Critically review the validity of symptom-based criteria (Manning, Rome I, Rome II, and Rome III) for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Two kinds of validation are reported: (1) studies testing whether symptom criteria discriminate patients with structural disease at colonoscopy from patients without structural disease; and (2) studies testing whether symptom criteria discriminate patients presumed to have IBS by positive diagnosis from healthy subjects or patients with other functional and structural disorders.
The first study type addresses an important clinical management question but cannot provide meaningful information on sensitivity or positive predictive value because IBS is defined only by exclusion of structural disease. Specificity is modest (about 0.7), but can be improved to 0.9 by addition of red flag signs and symptoms. The second type of study judges validity by whether the symptom criteria consistently perform as predicted by theory. Here factor analysis confirms consistent clusters of symptoms corresponding to IBS; symptom-based criteria agree reasonably well (sensitivity 0.4–0.9) with clinical diagnoses made by experienced clinicians; patients with a clinical diagnosis of IBS who fulfill Rome II criteria have greater symptom severity and poorer quality of life than patients with a clinical diagnosis of IBS who do not fulfill Rome criteria; and (4) somatization does not explain endorsement of the symptom-based criteria for IBS. There are no consistent differences in sensitivity or specificity between Manning, Rome I, and Rome II.
Both study types support the validity of symptom-based IBS criteria. Tests of Rome III are needed.
Fecal incontinence is a disabling symptom with medical and social implications, including fear, embarrassment, isolation and even depression. Most patients live in seclusion and have to plan their life around the symptom, with secondary impairment of their quality of life. Conservative management and biofeedback therapy are reported to benefit a good percentage of those affected. However, surgery must be considered in the non-responder population. Recently, sacral nerve electrostimulation, lately named neuromodulation, has been reported to benefit patients with fecal incontinence in randomized controlled trials more than placebo stimulation and conservative management, by some unknown mechanism. Neuromodulation is a minimally invasive procedure with a low rate of adverse events and apparently favorable cost-efficacy profile. This review is intended to expand knowledge about this effective intervention among the non-surgically skilled community who deals with this disabled group of patients.
Fecal incontinence; Neuromodulation; Sacral nerve stimulation; Biofeedback; Anal sphincter
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although with significant controversy.
To determine the prevalence of SIBO in IBS and its association with colonic motility, bowel symptoms and psychological distress.
Sucrose hydrogen and methane breath tests were performed in 158 IBS and 34 healthy controls (HC). Thresholds for pain and urgency were tested by barostat in the descending colon. The motility index (MI) was calculated as the average area under the curve for all phasic contractions. Questionnaires assessed psychological distress, IBS symptom severity (IBSSS), IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) and self reported bowel symptoms.
52/158 (32.9%) IBS patients had abnormal breath tests compared with 6/34 (17.9%) HC (χ2=0.079). SIBO (SIBO+) and Non-SIBO (SIBO−) did not differ in the prevalence of IBS-subtypes, IBS-SS, IBS-QOL and psychological distress variables. IBS had a greater post-distension increase in MI than HC, but there was no difference between SIBO+ and SIBO−. Predominant methane producers had higher urge thresholds (28.4 vs. 18.3, p<0.05) and higher baseline MI (461 vs. 301.45, p<0.05) than SIBO− IBS, and they reported more “hard or lumpy stools” when compared to predominant hydrogen producers (p<0.05) and SIBO− IBS (p< 0.05).
SIBO is unlikely to contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methane production is associated with constipation.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; Irritable bowel syndrome; Breath test; Methane; Constipation; Visceral hypersensitivity; Psychological
To determine how variable stool consistency is in patients with irritable bowel (IBS) and assess the relationship between stool consistency and gastrointestinal symptoms.
Individuals with a physician diagnosis of IBS were recruited by advertisement. Enrollment questionnaires included the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire and IBS Symptom Severity Scale. Then 185 patients meeting Rome criteria for IBS rated the consistency (using the Bristol Stool Scale) of each bowel movement (BM) for 90 days and whether the BM was accompanied by pain, urgency, or soiling. Each night they transferred BM ratings from a paper diary to an internet form and also reported the average daily intensity of abdominal pain, bloating, bowel habit dissatisfaction, and life interference of bowel symptoms. Only the longest sequence of consecutive days of diary data was used in analysis (average of 73 days).
Patients were 89% female with average age 36.6 years. 78% had both loose/watery and hard/lumpy stools; the average was 3 fluctuations between these extremes per month. The proportion of loose/watery stools correlated r=.78 between the first and second months and the proportion of hard/lumpy stools correlated r=.85 between months. Loose/watery stools were associated with more BM-related pain, urgency, and soiling than hard/lumpy or normal stools; however, IBS-C patients had significantly more BM-unrelated abdominal pain, bloating, dissatisfaction with bowel habits, and life interference than IBS-D. Questionnaires overestimated the frequency of abnormal stool consistency and gastrointestinal symptoms compared to diaries.
Stool consistency varies greatly within individuals. However, stool patterns are stable within an individual from month to month. The paradoxical findings of greater symptom severity after individual loose/watery BMs vs. greater overall symptom severity in IBS-C implies different physiological mechanisms for symptoms in constipation compared to diarrhea. Daily symptom monitoring is more sensitive and reliable than a questionnaire.
To create and validate empirically derived questionnaires that measure non-gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders that co-exist with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
A systematic review of the world literature identified all non-GI symptoms and diagnoses known to have excess frequency in IBS patients. This data was used to create the Recent Physical Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), which measures somatization (the psychological tendency to report multiple physical symptoms), and the Comorbid Medical Conditions Questionnaire (CMCQ). The psychometric properties of these questionnaires were assessed in two studies: 109 IBS patients in Study I; 286 IBS patients and 67 healthy controls in Study II.
In Study I, the RPSQ and CMCQ showed high test-retest reliability (r=.88 and .95) and good internal consistency (Cronbach alphas: .86 and .70, respectively). In Study II, principal components analysis demonstrated that the RPSQ is a homogeneous somatization scale, but the CMCQ could be divided into 4 subscales: one for psychiatric disorders and 3 for different types of somatic disorders. Concurrent validity was shown by strong correlations of both the RPSQ and the CMCQ with the Cornell Medical Index (CMI) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) somatization scales. Discriminant validity was modest: the BSI-18 anxiety and depression scales were less strongly correlated with the RPSQ than the BSI-18 somatization scale. The RPSQ and CMCQ scores of IBS patients were significantly higher than the scores of healthy controls (P<.001).
The RPSQ and CMCQ are highly reliable and valid measures of somatization and medical comorbidities in IBS.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Comorbidity; Somatization; Validity
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients show pain hypersensitivity and hypercontractility in response to colonic or rectal distention. Aims were to determine whether predominant bowel habits and IBS symptom severity are related to pain sensitivity, colon motility, or smooth muscle tone.
129 patients classified as IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, n=44), IBS with constipation (IBS-C, n=29), mixed IBS (IBS-M, n=45) and unspecified IBS (IBS-U, n=11) based on stool consistency, and 30 healthy controls (HC) were studied. A manometric catheter containing a 600-ml capacity plastic bag was positioned in the descending colon. Pain threshold was assessed using a barostat. Motility was assessed for 10 min with the bag minimally inflated (individual operating pressure or IOP), 10 min at 20 mmHg above the IOP, and for 15-min recovery following bag inflation. Motility was also recorded for 30 min following an 810-kcal meal.
Compared to HC, IBS patients had lower pain thresholds (medians: 30 vs. 40 mmHg, p<0.01), but IBS subtypes were not different. IBS symptom severity was correlated with pain thresholds (rho=-0.36, p<0.001). During distention, the motility index (MI) was significantly higher in IBS compared to HC (909±73 vs. 563±78, p<0.01). Average barostat bag volume at baseline was higher (muscle tone lower) in HC compared to IBS-D and IBS-M but not compared to IBS-C. The baseline MI and bag volume differed between IBS-D and IBS-C and correlated with symptoms of abdominal distention and dissatisfaction with bowel movements. Pain thresholds and MI during distention were uncorrelated.
Pain sensitivity and colon motility are independent factors contributing to IBS symptoms. Treatment may need to address both and to be specific to predominant bowel habit.
irritable bowel syndrome; visceral hypersensitivity; colonic motility; symptom severity; subtypes of bowel habit
To determine whether biofeedback is more effective than diazepam or placebo in a randomized controlled trial for patients with pelvic floor dyssynergia-type constipation, and whether instrumented biofeedback is necessary for successful training.
One hundred seventeen patients participated in a 4-week run-in (education and medical management). The 84 who remained constipated were randomized to Biofeedback (n=30); Diazepam (n=30); or Placebo (n=24). All patients were trained to do pelvic floor muscle exercises to correct pelvic floor dyssynergia during 6 biweekly 1-hour sessions, but only Biofeedback patients received electromyography feedback. All other patients received pills 1-2 hours before attempting defecation. Diary data on cathartic use, straining, incomplete bowel movements, Bristol stool scores, and compliance with homework were reviewed biweekly.
Before treatment, the groups did not differ on demographic (average age 50, 85 percent females), physiologic or psychologic characteristics, severity of constipation, or expectation of benefit. Biofeedback was superior to diazepam by intention to treat analysis (70 percent vs. 23 percent reported adequate relief of constipation 3 months after treatment, χ2 = 13.1, p < 0.001), and also superior to placebo (38 percent successful, χ2 = 5.7, p = 0.017). Biofeedback patients had significantly more unassisted bowel movements at follow-up compared to Placebo (p = .005), with a trend favoring biofeedback over diazepam (p = .067). Biofeedback patients reduced pelvic floor electromyography during straining significantly more than diazepam patients (p < 0.001).
This investigation provides definitive support for the efficacy of biofeedback for pelvic floor dyssynergia and shows that instrumented biofeedback is essential to successful treatment.
biofeedback; constipation; dyssynergia; dyssynergic defecation; electromyography
To estimate the frequency of self-reported fecal incontinence (FI), identify what proportion of these patients have a diagnosis of FI in their medical record, and compare healthcare costs and utilization in patients with different severities of FI to those without FI.
Patients in a healthcare maintenance organization were eligible and 1707 completed a survey. Patients with self-reported FI were assessed for a diagnosis of FI in their medical record for the last five years. Healthcare costs and utilization were obtained from claims data.
Fecal incontinence was reported by 36.2% of primary care patients, but only 2.7% of patients with FI had a medical diagnosis. FI adversely affected quality of life and severe FI was associated with 55% higher healthcare costs (including 77% higher gastrointestinal-related healthcare costs) compared to continent patients.
Increased screening of FI is needed.
Fecal incontinence; screening; healthcare costs; healthcare utilization
IBS is a common disorder that occurs in adults. The natural history
of symptoms and risk factors that contribute to IBS may begin in the
childhood period. The aim of this systematic review of the published medical
literature was to determine what early life factors have been demonstrated
to contribute to the development of IBS in adolescents and adults.
A computer-assisted search of the PubMed database from 1966 to 2007
was performed. The selection criteria were: (1) studies conducted in
adolescents or adults with IBS that (2) investigate pre-morbid factors
occurring specifically during the childhood period and are (3) associated
with the outcomes of symptoms, quality of life, health care utilization, and
interferences with work or disability.
Twenty-five articles met inclusion criteria. The studies were
categorized into articles examining the persistence of childhood
gastrointestinal symptoms into adulthood, affluent childhood socioeconomic
status and adult IBS, infantile and childhood trauma associated with the
development of adult IBS, and social learning of illness behavior as
predictors of adult IBS.
Pediatricians should be aware that potentially modifiable childhood
factors such as early symptom management of recurrent functional abdominal
pain with cognitive therapies and parent education about social learning may
alter illness behavior and the manifestation of IBS. Research in examining
the effect of affluent childhood socioeconomic status and early childhood
trauma in the evolution of functional gastrointestinal disorders may help
identify causative factors of IBS.
abdominal pain; pediatrics; functional gastrointestinal disorders; irritable bowel syndrome
Epidemiological studies support an association of self-defined constipation with fiber and physical activity, but not liquid intake. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence and associations of dietary fiber and liquid intake to constipation.
Analyses were based on data from 10,914 adults (≥20 years) from the 2005-2008 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Constipation was defined as hard or lumpy stools (Bristol Stool Scale types 1 or 2) as the “usual or most common stool type.” Dietary fiber and liquid intake from total moisture content were obtained from dietary recall. Co-variables included: age, race, education, poverty income ratio, body mass index, self-reported general health status, chronic illnesses, and physical activity. Prevalence estimates and prevalence odds ratios (POR) were analyzed in adjusted multivariable models using appropriate sampling weights.
Overall, 9,373 (85.9%) adults (4,787 women and 4,586 men) had complete stool consistency and dietary data. Constipation rates were 10.2% (95% CI: 9.6,10.9) for women and 4.0 (95% CI: 3.2,5.0) for men (p<.001). After multivariable adjustment, low liquid consumption remained a predictor of constipation among women (POR: 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0,1.6) and men (POR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5,3.9); however, dietary fiber was not a predictor. Among women, African-American race/ethnicity (POR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.0,1.9), being obese (POR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5,0.9), and having a higher education level (POR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.7,0.9) were significantly associated with constipation.
The findings support clinical recommendations to treat constipation with increased liquid, but not fiber or exercise.
constipation; functional bowel disorders; epidemiology
Introduction and Aims
The Rome III classification system treats functional constipation (FC) and irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) as distinct disorders, but this distinction appears artificial, and the same drugs are used to treat both. This study’s hypothesis is that FC and IBS-C defined by Rome III are not distinct entities.
1,100 adults with a primary care visit for constipation and 1,700 age and gender matched controls from a health maintenance organization completed surveys 12 months apart; 66.2% returned the first questionnaire. Rome III criteria identified 231 with FC and 201 with IBS-C. The second survey was completed by 195 of the FC and 141 of the IBS-C cohorts. Both surveys assessed the severity of constipation and IBS, quality of life (QOL), and psychological distress.
(1) Overlap: If the Rome III requirement that patients meeting criteria for IBS cannot be diagnosed FC is suspended, 89.5% of IBS-C cases meet criteria for FC and 43.8% of FC patients fulfill criteria for IBS-C. (2) No qualitative differences between FC and IBS-C: 44.8% of FC patients report abdominal pain, and paradoxically IBS-C patients have more constipation symptoms than FC. (3) Switching between diagnoses: by 12 months, 1/3 of FC transition to IBS-C and 1/3 of IBS-C change to FC.
Patients identified by Rome III criteria for FC and IBS-C are not distinct groups. Revisions to the Rome III criteria, possibly including incorporation of physiological tests of transit and pelvic floor function, are needed.
Constipation; Irritable bowel; Diagnostic criteria; Symptom-based diagnosis
To estimate the prevalence of fecal incontinence (FI) in older women, and examine associations between potential risk factors and prevalent FI.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of prevalent FI in 64,559 women, aged 62–87 years, in the Nurses' Health Study. Since 1976, participants provided information on health and lifestyle on mailed biennial questionnaires. Data on FI were collected in 2008. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for FI were calculated using logistic regression models.
The reported prevalence of liquid or solid stool incontinence at least monthly increased from 9% in women age 62 to 64 years to 17% in women age 85 to 87. Prevalent FI was 50% less common in black women compared with white women (6% vs. 12%, respectively). Other variables associated with increased odds of FI at least monthly were pregnancy, higher body mass index, lower physical activity, functional limitations, current cigarette smoking, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and neurologic disease. Urinary incontinence (UI) was a strong correlate of FI, with 63% of women with FI reporting UI at least monthly compared with 45% of women in the whole study population.
FI is a common condition among older women, and often co-occurs with UI. Potentially modifiable risk factors include body mass index, physical activity, and cigarette smoking.
In clinical trials, lubiprostone reduced the severity of abdominal pain.
The primary aim was to determine whether lubiprostone raises the threshold for abdominal pain induced by intraluminal balloon distention. A secondary aim was to determine whether changes in pain sensitivity influence clinical pain independently of changes in transit time.
Sixty-two patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) participated in an 8-week crossover study. All subjects completed a 14-day baseline ending with a barostat test of pain and urge sensory thresholds. Half, randomly selected, then received 48 ug/day of lubiprostone for 14 days ending with a pain sensitivity test and a Sitzmark test of transit time. This was followed by a 14-day washout and then a crossover to 14 days of placebo with tests of pain sensitivity and transit time. The other half of the subjects received placebo before lubiprostone. All kept symptom diaries.
Stools were significantly softer when taking lubiprostone compared to placebo (Bristol Stool scores 4.20 vs. 3.44, p<0.001). However, thresholds for pain (17.36 vs. 17.83 mmHg, lubiprostone vs. placebo) and urgency to defecate (14.14 vs. 14.53 mmHg) were not affected by lubiprostone. Transit time was not significantly different between lubiprostone and placebo (51.27 vs. 51.81 hours), and neither pain sensitivity nor transit time was a significant predictor of clinical pain.
Lubiprostone has no effect on visceral sensory thresholds. The reductions in clinical pain that occur while taking lubiprostone appear to be secondary to changes in stool consistency.
(1) Characterize physicians’ management practices for fecal incontinence (FI) among elderly patients, (2) describe physician perceptions of the quality of care for FI provided in nursing homes (NH), and (3) identify physician views and attributes associated with referral of elderly patients with FI to a NH.
Physician members of the American Geriatrics Society.
Questionnaire pertaining to physician views on (1) their own FI management practices, (2) management of FI in NHs, and (3) referral of an elderly patient with FI to a NH.
Of the respondents (N=606), 54.1% reported screening for FI and 59.3% thought FI could be managed conservatively on an outpatient basis. Only 32.9% believed NHs provide good care for FI, and 27.1% believed NH care conditions exacerbate FI. Responding to a hypothetical vignette, 10.6% would probably or definitely refer an older adult patient with only FI to a NH, and 17.2% were uncertain about whether or not to refer. Logistic regression analysis identified physician characteristics associated with decreased likelihood of NH referral as the belief that FI can be managed conservatively, the belief that NHs provide poor care for FI, longer practice experience, and practicing in an academic medical center.
Most geriatricians believe FI can be managed conservatively and that NH provide poor care for FI. These beliefs plus longer years of practice and practice in an academic setting decrease the likelihood of referral to NH for patients with FI.
Fecal incontinence; nursing home admissions; physician perspectives
This systematic review addresses the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of several chronic pain syndromes affecting the pelvic organs: chronic proctalgia, coccygodynia, pudendal neuralgia, and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic or recurrent pain in the anal canal, rectum, or other pelvic organs occurs in 7% to 24% of the population and is associated with impaired quality of life and high health care costs. However, these pain syndromes are poorly understood, with little research evidence available to guide their diagnosis and treatment. This situation appears to be changing: A recently published large randomized, controlled trial by our group comparing biofeedback, electrogalvanic stimulation, and massage for the treatment of chronic proctalgia has shown success rates of 85% for biofeedback when patients are selected based on physical examination evidence of tenderness in response to traction on the levator ani muscle-a physical sign suggestive of striated muscle tension. Excessive tension (spasm) in the striated muscles of the pelvic floor appears to be common to most of the pelvic pain syndromes. This suggests the possibility that similar approaches to diagnostic assessment and treatment may improve outcomes in other pelvic pain disorders.
Biofeedback; Chronic pelvic pain; Chronic proctalgia; Coccygodynia; Levator ani syndrome; Pudendal neuralgia
AIM: To survey irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using Rome III criteria among Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia.
METHODS: A previously validated Malay language Rome III IBS diagnostic questionnaire was used in the current study. A prospective sample of 232 Malay subjects (80% power) was initially screened. Using a stratified random sampling strategy, a total of 221 Malay subjects (112 subjects in a “full time job” and 109 subjects in “no full time job”) were recruited. Subjects were visitors (friends and relatives) within the hospital compound and were representative of the local community. Red flags and psychosocial alarm symptoms were also assessed in the current study using previously translated and validated questionnaires. Subjects with IBS were sub-typed into constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant, mixed type and un-subtyped. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for association between socioeconomic factors and presence of red flags and psychosocial alarm features among the Malays with IBS.
RESULTS: IBS was present in 10.9% (24/221), red flags in 22.2% (49/221) and psychosocial alarm features in 9.0% (20/221). Red flags were more commonly reported in subjects with IBS (83.3%) than psychosocial alarm features (20.8%, P < 0.001). Subjects with IBS were older (mean age 41.4 years vs 36.9 years, P = 0.08), but no difference in gender was noted (P = 0.4). Using univariable analysis, IBS was significantly associated with a tertiary education, high individual income above RM1000, married status, ex-smoker and the presence of red flags (all P < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only the presence of red flags was significantly associated with IBS (odds ratio: 0.02, 95%CI: 0.004-0.1, P < 0.001). The commonest IBS sub-type was mixed type (58.3%), followed by constipation-predominant (20.8%), diarrhea-predominant (16.7%) and un-subtyped (4.2%). Four of 13 Malay females (30.8%) with IBS also had menstrual pain. Most subjects with IBS had at least one red flag (70.8%), 12.5% had two red flags and 16.7% with no red flags. The commonest red flag was a bowel habit change in subjects > 50 years old and this was reported by 16.7% of subjects with IBS.
CONCLUSION: Using the Rome III criteria, IBS was common among ethnic Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia.
Irritable bowel syndrome; Malays; Prevalence; Rome III criteria; Malaysia
Adults who suffer from chronic pain are at increased risk for suicide ideation and attempts, but it is not clear whether adolescents with chronic pain are similarly at increased risk. This study investigates whether chronic pain is associated with an increase in suicidal ideation/attempts independent of depression in a population sample of adolescents.
We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in the United States (N=9,970). Most chronic pain was related to suicide ideation/attempt both in the last year (OR’s 1.3–2.1) and during the subsequent year (OR’s 1.2–1.8). After controlling for depressive symptoms, headaches (OR=1.3 last year, OR=1.2 subsequent year) and muscle aches (OR=1.3 last year) remained associated with suicide ideation but not suicide attempt.
These findings show that chronic pain in adolescence is a risk factor for suicide ideation; this effect is partly but not fully explained by depression. Youth with co-morbid depression and chronic pain are at increased risk of thinking about and attempting suicide. Clinicians should be alert to suicide ideation/attempt and co-morbid depression in this at-risk population.
Pain; Suicide; Epidemiology; Adolescents
The aim was to determine whether lower visceral pain thresholds in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) primarily reflect physiological or psychological factors.
Firstly, 121 IBS patients and 28 controls underwent balloon distensions in the descending colon using the ascending methods of limits (AML) to assess pain and urge thresholds. Secondly, sensory decision theory analysis was used to separate physiological from psychological components of perception: neurosensory sensitivity (p(A)) was measured by the ability to discriminate between 30 mm Hg vs 34 mm Hg distensions; psychological influences were measured by the report criterion—that is, the overall tendency to report pain, indexed by the median intensity rating for all distensions, independent of intensity. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI).
IBS patients had lower AML pain thresholds (median: 28 mm Hg vs 40 mm Hg; p<0.001), but similar neurosensory sensitivity (median p(A): 0.5 vs 0.5; p = 0.69; 42.6% vs 42.9% were able to discriminate between the stimuli better than chance) and a greater tendency to report pain (median report criterion: 4.0 (“mild” pain) vs 5.2 (“weak” pain); p = 0.003). AML pain thresholds were not correlated with neurosensory sensitivity (r = −0.13; p = 0.14), but were strongly correlated with report criterion (r = 0.67; p<0.0001). Report criterion was inversely correlated with BSI somatisation (r = −0.26; p = 0.001) and BSI global score (r = −0.18; p = 0.035). Similar results were seen for the non‐painful sensation of urgency.
Increased colonic sensitivity in IBS is strongly influenced by a psychological tendency to report pain and urge rather than increased neurosensory sensitivity.
hypersensitivity; hypervigilance; perceptual response bias; irritable bowel syndrome
There is little consensus regarding the indications for surgical CSF diversion (either with implanted temporizing devices [reservoir or subgaleal shunt] or shunt alone) in preterm infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus. The authors determined clinical and neuroimaging factors associated with the use of surgical CSF diversion among neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and describe variations in practice patterns across 4 large pediatric centers.
The use of implanted temporizing devices and conversion to permanent shunts was examined in a consecutive sample of 110 neonates surgically treated for IVH related to prematurity from the 4 clinical centers of the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN). Clinical, neuroimaging, and so-called processes of care factors were analyzed.
Seventy-three (66%) of the patients underwent temporization procedures, including 50 ventricular reservoir and 23 subgaleal shunt placements. Center (p < 0.001), increasing ventricular size (p = 0.04), and bradycardia (p = 0.07) were associated with the use of an implanted temporizing device, whereas apnea, occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), and fontanel assessments were not. Implanted temporizing devices were converted to permanent shunts in 65 (89%) of the 73 neonates. Only a full fontanel (p < 0.001) and increased ventricular size (p = 0.002) were associated with conversion of the temporizing devices to permanent shunts, whereas center, OFCs, and clot characteristics were not.
Considerable center variability exists in neurosurgical approaches to temporization of IVH in prematurity within the HCRN; however, variation between centers is not seen with permanent shunting. Increasing ventricular size—rather than classic clinical findings such as increasing OFCs—represents the threshold for either temporization or shunting of CSF.
hydrocephalus; preterm infant; temporizing implant; intraventricular hemorrhage; cerebrospinal fluid shunt; Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network
Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action.
Hypnosis; Hypnotherapy; Gastric emptying; Small bowel transit; Functional dyspepsia; Functional esophageal disorders; Functional bowel disorders
Aqueductal stenosis may be caused by a number of etiologies including congenital stenosis, tumor, inflammation, and, very rarely, vascular malformation. However, aqueductal stenosis caused by a developmental venous anomaly presenting as congenital hydrocephalus is even more rare, and, to the best of our knowledge, has not yet been reported in the literature. In this study, we review the literature and report the first case of congenital hydrocephalus associated with aqueductal stenosis from a developmental venous anomaly.
The patient is a three-day-old, African-American baby girl with a prenatal diagnosis of hydrocephalus. She presented with a full fontanelle, splayed sutures, and macrocephaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging showed triventricular hydrocephalus, suggesting aqueductal stenosis. Examination of the T1-weighted sagittal magnetic resonance imaging enhanced with gadolinium revealed a developmental venous anomaly passing through the orifice of the aqueduct. We treated the patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.
Ten cases of aqueductal stenosis due to venous lesions have been reported and, although these venous angiomas and developmental venous anomalies are usually considered congenital lesions, all 10 cases became symptomatic as older children and adults. Our case is the first in which aqueductal stenosis caused by a developmental venous anomaly presents as congenital hydrocephalus. We hope adding to the literature will improve understanding of this very uncommon cause of hydrocephalus and, therefore, will aid in treatment.
Although direct medical costs for constipation-related medical visits are thought to be high, to date there have been no studies examining if longitudinal resource utilization is persistently elevated in children with constipation. Our aim was to estimate the incremental direct medical costs and types of health care utilization associated with constipation from childhood to early adulthood.
A nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the incremental costs associated with constipation. The original sample consisted of 5,718 children in a population-based birth cohort who were born during 1976–1982 in Rochester, MN. The cases included individuals who presented to medical facilities with constipation. The controls were matched and randomly selected among all non-cases in the sample. Direct medical costs for cases and controls were collected from the time subjects were between 5–18 years of age or until the subject emigrated from the community.
We identified 250 cases with a diagnosis of constipation in the birth cohort. While the mean inpatient costs for cases were $9994 (95% CI=2538, 37201) compared to $2391 (95% CI=923, 7452) for controls (p=0.22) over the time period, the mean outpatient costs for cases were $13927 (95% CI=11325, 16525) compared to $3448 (95% CI=3771, 4621) for controls (p<0.001) over the same time period. The mean annual number emergency department visits for cases were 0.66 (95% CI=0.62, 0.70) compared to 0.34 (95% CI=0.32, 0.35) for controls (p<0.0001).
Individuals with constipation have higher medical care utilization. Outpatient costs and ER utilization were significantly greater for individuals with constipation from childhood to early adulthood.
Childhood constipation; Direct medical costs; Case-control study
Functional gastrointestinal disorders are those in which no abnormal metabolic or physical processes, which can account for the symptoms, can be identified. The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a significant functional disorder, which affects 10-20 percent of the population worldwide. Predominant symptoms of IBS are abnormal defecation associated with abdominal pain, both of which may be exacerbated by psychogenic stress. Our study was designed to test a hypothesis that symptoms in a subset of patients with a diagnosis of IBS are associated with an autoimmune degenerative neuropathy in the enteric nervous system.
Serum was collected from Rome II-IBS patients and controls at the University of North Carolina Functional Gastrointestinal Diseases Center. Assay procedures were immunohistochemical localization of antibody binding to enteric neurons and human protein microarray assay for antigens recognized by antibodies in the sera.
Eighty-seven percent of IBS sera and 59% of control sera contained anti-enteric neuronal antibodies. Antibody immunostaining was seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm of neurons in the enteric nervous system. Protein microarray analysis detected antibody reactivity for autoantigens in serum with anti-enteric neuronal antibodies and no reactivity for the same autoantigens in samples not containing anti-enteric neuronal antibodies in our immunostaining assay. Antibodies in sera from IBS patients recognized only 3 antigens out of an 8,000 immunoprotein array. The 3 antigens were: (1) a nondescript ribonucleoprotein (RNP-complex); (2) small nuclear ribonuclear polypeptide A; and (3) Ro-5,200 kDa.
Results of the present study suggest that symptoms in a subset of IBS patients might be a reflection of enteric neuronal damage or loss, caused by circulating anti-enteric autoimmune antibodies.
Autoimmune neuropathy; Enteric nervous system; Gastrointestinal disorders
Older participants are often excluded from clinical trials, precluding a representative sample.
Using qualitative and quantitative methods, we examined recruitment and retention of older women with pelvic organ prolapse in two surgical trials: the randomized Colpopexy And Urinary Reduction Efforts (CARE) study and the Longitudinal Pelvic Symptoms and Patient Satisfaction After Colpocleisis cohort study. Using focus groups, we developed a questionnaire addressing factors facilitating and impeding the recruitment and retention of older study participants and administered it to research staff. Enrollment-to-surgery ratios, missed visit rates, and dropout rates for older and younger participants were compared using Fisher’s exact test, with cut-points of 70 and 80 years for the CARE and Colpocleisis studies, respectively.
Questionnaires were completed by 23 physician investigators and 11 nurses or coordinators (92% response rate). Respondents indicated it was more difficult to recruit older research participants (32%), obtain informed consent (56%), and retain participants to study completion (50%). Challenges to recruitment included caregiver involvement in the decision to participate and participant comorbidities. Perceived barriers to retention were transportation, caregiver availability, and participant fatigue. Data quality was challenged by sensory and cognitive impairment, resulting in a change from telephone interviews to in-person visits in the Colpocleisis study. Older participants did not have higher dropout rates than younger participants. There were no differences in missed in-person visits or telephone interview rates between age groups.
Strategies, albeit unstudied, could assist investigators in planning surgical trials that successfully enroll and retain older women.