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1.  Behavioral interventions for coronary heart disease patients 
Introduction
There is a strong clinical need to provide effective stress reduction programs for patients with an acute coronary syndrome. Such programs for men have been implemented and their cardiovascular health benefit documented. For women such programs are scarce.
In this report, The feasibility of a cognitive method that was recently demonstrated to prolong lives of women is tested. A setting with gender segregated groups was applied.
Method
The principles of a behavioural health educational program originally designed to attenuate the stress of patients with coronary prone behaviours were used as a basis for the intervention method. For the groups of female patients this method was tailored according to female stressors and for the groups of men according to male stressors. The same core stress reduction program was used for women and men, but the contents of discussions and responses to the pre planned program varied. These were continuously monitored throughout the fifteen sessions. Implementation group: Thirty consecutive patients, eleven women and nineteen men, hospitalized for an acute coronary syndrome were included in this intervention. All expressed their need to learn how to cope with stress in daily life and were highly motivated. Five groups, three groups of men and two groups of women were formed. Psychological assessments were made immediately before and after completion of the program.
Results
No gender differences in the pre planned programs were found, but discussion styles varied between the women and men, Women were more open and more personal. Family issues were more frequent than job issues, although all women were employed outside their homes. Men talked about concrete and practical things, mostly about their jobs, and not directly about their feelings. Daily stresses of life decreased significantly for both men and women, but more so for women. Depressive thoughts were low at baseline, and there was no change over time. In contrast, anxiety scores were high at baseline and decreased significantly, but more so for women than for men.
Conclusion
Women are likely to benefit from women's groups. Men may prefer to have one or two women in the group, but women fare better in gender segregated groups.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-6-5
PMCID: PMC3349598  PMID: 22300771
2.  Autonomic Function and Prothrombotic Activity in Women after an Acute Coronary Event 
Journal of Women's Health  2008;17(8):1331-1337.
Abstract
Background
The link between decreased heart rate variability (HRV) and atherosclerosis progression is elusive. We hypothesized that reduced HRV relates to increased levels of prothrombotic factors previously shown to predict coronary risk.
Methods
We studied 257 women (aged 56 ± 7 years) between 3 and 6 months after an acute coronary event and obtained very low frequency (VLF), low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) power, and LF/HF ratio from 24-hour ambulatory ECG recordings. Plasma levels of activated clotting factor VII (FVIIa), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity were determined, and their levels were aggregated into a standardized composite index of prothrombotic activity.
Results
In bivariate analyses, all HRV indices were inversely correlated with the prothrombotic index explaining between 6% and 14% of the variance (p < 0.001). After controlling for sociodemographic factors, index event, menopausal status, cardiac medication, lifestyle factors, self-rated health, metabolic variables, and heart rate, VLF power, LF power, and HF power explained 2%, 5%, and 3%, respectively, of the variance in the prothrombotic index (p < 0.012). There were also independent relationships between VLF power and PAI-1 activity, between LF power and fibrinogen, VWF:Ag, and PAI-1 activity, between HF power and FVIIa and fibrinogen, and between the LF/HF power ratio and PAI-1 activity, explaining between 2% and 3% of the respective variances (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
Decreased HRV was associated with prothrombotic changes partially independent of covariates. Alteration in autonomic function might contribute to prothrombotic activity in women with coronary artery disease (CAD).
doi:10.1089/jwh.2007.0764
PMCID: PMC2944418  PMID: 18788988

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