Left atrial dissection does occur, though rarely, after mitral valve surgery. A 68-year-old Korean female presented with moderate mitral stenosis, mild mitral regurgitation, moderate tricuspid regurgitation and mild aortic regurgitation. She was scheduled for mitral valve replacement and tricuspid annuloplasty. We experienced a left atrial dissection after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and decided not to repair it. The patient recovered uneventfully. We suggest that a specific type of left atrial dissection can be treated conservatively.
Atrium; Dissection; Mitral valve
We report that intraoperative NIM-2 monitoring devices can interfere with bispectral index monitoring. A 45-year-old male with chronic otits media underwent tympanolasty under general anesthesia with NIM-2 monitoring and bispectral index monitoring at our institution. And then, bispectral index monitoring was severely interrupted by facial nerve monitoring.
Bispectral index monitor; Facial nerve; Intraoperative monitoring; Tympanoplasy
We herein report a rare case of subaortic stenosis in association with a previous tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) surgical repair, which was not taken into account as a differential diagnosis. Echocardiography plays a pivotal role in identification of this rare combination. Therefore, echocardiography should be performed periodically during follow-up of patients with surgically corrected TOF. Given the clinical complications that can result from subaortic stenosis (i.e., aortic regurgitation and infective endocarditis), early and aggressive management of this rare combination should be performed.
Tetralogy of Fallot; Ventricular outflow obstruction; Echocardiography
We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Iodixanol; Coronary angiography
Ingestion of disk batteries may have serious complications such as esophageal burn, perforation, and tracheoesophageal fistula, particularly when the battery is caught in the esophagus. Proper placement of the tracheal tube is critical when tracheoesophageal fistula was occurred from esophageal impaction the battery. Endoscopy of upper gastrointestinal tract in infants and children is an important and effective tool for the diagnosis and treatment of foreign body ingestion. But upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in infant and children has very high risk of tracheal compression and airway compromise. We present a case of ventilatory compromise during insertion of the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in 16-month-old child with tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to disk battery ingestion.
Disk battery ingestion; Gastrointestinal endoscopy; Tracheoesophageal fistula; Ventilatory compromise
Classic cystic fibrosis is now known part of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-related disorders. These include a wide spectrum, from multi-system disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, to mono-symptomatic conditions, such as chronic pancreatitis or congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens. However, respiratory disease is considered typical for the multi system disorder, cystic fibrosis, and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of CFTR gene mutations in Korean children with asthma.
Materials and Methods
We selected 14 mutations identified in Korea and each of the 48 children with and without asthma were genotyped for the case-control study.
No significant differences were found in genotype and allele frequencies of the 9 polymorphisms observed between the non-asthma and asthma groups. In a haplotype determination based on a Bayesian algorithm, 8 haplotypes were assembled in the 98 individuals tested. However, we also did not find any significant differences in haplotype frequencies between the non-asthma and asthma groups.
We have concluded that this study did not show any evidence in support of providing that CFTR genetic variations significantly contribute to the susceptibility of asthma in Korean children.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; asthma; children
Unipolar resistance switching (RS) in TiO2 thin films originates from the repeated formation and rupture of the Magnéli phase conducting filaments through repeated nano-scale phase transitions. By applying the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) type kinetic model to the careful analysis on the evolution of transient current in a pulse-switching, it was possible to elucidate the material specific evolution of the Magnéli phase filament. This methodology was applied to the two types of TiO2 films grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and sputtering. These two samples have structurally and electrically distinctive properties: PEALD film exhibited high variability in switching parameters and required an electroforming while sputtered film showed higher uniformity without distinct electroforming process. The JMA-type kinetic analysis of the RS behaviors revealed that the rejuvenation of the filament is accomplished by repeated one-dimensional nucleation followed by a two-dimensional growth in PEALD samples, whereas one-dimensional nucleation-free mechanism dominates in sputtered films.
Small molecule modulators of protein activity are increasingly being utilized as tools to examine the functional roles of proteins. Operating at the post-translational level, these molecules provide enhanced temporal and spatial control and mitigate the potential for compensatory responses in comparison with classical genetic approaches. Proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules, or PROTACs, are small molecules that inhibit the function of their target proteins by targeting them for degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). This chapter summarizes strategies for PROTAC preparation and characterization.
Chemical Genetics; PROTAC; Ubiquitin; Proteasome; Small molecule; E3 ubiquitin ligase; Protein degradation
Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway; E3 ligase; Estrogen receptor; PROTAC; Targeted degradation
The anti-apoptotic protein Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is a regulator of apoptosis linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. It has been hypothesized that BI-1 protects against neuron degenerative diseases. In this study, BI-1−/− mice showed increased vulnerability to chronic mild stress accompanied by alterations in the size and morphology of the hippocampi, enhanced ROS accumulation and an ER stress response compared with BI-1+/+ mice. BI-1−/− mice exposed to chronic mild stress showed significant activation of monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), but not MAO-B, compared with BI-1+/+ mice. To examine the involvement of BI-1 in the Ca2+-sensitive MAO activity, thapsigargin-induced Ca2+ release and MAO activity were analyzed in neuronal cells overexpressing BI-1. The in vitro study showed that BI-1 regulates Ca2+ release and related MAO-A activity. This study indicates an endogenous protective role of BI-1 under conditions of chronic mild stress that is primarily mediated through Ca2+-associated MAO-A regulation.
The ergonomic problems for surgeons during spine surgery are an awkward body posture, repetitive movements, increased muscle activity, an overflexed spine, and a protracted time in a standing posture. The authors analyzed whole spine angles during discectomy. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon whole spines angles according to operating table height and the methods used to visualize surgical field.
Materials and methods
A cohort of 12 experienced spine surgeons was enrolled. Twelve experienced spine surgeons performed discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, and out of loupe) and three different operating table heights. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during discectomy simulation; midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from head to pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared at the different operating table heights, while using the three visualization methods, with natural standing position.
Whole spine angles were significantly different for visualization methods. Lumbar lordosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a loupe, but most measures differed from natural standing values when performed out of loupe. Thoracic kyphosis was also similar to the natural standing position during discectomy using a loupe, but differed from the natural standing position when performed with naked eye. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position according to operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as operating table height increased, when simulation was conducted with loupe.
This study suggests that loupe use and a table height midpoint between the umbilicus and sternum are optimal for reducing surgeon musculoskeletal fatigue.
Spine; Surgeon; Kinematics; Discectomy
Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) may be closely associated with the development of metabolic abnormalities. We investigated whether EAT predicts the incident metabolic syndrome in a community-based, middle-aged population. The study subjects were comprised of 354 adults (134 men and 220 women) aged 40 to 70 yr without metabolic syndrome. Baseline EAT thickness, measured by echocardiography, was compared between subjects who developed new-onset metabolic syndrome at follow-up survey and those who did not. After an average of 2.2 yr of follow-up, 32 men (23.9%) and 37 women (16.8%) developed metabolic syndrome. Median EAT thickness at baseline was significantly higher in male subjects who developed metabolic syndrome than those who did not (1.52 mm vs 2.37 mm, P<0.001). The highest quartile of EAT thickness (≥2.55 mm) was associated with increased risk of progression to metabolic syndrome (Odds ratio [OR], 3.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-8.66) after adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol intake, regular exercise, total energy intake, high sensitive C-reactive protein and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in men. A significant association of EAT with incident metabolic syndrome was not seen in women (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.54-2.90). In conclusion, increased EAT thickness is an independent predictor for incident metabolic syndrome in men.
Metabolic Syndrome; Adipose Tissue; Pericardium
The concept of cultural capital has proved invaluable in understanding educational systems in Western countries, and recent work seeks to extend those insights to the diverse educational systems of other geographic regions. We explored cultural capital in South Korea by investigating the relationships among family socioeconomic status (SES), cultural capital, and children's academic achievement using data from the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment. South Korea was compared with Japan, France, and the United States to understand how institutional features of South Korean education shape the role of cultural capital in academic success. Results showed that family SES had a positive effect on both parental objectified cultural capital and children's embodied cultural capital in South Korea, consistent with evidence from the other countries. Moreover, parental objectified cultural capital had a positive effect on children's academic achievement in South Korea. In contrast to other countries, however, children's embodied cultural capital had a negative effect on academic achievement in South Korea controlling for the other variables. We highlighted several institutional features of South Korean education including a standardized curriculum, extreme focus on test preparation, and extensive shadow education, which may combine to suppress the effect of children's embodied cultural capital on academic achievement.
cultural capital; highbrow culture; academic achievement; comparative study
Conventional genetic approaches have provided a powerful tool in the study of proteins. However, these techniques often preclude selective manipulation of temporal and spatial protein functions, which is crucial for the investigation of dynamic cellular processes. To overcome these limitations, a small molecule-based novel technology termed “PROteolysis TArgeting ChimeraS (PROTACs)” has been developed, targeting proteins for degradation at the post-translational level. Despite the promising potential of PROTACs to serve as molecular probes of complex signaling pathways, their design has not been generalized for broad application. Here, we present the first generalized approach for PROTAC design by fine-tuning the distance between the two participating partner proteins, the E3 ubiquitin ligase and the target protein. As such, we took a chemical approach to create estrogen receptor (ER)-α targeting PROTACs with varying linker lengths and the loss of the ER in cultured cells was monitored via western blot and fluorometric analyses. We found a significant effect of chain length on PROTAC efficacy, and in this case, the optimum distance between the E3 recognition motif and the ligand was a 16 atom chain length. The information gathered from this experiment may offer a generalizable PROTAC design strategy to further the expansion of the PROTAC toolbox, opening new possibilities for the broad application of the PROTAC strategy in the study of multiple signaling pathways.
Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) venom (BV) has been traditionally used for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases such as itchy skin problems. However, the precise mechanism of BV in ameliorating the scratching behavior is not fully understood. Objective: In order to evaluate the effect of BV on atopic dermatitis-related symptoms in mice, we used a mouse skin scratching model induced by compound 48/80. The anti-itch effect of BV was investigated in a compound 48/80-induced mouse scratching behavior model. BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with vehicle (saline 0.9%) or BV (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg). One hour after treatment, the animals received a subcutaneous injection of compound 48/80. Intraperitoneal administration of BV (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) attenuated compound 48/80-induced scratching behaviors. The anti-scratching behavior effect of BV was in proportional to its vascular permeability effects. Treatment with BV also inhibited the degranulation of mast cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in compound 48/80-treated skin tissues. According to these results, BV may improve atopic dermatitis-related symptoms by inhibiting the mast cell degranulation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression.
Bee venom; scratching behavior; mast cell degranulation; compound 48/80; inflammation
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a vital role in maintaining protein homeostasis and regulating numerous cellular processes. The proteasome, a multi-protease complex, is the key component of the UPS and has been validated as a therapeutic target by the FDA's approval of bortezomib and carfilzomib. These proteasome inhibitor drugs have substantially improved outcomes in patients with hematological malignancies and are currently being investigated for other types of cancer as well as several other diseases. These approved proteasome inhibitors target the catalytic activity of both the constitutive proteasome and the immunoproteasome indiscriminately, and their inhibitory effects on the constitutive proteasome in normal cells are believed to contribute to unwanted side effects. In addition, selective immunoproteasome inhibition has been proposed to have unique effects on other diseases, including those involving aberrant immune function. Initially recognized for its role in the adaptive immune response, the immunoproteasome is often upregulated in disease states such as inflammatory diseases and cancer, suggesting functions beyond antigen presentation. In an effort to explore the immunoproteasome as a potential therapeutic target in these diseases, the development of immunoproteasome-specific inhibitors has become the focus of recent studies. Owing to considerable efforts by both academic and industry groups, immunoproteasome-selective inhibitors have now been identified and tested against several disease models. These inhibitors also provide a valuable set of chemical tools for investigating the biological function of the immunoproteasome. In this review, we will focus on the recent efforts towards the development of immunoproteasome-selective inhibitors.
Immunoproteasome; Proteasome inhibitors; Molecular probes
All structures of the spine, including the spinal canal, change continuously with age. The purpose of this study was to determine how the spinal canal of the lumbar spine changes with age. The L4/5 is the most common site of spinal stenosis and has the largest flexion-extension motion, whereas the T5/6 has the least motion. Therefore, we measured the spinal canal diameter and vertebral body height at T5, T6, L4, and L5 with age.
Materials and Methods
This was a retrospective study of aged 40 to 77 years. We reviewed whole spine sagittal MRIs of 370 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (Group 2) and 166 herniated cervical disc (HCD) (Group 1). Each group was divided into four age groups, and demographic parameters (age, gender, height, weight, BMI), the mid-spinal canal diameter, and mid-vertebrae height at T5, T6, L4, L5 were compared. Within- and between-group comparisons were made to evaluate changes by age and correlations were carried out to evaluate the relationships between all parameters.
Height, weight, and all radiologic parameters were significantly lower in Group 2 than Group 1. Group 1 did not show any differences, when based on age, but in Group 2, height, weight, and T6, L4, and L5 height were significantly decreased in patients in their 70's than patients in their 40's, except for spinal canal diameter. Age was associated with all parameters except spinal canal diameter.
Vertebral height decreased with age, but spinal canal diameter did not change in patients with either LSS or HCD. Mid-spinal canal diameter was not affected by aging.
Lumbar spinal stenosis; herniated cervical disc; spinal canal diameter
The dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) gene family exhibits multiple functions and is involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. It has attracted pharmaceutical interest in the areas of metabolic disorders as well as cancer. However, clinicopathologic significance of DPPIV family in colorectal cancer is not fully understood.
Materials and Methods
The clinical relevance of DPPIV and DPP10 expression was determined by immunohistochemical staining, and by assessing its clinicopathologic correlation in 383 colorectal cancer patients with known clinical outcomes.
DPPIV was not expressed in normal colon mucosa, but it showed luminal expression in 52 of the 383 colorectal cancers (13.5%). DPPIV expression in tumors was associated with right-sided location of the colon (p=0.010) and more advanced tumor stage (p=0.045). DPP10 was expressed in normal colonic mucosa, but its expression varied in primary colorectal cancer tissues. Loss of DPP10 expression was found in 11 colorectal cancers (CRCs) (2.9%), and multivariate analysis showed that loss of DPP10 expression was an independent factor for poor patient prognosis (p=0.008).
DPP10 may play a role in disease progression of colorectal cancer and loss of DPP10 expression in primary CRC is significantly associated with poor survival outcomes.
Colorectal cancer; dipeptidyl peptidase 10; progression; prognosis
The oil spill from the Heibei Spirit in December 2007 contaminated the Yellow Coast of South Korea. We evaluated the respiratory effects of that spill on children who lived along the Yellow Coast.
Of 662 children living in the area exposed to the oil spill, 436 (65.9%) were enrolled as subjects. All subjects completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. A health examination, including a skin prick test, pulmonary function test, and methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT), was administered. The children were assigned to two groups: those who lived close to the oil spill area and those who lived far from the oil spill area.
The children who lived close to the oil spill area showed a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), an increased prevalence of 'asthma ever' (based on a questionnaire), and 'airway hyperresponsiveness' (based on the MBPT) than those who lived far from the oil spill area (FEV1; P=0.011, prevalence of 'asthma ever' based on a questionnaire; P=0.005, prevalence of 'airway hyperresponsiveness' based on the MBPT; P=0.001). The onset of wheezing after the oil spill was significantly higher in children who lived close to the oil spill area than in those who lived far from the oil spill area among the 'wheeze ever' group (P=0.002). In a multiple logistic regression analysis, male sex, family history of asthma, and residence near the oil spill area were significant risk factors for asthma (sex [male/female]: odds ratio [OR], 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-4.91; family history of asthma [No/Yes]: OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.83-7.75; exposure group [low/high]; OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.27-4.65).
This study suggests that exposure to an oil spill is a risk factor for asthma in children.
Asthma; airway hyperresponsiveness; prevalence; industrial oils
The lipid entities of cell membranes are components of the immune system and important mediators of inflammation. Despite increasing interest in the function of epithelial cells in inflammation, the role of cholesterol in this process has not been described. Here, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion on the inflammatory process in airway epithelial cells via the expression of interleukin (IL)-8 as a marker of inflammation.
A 549 cells were treated with 0.5% methyl-β-cyclodextrin as a selective cholesterol extractor. The IL-8 level was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reassessed after cholesterol repletion. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors were used to determine the upstream signaling pathway for IL-8 production in cholesterol-depleted cells.
We found a relationship between the amount of cholesterol in A 549 cells and inflammation of the airway. IL-8 production was increased in cholesterol-depleted A 549 cells and restored by cholesterol repletion. IL-8 production was decreased by pretreatment with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor U0126 but not with JNK inhibitor II or the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190.
Our findings suggest that inflammatory responses are increased in cholesterol-depleted epithelial cells via the MAPK signaling system, predominantly by the ERK pathway. We conclude that the lipid components of airwayepithelial cells may play a role in the inflammatory process.
Cholesterol; epithelial cell; inflammation; interleukin-8; MAP kinase signaling system
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), a common congenital urinary tract anomaly, refers to retrograde flow of urine from the bladder into the upper urinary tract. The main goal in the treatment of pediatric VUR is to preserve renal function by preventing pyelonephritis. Many surgical management options are available for pediatric VUR. Open ureteral reimplantation has a high success rate but is invasive and is associated with postoperative pain and morbidity. Endoscopic therapy is minimally invasive but has the disadvantages of decreased short-term success and recurrence of reflux over the long term. Laparoscopic or robotic ureteral reimplantation has become increasingly popular owing to its effectiveness and minimal invasiveness, but long-term outcomes have yet to be documented. Urologists should make an effort to select the appropriate surgical strategy by taking into consideration the individual characteristics of the patient such as age, gender, grade of reflux at presentation, status of renal parenchyma, combined bladder and ureteral circumstances, functional status of the bladder and bowel, and preferences of the patients' family.
Pediatrics; Surgery; Therapy; Urinary tract infections; Vesico-ureteral reflux
The protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have been demonstrated in a variety of renal disease models. However, the influence of G-CSF on diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains to be examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of G-CSF on DN and its possible mechanisms in a rat model.
Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats with early DN were administered G-CSF or saline intraperitoneally. Urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR), creatinine clearance, mesangial matrix expansion, glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickness, and podocyte foot process width (FPW) were measured. The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and type IV collagen genes expression in kidney tissue were also evaluated. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying G-CSF effects, we also assessed the expression of G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) in glomeruli as well as mobilization of bone marrow (BM) cells to glomeruli using sex-mismatched BM transplantation.
After four weeks of treatment, UACR was lower in the G-CSF treatment group than in the saline group (p<0.05), as were mesangial matrix expansion, GBM thickness, and FPW (p<0.05). In addition, the expression of TGF-β1 and type IV collagen and IL-1β levels was lower in the G-CSF treatment group (p<0.05). G-CSFR was not present in glomerular cells, and G-CSF treatment increased the number of BM-derived cells in glomeruli (p<0.05).
G-CSF can prevent the progression of DN in OLETF rats and its effects may be due to mobilization of BM cells rather than being a direct effect.
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection induces a chronic inflammatory response, which promotes gastric carcinogenesis. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15–PGDH) plays a key role as a tumor suppressor in gastrointestinal cancers. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 15-PGDH in gastric carcinogenesis associated with H pylori. 15-PGDH expression in gastric biopsies from H pylori-infected (n=25) and non-infected (n=15) subjects was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemisty. 15-PGDH DNA methylation was evaluated by methylation specific PCR and pyrosequencing. The expression of 15-PGDH, Snail, ERK1/2, TLR4 and MyD88 in response to H pylori infection was assessed by immunoblot analysis. Compared to negative specimens, H pylori positive specimens had 2-fold lower 15-PGDH mRNA levels and significantly less 15-PGDH protein. In four H pylori infected subjects with longitudinal follow-up, the suppression of 15-PGDH expression was reversed by H pylori eradication therapy. In parallel with suppressing 15-PGDH expression, H pylori infection activated expression of TLR4 and MyD88 expression, increased levels of phospho-ERK1/2, and increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Snail. Inhibition of Snail and MyD88 reversed suppression of 15-PGDH expression and small interfering Myd88 reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2. Similarly, treatment with an ERK1/2 and EGFR inhibitor also restored 15-PGDH expression. Heliocobacter pylori appeared to promote gastric carcinogenesis by suppressing15-PGDH. This process is mediated by the TLR4/MyD88 pathway via ERK1/2 or EGFR - Snail transcriptional regulation. 15-PGDH may be a useful marker and a potential therapeutic target in H pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.
Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase
We investigated the immune response to serogroup 6 with the opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPKA) in children aged 12–23 months of age after immunization with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) containing serotype 6B.
Blood samples were obtained from 59 children who had blood sampling for medical examination. Immunization status against PCV7 was confirmed by immunization records and samples were categorized according to immunization status into a booster, primary, or control group. The OPKA was performed for serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D.
Subjects with no previous PCV7 immunization history showed opsonic activity for serogroup 6 in 5-30% (according to serotype). In subjects vaccinated with a 3-dose primary series, 81% showed opsonic activity for serotypes 6B and 6D, and 29% showed opsonic activity for serotypes 6A and 6C. Among subjects vaccinated with a booster dose, all subjects had opsonic activity against serotype 6B. Subjects in the booster group with opsonic activity against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D were 100%, 78%, and 89%, respectively.
In subjects aged 12–23 months, an immune response is elicited after a primary series of immunizations with PCV7 for serotypes 6B and 6D, and a booster dose enhances a cross reactive immune response against serotypes 6A, 6C and 6D.
Streptococcus pneumoniae; Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; Pneumococcal polysaccharide type 6
A quick and simple method for simultaneous determination of the 30 ginsenosides (ginsenoside Ro, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, 20(S)-Rg2, 20(R)-Rg2, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, 20(S)-Rh1, 20(S)-Rh2, 20(R)-Rh2, F1, F2, F4, Ra1, Rg6, Rh4, Rk3, Rg5, Rk1, Rb3, Rk2, Rh3, compound Y, compound K, and notoginsenoside R1) in Panax ginseng preparations was developed and validated by an ultra performance liquid chromatography photo diode array detector. The separation of the 30 ginsenosides was efficiently undertaken on the Acquity BEH C-18 column with gradient elution with phosphoric acids. Especially the chromatogram of the ginsenoside Ro was dramatically enhanced by adding phosphoric acid. Under optimized conditions, the detection limits were 0.4 to 1.7 mg/L and the calibration curves of the peak areas for the 30 ginsenosides were linear over three orders of magnitude with a correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The accuracy of the method was tested by a recovery measurement of the spiked samples which yielded good results of 89% to 118%. From these overall results, the proposed method may be helpful in the development and quality of P. ginseng preparations because of its wide range of applications due to the simultaneous analysis of many kinds of ginsenosides.
Panax ginseng; Panax ginseng preparations; Ginsenosides; UPLC-PDA; Simultaneous analysis