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Biopsychosocial Medicine (1)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health (1)
Yamashita, Yushiro (2)
Hosogane, Nana (1)
Iwadare, Yoshitaka (1)
Kim, Soo-Yung (1)
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The reliability and validity of the Questionnaire - Children with Difficulties (QCD)
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties (QCD), which was developed for the evaluation of children’s daily life behaviors during specified periods of the day.
The subjects were 1,514 Japanese public elementary and junior high school students. For the examination of reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of the questionnaire. With regard to validity, correlation coefficients were calculated to examine whether QCD scores correlated with those of the ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI).
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total score of the QCD was .876. The correlation coefficients of the QCD score with ADHD-RS and ODBI scores were -.514 and -.577, respectively.
The internal consistency and validity of the QCD were demonstrated. The QCD is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating daily life problems for children during different time periods of the day.
Adolescent; Child; Daily life; Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties (QCD); Reliability; Validity
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children
Psychosomatic and developmental behavioral medicine in pediatrics has been the subject of significant recent attention, with infants, school-age children, and adolescents frequently presenting with psychosomatic, behavioral, and psychiatric symptoms. These may be a consequence of insecurity of attachment, reduced self-confidence, and peer -relationship conflicts during their developmental stages. Developmental cognitive neuroscience has revealed significant associations between specific brain lesions and particular cognitive dysfunctions. Thus, identifying the biological deficits underlying such cognitive dysfunction may provide new insights into therapeutic prospects for the management of those symptoms in children. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, and especially functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have contributed significant findings to the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience in pediatrics. We present here a comprehensive review of functional NIRS studies of children who have developed normally and of children with psychosomatic and behavioral disorders.
Development; Children; Cognitive neuroscience; Near-infrared spectroscopy
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