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1.  The longitudinal BMI pattern and body composition of patients with anorexia nervosa who require urgent hospitalization: A case control study 
Background
The prevention of serious physical complications in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is important. The purpose of this study is to clarify which physical and social factors are related to the necessity for urgent hospitalization of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients in a long-term starvation state. We hypothesized that the change of longitudinal BMI, body composition and social background would be useful as an index of the necessity for urgent hospitalization.
Methods
AN patients were classified into; urgent hospitalization, due to disturbance of consciousness or difficulty walking(n = 17); planned admission (n = 96); and outpatient treatment only groups (n = 136). The longitudinal BMI pattern and the clinical features of these groups were examined. In the hospitalization groups, comparison was done of body composition variation and the social background, including the educational level and advice from family members.
Results
After adjusting for age and duration of illness, the BMI of the urgent hospitalization group was lower than that of the other groups at one year before hospitalization (P < 0.01) and decreased more rapidly (P < 0.01). Urgent hospitalization was associated with the fat free mass (FFM) (P < 0.01). Between the groups, no considerable difference in social factors was found.
Conclusions
The longitudinal pattern of BMI and FFM may be useful for understanding the severity in AN from the viewpoint of failure of the homeostasis system.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-5-14
PMCID: PMC3275451  PMID: 22142436
2.  Two modes of microsatellite instability in human cancer: differential connection of defective DNA mismatch repair to dinucleotide repeat instability 
Nucleic Acids Research  2005;33(5):1628-1636.
Microsatellite instability (MSI) is associated with defective DNA mismatch repair in various human malignancies. Using a unique fluorescent technique, we have observed two distinct modes of dinucleotide microsatellite alterations in human colorectal cancer. Type A alterations are defined as length changes of ≤6 bp. Type B changes are more drastic and involve modifications of ≥8 bp. We show here that defective mismatch repair is necessary and sufficient for Type A changes. These changes were observed in cell lines and in tumours from mismatch repair gene-knockout mice. No Type B instability was seen in these cells or tumours. In a panel of human colorectal tumours, both Type A MSI and Type B instability were observed. Both types of MSI were associated with hMSH2 or hMLH1 mismatch repair gene alterations. Intriguingly, p53 mutations, which are generally regarded as uncommon in human tumours of the MSI+ phenotype, were frequently associated with Type A instability, whereas none was found in tumours with Type B instability, reflecting the prevailing viewpoint. Inspection of published data reveals that the microsatellite instability that has been observed in various malignancies, including those associated with Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC), is predominantly Type B. Our findings indicate that Type B instability is not a simple reflection of a repair defect. We suggest that there are at least two qualitatively distinct modes of dinucleotide MSI in human colorectal cancer, and that different molecular mechanisms may underlie these modes of MSI. The relationship between MSI and defective mismatch repair may be more complex than hitherto suspected.
doi:10.1093/nar/gki303
PMCID: PMC1067522  PMID: 15778432

Results 1-2 (2)