associated DVTs with TNFα upregulation and endothelial cell dysfunction and suggest that aspirin may have a role for DVT prophylaxis in these patients.
Lenalidomide; venous thrombosis; tumor necrosis factor alpha; inflammation; endothelial dysfunction
Although diffusion tensor imaging has been used to monitor Wallerian degeneration, the exact relationship between the evolution of diffusion indices and its underlying pathology, especially in central nervous system, remains largely unknown. Here we aimed to address this question using a cat Wallerian degeneration model of corticospinal tract.
Twenty-five domestic mature Felis catus were included in the present study. The evolution of diffusion indices, including mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), primary (λ1) and transverse eigenvalues (λ23) of the degenerated corticospinal tract, were observed at baseline (before modeling) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 45 and 60 days after modeling in 4 cats. Pathological examinations were performed at eight time points mentioned above. Wallerian degeneration can be detected as early as the 2nd day after modeling by both diffusion tensor imaging and pathology. According to the evolution of diffusion indices, Wallerian degeneration can be classified into 2 stages. During the early stage (within 8 days after modeling), progressive disintegration of axons and myelin sheaths underlies the decreases in FA and λ1 and the increase in λ23. However, during the late stage (after 8 days), the gradual increases in FA, MD and λ1 and the unchanged λ23 seem to be a comprehensive reflection of the pathological processes including microglia activation, myelin clearance, and astrocytosis.
Our findings help the understanding of the altered diffusion indices in the context of pathology and suggest that diffusion tensor imaging has the potential to monitor the processes of Wallerian degeneration in the central nervous system in vivo after acute damage.
Telomerase plays important roles in the development and progression of malignant tumors, and its activity is primarily determined by transcriptional regulation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Several mRNA alternative splicing variants (ASVs) for hTERT have been identified, but it remains unclear whether telomerase activity is directly associated with hTERT splicing transcripts. In this study, we developed novel real-time PCR protocols using molecular beacons and applied to lung carcinoma cell lines and cancerous tissues for quantification of telomerase activity and three essential hTERT deletion transcripts respectively. The results showed that lung carcinoma cell lines consistently demonstrated telomerase activity (14.22–31.43 TPG units per 100 cells) and various hTERT alternative splicing transcripts. For 165 lung cancer cases, telomerase activity showed significant correlation with tumor differentiation (poorly->moderately->well-differentiated, P<0.01) and with histotypes (combined small cell and squamous cell carcinoma>squamous cell carcinoma>adenosquamous carcinoma>adenocarcinoma, P<0.05). Although the overall hTERT transcripts were detected in all the samples, they were not associated with telomerase activity (r = 0.092, P = 0.24). Telomerase activity was significantly correlated with the transcriptional constituent ratio of α-deletion (r = -0.267, P = 0.026), β-deletion (r = -0.693, P = 0.0001) and γ-deletion (r = –0.614, P = 0.001). The positive rate and average constituent ratio of β-deletion transcripts (92.12%, 0.23) were higher than those of α-deletion (41.82%, 0.12) or γ-deletion (16.36%, 0.18) transcripts. The combined small-cell and squamous cell carcinomas expressed less deletion transcripts, especially β-deletion, than other histotypes, which might explain their higher telomerase activity. In conclusion, the molecular beacon-based real-time PCR protocols are rapid, sensitive and specific methods to quantify telomerase activity and hTERT ASVs. Telomerase activity may serve as a reliable and effective molecular marker to assist the evaluation of histological subtype and differentiation of lung carcinomas. Further studies on hTERT deletion splicing transcripts, rather than the overall hTERT transcripts, may improve our understanding of telomerase regulation.
A human endogenous retrovirus type E was recently found to be selectively expressed in most renal cell carcinomas (RCC). Importantly, antigens derived from this provirus are immunogenic, stimulating cytotoxic T-cells that kill RCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Here we show HERV-E expression is restricted to the clear cell subtype of RCC (ccRCC) characterized by an inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene with subsequent stabilization of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1α and -2α. HERV-E expression in ccRCC linearly correlated with HIF-2α levels and could be silenced in tumor cells by either transfection of normal VHL or siRNA inhibition of HIF-2α. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrated that HIF-2α can serve as transcriptional factor for HERV-E by binding with HIF response elements (HRE) localized in the proviral 5′LTR. Remarkably, the LTR was found to be hypomethylated only in HERV-E-expressing ccRCC while other tumors and normal tissues possessed a hypermethylated LTR preventing proviral expression. Taken altogether, these findings provide the first evidence that inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene can result in aberrant proviral expression in a human tumor and give insights needed for translational research aimed at boosting human immunity against antigenic components of this HERV-E.
renal cell carcinoma; endogenous retrovirus; VHL; HIF; DNA methylation
In the title compound, C18H22N4OS2, the six-membered rings are almost coplanar, showing a dihedral angle between the mean planes of 9.0 (4)°, while the triazol ring is nearly perpendicular to the thiochromen-4-one unit, making an angle of 89.8 (4)°. In the crystal, C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the molecules in a stacked arrangement along the c axis.