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author:("Qin, guoyo")
1.  Using a generalized additive model with autoregressive terms to study the effects of daily temperature on mortality 
Generalized Additive Model (GAM) provides a flexible and effective technique for modelling nonlinear time-series in studies of the health effects of environmental factors. However, GAM assumes that errors are mutually independent, while time series can be correlated in adjacent time points. Here, a GAM with Autoregressive terms (GAMAR) is introduced to fill this gap.
Parameters in GAMAR are estimated by maximum partial likelihood using modified Newton’s method, and the difference between GAM and GAMAR is demonstrated using two simulation studies and a real data example. GAMM is also compared to GAMAR in simulation study 1.
In the simulation studies, the bias of the mean estimates from GAM and GAMAR are similar but GAMAR has better coverage and smaller relative error. While the results from GAMM are similar to GAMAR, the estimation procedure of GAMM is much slower than GAMAR. In the case study, the Pearson residuals from the GAM are correlated, while those from GAMAR are quite close to white noise. In addition, the estimates of the temperature effects are different between GAM and GAMAR.
GAMAR incorporates both explanatory variables and AR terms so it can quantify the nonlinear impact of environmental factors on health outcome as well as the serial correlation between the observations. It can be a useful tool in environmental epidemiological studies.
PMCID: PMC3549928  PMID: 23110601
2.  A Partially Linear Regression Model for Data from an Outcome-Dependent Sampling Design 
The outcome dependent sampling scheme has been gaining attention in both the statistical literature and applied fields. Epidemiological and environmental researchers have been using it to select the observations for more powerful and cost-effective studies. Motivated by a study of the effect of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on children’s IQ at age 7, in which the effect of an important confounding variable is nonlinear, we consider a semi-parametric regression model for data from an outcome-dependent sampling scheme where the relationship between the response and covariates is only partially parameterized. We propose a penalized spline maximum likelihood estimation (PSMLE) for inference on both the parametric and the nonparametric components and develop their asymptotic properties. Through simulation studies and an analysis of the IQ study, we compare the proposed estimator with several competing estimators. Practical considerations of implementing those estimators are discussed.
PMCID: PMC3181132  PMID: 21966030
Outcome dependent sampling; Estimated likelihood; Semiparametric method; Penalized spline
3.  Partial linear inference for a 2-stage outcome-dependent sampling design with a continuous outcome 
Biostatistics (Oxford, England)  2010;12(3):506-520.
The outcome-dependent sampling (ODS) design, which allows observation of exposure variable to depend on the outcome, has been shown to be cost efficient. In this article, we propose a new statistical inference method, an estimated penalized likelihood method, for a partial linear model in the setting of a 2-stage ODS with a continuous outcome. We develop the asymptotic properties and conduct simulation studies to demonstrate the performance of the proposed estimator. A real environmental study data set is used to illustrate the proposed method.
PMCID: PMC3114650  PMID: 21156990
Biased sampling; Partial linear model; P-spline; Validation sample; 2-stage
4.  Semiparametric Accelerated Failure Time Partial Linear Model and Its Application to Breast Cancer 
Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in women and the second most common cause of cancer-related death in U.S. women. It is well known that the breast cancer survival varies by age at diagnosis. For most cancers, the relative survival decreases with age but breast cancer may have the unusual age pattern. In order to reveal the stage risk and age effects pattern, we propose the semiparametric accelerated failure time partial linear model and develop its estimation method based on the P-spline and the rank estimation approach. The simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method is comparable to the parametric approach when data is not contaminated, and more stable than the parametric methods when data is contaminated. By applying the proposed model and method to the breast cancer data set of Atlantic county, New Jersey from SEER program, we successfully reveal the significant effects of stage, and show that women diagnosed around 38s have consistently higher survival rates than either younger or older women.
PMCID: PMC3076955  PMID: 21499529
Accelerated failure time model; Partial linear model; Penalized spline; Rank estimation; Robustness

Results 1-4 (4)