Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-5 (5)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  To Stop or Not to Stop, That’s the Question: About Persistence and Mood of Workaholics and Work Engaged Employees 
Although workaholics and work engaged employees both work long hours, they seem to have a different underlying motivation to do so. The mood as input model might offer an explanation for the difference in work persistence of these employees. This model suggests that the interplay of mood and “persistence rules” (enough and enjoyment rules) may lead to different kinds of persistence mechanisms.
The aims of this study are to present a scale for measuring persistence rules, the Work Persistence rules Checklist (WoPeC), to analyze its psychometric properties and to test the mood as input model in relationship with workaholism and work engagement.
Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data.
Results of a confirmatory factor analysis in study 1 provided support for the hypothesized factor structure of the WoPeC. In study 2, it appeared that the use of an enough and an enjoyment rule for determining when to continue working is related to workaholism and work engagement, respectively. Furthermore, it was hypothesized and found that negative mood is related to workaholism, whereas positive mood is associated with work engagement. The expected interactions between mood and persistence rules on workaholism and work engagement were not demonstrated.
Mood and persistence rules seem relevant for explaining the difference between workaholism and work engagement.
PMCID: PMC3212689  PMID: 21373772
Workaholism; Work engagement; Mood; Persistence rules
2.  Why Japanese workers show low work engagement: An item response theory analysis of the Utrecht Work Engagement scale 
With the globalization of occupational health psychology, more and more researchers are interested in applying employee well-being like work engagement (i.e., a positive, fulfilling, work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption) to diverse populations. Accurate measurement contributes to our further understanding and to the generalizability of the concept of work engagement across different cultures. The present study investigated the measurement accuracy of the Japanese and the original Dutch versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (9-item version, UWES-9) and the comparability of this scale between both countries. Item Response Theory (IRT) was applied to the data from Japan (N = 2,339) and the Netherlands (N = 13,406). Reliability of the scale was evaluated at various levels of the latent trait (i.e., work engagement) based the test information function (TIF) and the standard error of measurement (SEM). The Japanese version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with extremely low work engagement, whereas the original Dutch version had difficulty in differentiating respondents with high work engagement. The measurement accuracy of both versions was not similar. Suppression of positive affect among Japanese people and self-enhancement (the general sensitivity to positive self-relevant information) among Dutch people may have caused decreased measurement accuracy. Hence, we should be cautious when interpreting low engagement scores among Japanese as well as high engagement scores among western employees.
PMCID: PMC2990723  PMID: 21054839
3.  Measuring Spirituality as a Universal Human Experience: A Review of Spirituality Questionnaires 
Journal of Religion and Health  2010;51(2):336-354.
Spirituality is an important theme in health research, since a spiritual orientation can help people to cope with the consequences of a serious disease. Knowledge on the role of spirituality is, however, limited, as most research is based on measures of religiosity rather than spirituality. A questionnaire that transcends specific beliefs is a prerequisite for quantifying the importance of spirituality among people who adhere to a religion or none at all. In this review, we discuss ten questionnaires that address spirituality as a universal human experience. Questionnaires are evaluated with regard to psychometric properties, item formulation and confusion with well-being and distress. Although none of the questionnaires fulfilled all the criteria, the multidimensional Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire is promising.
PMCID: PMC3372782  PMID: 20645004
Spirituality; Connectedness; Transcendence; Questionnaires; Review
4.  Distress or no distress, that's the question: A cutoff point for distress in a working population 
The objective of the present study is to establish an optimal cutoff point for distress measured with the corresponding scale of the 4DSQ, using the prediction of sickness absence as a criterion. The cutoff point should result in a measure that can be used as a credible selection instrument for sickness absence in occupational health practice and in future studies on distress and mental disorders.
Distress is measured using the Four Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), a 50-item self-report questionnaire, in a working population with and without sickness absence due to distress. Sensitivity and specificity were compared for various potential cutoff points, and a receiver operating characteristics analysis was conducted.
Results and conclusion
A distress cutoff point of ≥11 was defined. The choice was based on a challenging specificity and negative predictive value and indicates a distress level at which an employee is presumably at risk for subsequent sick leave on psychological grounds. The defined distress cutoff point is appropriate for use in occupational health practice and in studies of distress in working populations.
PMCID: PMC2266771  PMID: 18205912
5.  Coping and sickness absence 
The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive–passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; our hypothesis is that such strategies are positively related to a low frequency of sickness absence and with short lengths (total number of days absent) and durations (mean duration per spell).
Using a prospective design, employees’ (N = 3,628) responses on a self-report coping inventory are used to predict future registered sickness absence (i.e. frequency, length, duration, and median time before the onset of a new sick leave period).
Results and conclusions
In accordance with our hypothesis, and after adjustment for potential confounders, employees with an active problem-solving coping strategy are less likely to drop out because of sickness absence in terms of frequency, length (longer than 14 days), and duration (more than 7 days) of sickness absence. This positive effect is observed in the case of seeking social support only for the duration of sickness absence and in the case of palliative reaction only for the length and frequency of absence. In contrast, an avoidant coping style, representing a reactive–passive strategy, increases the likelihood of frequent absences significantly, as well as the length and duration of sickness absence. Expression of emotions, representing another reactive–passive strategy, has no effect on future sickness absenteeism. The median time before the onset of a new episode of absenteeism is significantly extended for active problem-solving and reduced for avoidance and for a palliative response.
The results of the present study support the notion that problem-solving coping and reactive–passive strategies are inextricably connected to frequency, duration, length and onset of sickness absence. Especially, active problem-solving decreases the chance of future sickness absence.
PMCID: PMC2175021  PMID: 17701200
Coping; UCL; Sickness absence; Duration; Length; Frequency

Results 1-5 (5)