Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-6 (6)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Clonidine in the treatment of adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: a pilot study for the NorCAPITAL trial 
BMC Research Notes  2012;5:418.
This pilot study ( ID: NCT01507701) assessed the feasibility and safety of clonidine in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Specifically, we assessed clonidine dosage in relation to a) plasma concentration levels, b) orthostatic cardiovascular responses, and c) possible adverse effects.
Five adolescent CFS patients (14–19 years old) received 50 μg clonidine twice per day during 14 days in an open, uncontrolled design. Plasma concentration of clonidine was assayed by standard laboratory methods. Changes in orthostatic cardiovascular responses were assessed by a 20o head-up tilt-test (HUT). Adverse effects were mapped by a questionnaire.
After 14 days, C0 median (range) of clonidine was 0.21 (0.18-0.36) μg/L, and Cmax median (range) of clonidine was 0.41 (0.38-0.56) μg/L. Also, supine blood pressures and heart rate were lower during clonidine treatment, and the HUT response was closer to the normal response. No serious adverse effects were registered.
Clonidine 50 μg BID seems to be safe enough to proceed from a pilot study to a controlled trial in a select group of adolescents with CFS ( ID: NCT01040429).
PMCID: PMC3461473  PMID: 22871021
Chronic fatigue syndrome; Adolescents; Clonidine; Adverse effects; Head-up tilt test; Autonomic nervous system
2.  Adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome; a follow-up study displays concurrent improvement of circulatory abnormalities and clinical symptoms 
The pathophysiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) in adolescents is unknown, and the clinical course and prognosis is still questioned. Recent research indicates that abnormalities of autonomic cardiovascular control may play an important role. The aim of this research project was to perform a follow-up study of adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome, focusing on clinical symptoms and autonomic cardiovascular control.
47 adolescents (12-18 years old) with CFS were recruited from the outpatient clinic at the Department of Pediatrics, Oslo University Hospital. In a primary visit and a follow-up visit (3-17 months later), we evaluated: a) a wide range of complaints and symptoms and b) cardiovascular variables at baseline and during a 20° head-up tilt-test (HUT).
At the second visit, patients reported significant improvement regarding functional impairments, fatigue severity, muscular pain, concentration problems, post-exertional malaise and the problem of non-relieving rest. Also, at the second visit, baseline heart rate (HR), blood pressure, total peripheral resistance index (TPRI) and LF/HF (low-frequency:high-frequency heart rate variability ratio, an index of sinus node sympathovagal balance derived from spectral analyses of heart rate) were significant lower, and the increases in HR, mean blood pressure (MBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and TPRI during tilt were significantly less pronounced as compared to the first visit. There was a significant correlation between changes in autonomic symptom score, fatigue severity score and functional impairment score from the first to the second visit.
The majority of adolescents with CFS experienced an improvement over time in functional impairment, self-reported fatigue and additional symptoms, and a concurrent improvement of autonomic cardiovascular control. A possible connection between clinical symptoms and abnormal autonomic control in CFS might represent a focus for further research.
PMCID: PMC3337799  PMID: 22436201
Chronic fatigue syndrome; Fatigue severity scale; Autonomic symptom profile; Cardiovascular autonomic control; Adolescents
3.  Ejection Time-Corrected Systolic Velocity Improves Accuracy in the Evaluation of Myocardial Dysfunction: A Study in Piglets 
Pediatric Cardiology  2010;31(7):1070-1078.
This study aimed to assess the effect of correcting for the impact of heart rate (HR) or ejection time (ET) on myocardial velocities in the long axis in piglets undergoing hypoxia. The ability to eject a higher volume at a fixed ET is a characteristic of contractility in the heart. Systolic velocity of the atrioventricular annulus displacement is directly related to volume changes of the ventricle. Both ET and systolic velocity may be measured in a single heartbeat. In 29 neonatal pigs, systolic velocity and ET were measured with tissue Doppler techniques in the mitral valve annulus, the tricuspid valve annulus, and the septum. All ejection time corrected velocities (S(ET), mean ± SEM, cm/s) decreased significantly during hypoxia (Smva(ET) 15.5 ± 0.2 to 13.2 ± 0.3 (p < 0.001), Sseptal(ET) 9.9 ± 0.1 to 7.8 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001), Stva(ET) 12.1 ± 0.2 to 9.8 ± 0.3 (p < 0.001)). The magnitude of change from baseline to hypoxia was greater for ejection time corrected systolic velocities than for RR-interval corrected velocities (mean ± SEM, cm/s); ΔSmva(ET) 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. ΔSmva(RR) 1.6 ± 1.1 (p = 0.02), ΔSseptal(ET) 2.1 ± 1.0 vs. ΔSseptal(RR) 1.6 ± 1.0 (p < 0.01), ΔStva(ET) 2.3 ± 1.1 vs. ΔStva(RR) 1.8 ± 1.3 (p = 0.04). The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) showed superior performance of S(ET) compared with uncorrected velocities. The decrease in S(ET) during hypoxia was not influenced by important hemodynamic determinants. ET-corrected systolic velocity improves accuracy and decreases variability in the evaluation of systolic longitudinal function and contractility during global hypoxia in neonatal pigs compared with systolic velocity alone. It is robust toward hemodynamic changes. This novel method has the potential of becoming a useful tool in clinical practice.
PMCID: PMC2948161  PMID: 20721662
Tissue Doppler; Myocardial function; Neonatal
4.  Pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults born with a heart septal defect: the Euro Heart Survey on adult congenital heart disease 
Heart  2006;93(6):682-687.
To investigate the role of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in adult patients born with a cardiac septal defect, by assessing its prevalence and its relation with patient characteristics and outcome.
Methods and results
From the database of the Euro Heart Survey on adult congenital heart disease (a retrospective cohort study with a 5‐year follow‐up), the relevant data on all 1877 patients with an atrial septal defect (ASD), a ventricular septal defect (VSD), or a cyanotic defect were analysed. Most patients (83%) attended a specialised centre. There were 896 patients with an ASD (377 closed, 504 open without and 15 with Eisenmenger's syndrome), 710 with a VSD (275, 352 and 83, respectively), 133 with Eisenmenger's syndrome owing to another defect and 138 remaining patients with cyanosis. PAH was present in 531 (28%) patients, or in 34% of patients with an open ASD and 28% of patients with an open VSD, and 12% and 13% of patients with a closed defect, respectively. Mortality was highest in patients with Eisenmenger's syndrome (20.6%). In case of an open defect, PAH entailed an eightfold increased probability of functional limitations (New York Heart Association class >1), with a further sixfold increase when Eisenmenger's syndrome was present. Also, in patients with persisting PAH despite defect closure, functional limitations were more common. In patients with ASD, the prevalence of right ventricular dysfunction increased with systolic pulmonary artery pressure (OR = 1.073 per mm Hg; p<0.001). Major bleeding events were more prevalent in patients with cyanosis with than without Eisenmenger's syndrome (17% vs 3%; p<0.001).
In this selected population of adults with congenital heart disease, PAH was common and predisposed to more symptoms and further clinical deterioration, even among patients with previous defect closure and patients who had not developed Eisenmenger's physiology.
PMCID: PMC1955187  PMID: 17164490
5.  Potent anti-ischaemic effects of statins in chronic stable angina: incremental benefit beyond lipid lowering? 
European Heart Journal  2010;31(21):2650-2659.
The DoUble-blind Atorvastatin AmLodipine (DUAAL) trial investigated whether atorvastatin decreases ischaemia by a vascular benefit, independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering, in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), both alone and in combination with the traditional anti-anginal therapy, amlodipine.
Methods and results
Randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicountry trial (2 weeks run-in and 24 weeks active therapy) comparing three treatments: amlodipine, atorvastatin, and amlodipine + atorvastatin; in 311 patients (78% male; mean age 62 years) with stable angina (≥2 attacks/week), CAD history, ≥3 transient myocardial ischaemia (TMI) episodes, and/or ≥15 min ischaemia on 48 h ambulatory electrocardiographic (AECG) monitoring. Efficacy variables were change in TMI by AECG, exercise ischaemia, angina diary data, and inflammatory biomarkers at Week 26. There was a comparable, highly significant decrease in TMI with amlodipine and atorvastatin, but no additional benefit for the combination. More than 50% of patients became TMI-free in all three groups and this was accompanied by a comparable, marked reduction in angina and nitroglycerin consumption. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein fell by 40% in patients receiving atorvastatin but there was no change with amlodipine. Adverse events were comparable among groups.
Atorvastatin was as potent an anti-ischaemic agent as amlodipine. Future studies of combination therapies will be instructive.
Clinical trial registration information: National clinical trial number: NCT00159718, protocol number A0531031 listed on
PMCID: PMC2966969  PMID: 20494902
Coronary artery disease; Transient myocardial ischaemia; Statin; Combination therapy
6.  Autonomic Heart Rate Control at Rest and During Unloading of the Right Ventricle in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot in Adolescents 
The American journal of cardiology  2008;102(8):1085-1089.
Arrhythmias in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) might be due in part to altered autonomic heart rate (HR) control caused by altered right ventricle hemodynamics. This study investigated autonomic HR control in ToF adolescents at rest and during unloading of the right ventricle. A total of 17 ToF patients and 56 healthy controls aged 12 to 18 years underwent orthostatic stress with lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of −20 mm Hg. HR, blood pressure and stroke volume were recorded non-invasively. Indices of HR variability were computed in time and frequency domains. All ToF patients also underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, demonstrating pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation. At rest, HR variability indices of vagal heart rate control were non-significantly lower in the ToF patients compared to controls. During LBNP, HR increased more in controls than ToF patients (p ≤ 0.001). Further, most HR variability indices decreased among controls, but increased among ToF patients (p ≤ 0.01 or p ≤ 0.001 for all variables), suggesting vagal activation in the ToF patients. In conclusion, adolescents after ToF repair have fairly normal HR control at rest despite altered right ventricular hemodynamics. During unloading of the right ventricle, however, vagal HR control increases in the ToF patients and decreases in the controls.
PMCID: PMC2645862  PMID: 18929714
Tetralogy of Fallot; autonomic nervous system; heart rate variability; adolescence

Results 1-6 (6)