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1.  Pulmonary mucormycosis with embolism: two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia 
Mucormycosis is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with hematological malignancies. The diagnosis of mucormycosis usually requires mycological evidence through tissue biopsy or autopsy because the signs and symptoms are nonspecific and there are currently no biomarkers to identify the disease. We herein present two autopsied cases of acute myeloid leukemia with prolonged neutropenia who developed invasive mucormycosis accompanied by pulmonary artery embolism. Our cases were featured by unexplained fever and rapidly progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography scan detected nodular lesions or nonspecific consolidations in the lungs. Cultures, cytological study, and serum fungal markers consistently gave negative results. Autopsy revealed embolism of the pulmonary artery which consisted of fibrin clots by filamentous fungi. Genomic DNA was extracted from the paraffin-embedded clots and was applied to polymerase chain reaction amplification, leading to the diagnosis of infection by Rhizopus microsporus. We should carefully search for life-threatening pulmonary embolism when patients with hematological malignancies develop pulmonary mucormycosis.
PMCID: PMC4097268  PMID: 25031775
Rhizopus microsporus; mucormycosis; pulmonary embolism; acute myeloid leukemia; neutropenia
2.  Transformation of follicular lymphoma in the retroperitoneal muscles demonstrated by CT-guided needle biopsy of FDG-avid lesions; case series 
We herein report two cases of relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) with transformation in the retroperitoneal muscles. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (CT) showed high uptakes in the retroperitoneal muscles. We considered excisional biopsy at first, since it is definitely the most reliable means to obtain histological diagnosis. However, excisional biopsy of the retroperitoneal muscles is challenging for anatomical reasons. Moreover, our patients were kept under poor performance status. Thus, CT-guided percutaneous needle biopsy of FDG-avid retroperitoneal muscles was performed. Histopathological examination of the biopsied specimens demonstrated proliferation of transformed large B cells in both cases. Sheets of large B cells were also recorded in one case. CT-guided needle biopsy is less prioritized than excisional biopsy because of limited information on tissue architecture and increasingly complicated WHO classification. Our series indicate that image-guided needle biopsy of FDG-avid lesions is sufficient for the diagnosis of transformation. Higher priority should be given to this method in the setting of transformed aggressive lymphoma.
PMCID: PMC3885497  PMID: 24427363
Follicular lymphoma; transformation; retroperitoneum; FDG-avid; CT-guided needle biopsy
3.  HapMap SNP Scanner: an online program to mine SNPs responsible for cell phenotype 
Tissue antigens  2012;80(2):119-125.
Minor histocompatibility (H) antigens are targets of graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-tumor responses after human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Recently, we reported a strategy for genetic mapping of linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks that encoded novel minor H antigens using the large data set from the International HapMap Project combined with conventional immunologic assays to assess recognition of HapMap B lymphoid cell line (B-LCL) by minor H antigen-specific T cells. In this study, we have constructed and provide an online interactive program and demonstrate its utility for searching for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for minor H antigen generation. The website is available as “HapMap SNP Scanner”, and can incorporate T cell recognition and other data with genotyping data sets from CEU, JPT, CHB and YRI to provide a list of candidate SNPs that correlate with observed phenotypes. This method should substantially facilitate discovery of novel SNPs responsible for minor H antigens and be applicable for assaying of other specific cell phenotypes (e.g. drug sensitivity) to identify individuals who may benefit from SNP-based customized therapies.
doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2012.01883.x
PMCID: PMC3635041  PMID: 22568758
genome-wide association study; HapMap; minor histocompatibility antigen; online software; single nucleotide polymorphism
5.  Comparison of temporal changes in psychological distress after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation among the underlying diseases of Japanese adult patients 
Background
Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can potentially cure some hematological malignancies, patients who undergo HSCT experience psychological distress. However, there have been few studies on the short-term influence of HSCT on psychological distress.
Methods
The subjects were 71 patients with hematological malignancies who underwent HSCT: 33 with acute leukemia, 19 with chronic leukemia, nine with myelodysplastic syndrome, and 10 with malignant lymphoma. Psychological distress was assessed prior to HSCT and on the seventh day after HSCT using the Profile of Mood States (POMS).
Results
With regard to Anger-Hostility, the interaction of time (pre- and post-HSCT) and group (the four groups) was significant in male patients (p = 0.04), but not in female patients. With regard to the other subscales of POMS, there was no significant main effect or interaction in male or female patients.
Conclusion
It may be important to provide psychological support to patients throughout the period of HSCT in consideration of differences in mood changes associated with the underlying disease and patient sex in order to provide efficient psychiatric intervention for both better psychiatric and survival outcomes.
doi:10.1186/1751-0759-2-24
PMCID: PMC2603014  PMID: 19025589
6.  Prospective Comparison of the Diagnostic Potential of Real-Time PCR, Double-Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Galactomannan, and a (1→3)-β-d-Glucan Test in Weekly Screening for Invasive Aspergillosis in Patients with Hematological Disorders 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(6):2733-2741.
The establishment of an optimal noninvasive method for diagnosing invasive aspergillosis (IA) is needed to improve the management of this life-threatening infection in patients with hematological disorders, and a number of noninvasive tests for IA that target different fungal components, including galactomannan, (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BDG), and Aspergillus DNA, have been developed. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the diagnostic potential of three noninvasive tests for IA that were used in a weekly screening strategy: the double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for galactomannan (Platelia Aspergillus), a real-time PCR assay for Aspergillus DNA (GeniQ-Asper), and an assay for BDG (β-glucan Wako). We analyzed 149 consecutive treatment episodes in 96 patients with hematological disorders who were at high risk for IA and diagnosed 9 proven IA cases, 2 probable IA cases, and 13 possible invasive fugal infections. In a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the ROC curve was greatest for ELISA, using two consecutive positive results (0.97; P = 0.036 for ELISA versus PCR, P = 0.055 for ELISA versus BDG). Based on the ROC curve, the cutoff for the ELISA could be reduced to an optical density index (O.D.I.) of 0.6. With the use of this cutoff for ELISA and cutoffs for PCR and BDG that give a comparable level of specificity, the sensitivity/specificity/positive predictive value/negative predictive value of the ELISA and the PCR and BDG tests were 1.00/0.93/0.55/1.00, 0.55/0.93/0.40/0.96, and 0.55/0.93/0.40/0.96, respectively. In conclusion, among these weekly screening tests for IA, the double-sandwich ELISA test was the most sensitive at predicting the diagnosis of IA in high-risk patients with hematological disorders, using a reduced cutoff of 0.6 O.D.I.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.6.2733-2741.2004
PMCID: PMC427860  PMID: 15184460

Results 1-6 (6)