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1.  High correlation between salivary cortisol awakening response and the psychometric profiles of healthy children 
Background
Cortisol awakening response (CAR) as an indicator of psychological stress and related physical and psychiatric diseases has attracted growing attention from researchers. Although CAR changes have been investigated extensively in children with behavioral and psychiatric disorders, the association between CAR and conventional psychometric scales for healthy children has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between salivary CAR and subscales of Profiles of Mood States (POMS), a self-assessment questionnaire widely used to evaluate the temporal emotional states of healthy children.
Findings
This study included 18 healthy girls aged 13–16 years. Saliva was collected immediately on awakening, 30 min and 60 min after waking, and then at 2-hour intervals from 9 am to 5 pm. The current mood state, including depression, anxiety, fatigue, and other psychometric profiles were assessed using POMS. The magnitude of salivary CAR and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) for diurnal salivary cortisol were compared with the profiles. There were significant positive correlations between the magnitude of CAR and the POMS subscales for "Depression-Dejection", "Tension-Anxiety", "Fatigue", and "Confusion". No correlation was found between the AUC salivary cortisol level and the psychometric profiles.
Conclusions
Salivary CAR was associated with various mood states of healthy female children but diurnal salivary cortisol AUC was not. Salivary CAR may be a biomarker of the physical and mental condition of healthy female children.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-8-9
PMCID: PMC3995602  PMID: 24625309
Cortisol awakening response; Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis; Saliva; Children
2.  The reliability and validity of the Questionnaire - Children with Difficulties (QCD) 
Background
The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties (QCD), which was developed for the evaluation of children’s daily life behaviors during specified periods of the day.
Methods
The subjects were 1,514 Japanese public elementary and junior high school students. For the examination of reliability, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of the questionnaire. With regard to validity, correlation coefficients were calculated to examine whether QCD scores correlated with those of the ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI).
Results
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total score of the QCD was .876. The correlation coefficients of the QCD score with ADHD-RS and ODBI scores were -.514 and -.577, respectively.
Conclusions
The internal consistency and validity of the QCD were demonstrated. The QCD is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating daily life problems for children during different time periods of the day.
doi:10.1186/1753-2000-7-11
PMCID: PMC3616960  PMID: 23537143
Adolescent; Child; Daily life; Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties (QCD); Reliability; Validity
3.  Functional near-infrared spectroscopy studies in children 
Psychosomatic and developmental behavioral medicine in pediatrics has been the subject of significant recent attention, with infants, school-age children, and adolescents frequently presenting with psychosomatic, behavioral, and psychiatric symptoms. These may be a consequence of insecurity of attachment, reduced self-confidence, and peer -relationship conflicts during their developmental stages. Developmental cognitive neuroscience has revealed significant associations between specific brain lesions and particular cognitive dysfunctions. Thus, identifying the biological deficits underlying such cognitive dysfunction may provide new insights into therapeutic prospects for the management of those symptoms in children. Recent advances in noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, and especially functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have contributed significant findings to the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience in pediatrics. We present here a comprehensive review of functional NIRS studies of children who have developed normally and of children with psychosomatic and behavioral disorders.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-6-7
PMCID: PMC3337812  PMID: 22433235
Development; Children; Cognitive neuroscience; Near-infrared spectroscopy

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