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1.  Gut Dysbiosis in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0145274.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychological illness with devastating physical consequences; however, its pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear. Because numerous reports have indicated the importance of gut microbiota in the regulation of weight gain, it is reasonable to speculate that AN patients might have a microbial imbalance, i.e. dysbiosis, in their gut. In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota of female patients with AN (n = 25), including restrictive (ANR, n = 14) and binge-eating (ANBP, n = 11) subtypes, with those of age-matched healthy female controls (n = 21) using the Yakult Intestinal Flora-SCAN based on 16S or 23S rRNA–targeted RT–quantitative PCR technology. AN patients had significantly lower amounts of total bacteria and obligate anaerobes including those from the Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, and Bacteroides fragilis group than the age-matched healthy women. Lower numbers of Streptococcus were also found in the AN group than in the control group. In the analysis based on AN subtypes, the counts of the Bacteroides fragilis group in the ANR and ANBP groups and the counts of the Clostridium coccoides group in the ANR group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The detection rate of the Lactobacillus plantarum subgroup was significantly lower in the AN group than in the control group. The AN group had significantly lower acetic and propionic acid concentrations in the feces than the control group. Moreover, the subtype analysis showed that the fecal concentrations of acetic acid were lower in the ANR group than in the control group. Principal component analysis confirmed a clear difference in the bacterial components between the AN patients and healthy women. Collectively, these results clearly indicate the existence of dysbiosis in the gut of AN patients.
PMCID: PMC4687631  PMID: 26682545
2.  Three cases of appendicitis with anorexia nervosa under inpatient care 
Little is known about the occurrence of appendicitis during the re-nourishment period in anorexia nervosa (AN). We report three cases of appendicitis in patients with AN that occurred after hospitalization for treatment of AN.
Case presentation
Case 1 is a 34-year-old female, case 2 is a 17-year-old female and case 3 is a 38-year-old female. Constipation was observed in all three cases. Careful management of defecation might be essential to prevent appendicitis among AN patients during the re-nourishment period under inpatient care. In addition, mild and diffuse symptoms were observed in all three cases. Therefore, diagnosis proved to be difficult to make and abdominal computed tomography was particularly helpful in all cases. As the symptoms were diffuse, the condition of appendicitis turned out to be more severe and complicated in one case. Additionally, the incidence of appendicitis in AN in the current study might be higher than that in the normal population.
These findings suggest that appendicitis should be considered as one of the potentially important complications in the therapy for AN.
PMCID: PMC4636842  PMID: 26550478
Appendicitis; Anorexia nervosa; Re-nourishment; Inpatient therapy
3.  The outcome of treatment for anorexia nervosa inpatients who required urgent hospitalization 
This study was done to determine which psychosocial factors are related to the urgent hospitalization of anorexia nervosa patients (AN) due to extremely poor physical condition and to evaluate their outcome after inpatient treatment.
133 hospitalized AN patients were classified into an urgent hospitalization (n = 24) or a planned hospitalization (n = 109) group. Multiple regression analysis was done of clinical features, body mass index (BMI), psychological tests [The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), alexithymia, relationship with parents, and the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI)]. The effectiveness of treatment was prospectively determined two years after discharge by the Global Clinical Score (GCS). The hospitalized weight gain and the frequency of outpatient visits were evaluated.
Of the factors assessed, only BMI at admission was related to the necessity of urgent hospitalization (β = − 1.063, P = 0.00). The urgent group had significantly more weight loss after discharge and poorer social adaptation on the GCS, even when the patient had a sufficient increase in body weight during inpatient treatment and an equivalent number of outpatient consultations.
None of the parameters of the psychosocial tests studied were significantly different between the groups. The outcome of the urgent group was poor. Two years after discharge they had difficulty maintaining weight and continued to have poor social adaptation.
PMCID: PMC4163679  PMID: 25225574
Anorexia nervosa; Urgent hospitalization; Outcome; BMI; MMPI; EDI
4.  Association of the c.385C>A (p.Pro129Thr) polymorphism of the fatty acid amide hydrolase gene with anorexia nervosa in the Japanese population 
The functional c.385C>A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) gene, one of the major degrading enzymes of endocannabinoids, is reportedly associated with anorexia nervosa (AN). We genotyped the c.385C>A SNP (rs324420) in 762 lifetime AN and 605 control participants in Japan. There were significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of c.385C>A between the AN and control groups. The minor 385A allele was less frequent in the AN participants than in the controls (allele-wise, odds ratio = 0.799, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.653–0.976, P = 0.028). When the cases were subdivided into lifetime restricting subtype AN and AN with a history of binge eating or purging, only the restricting AN group exhibited a significant association (allele-wise, odds ratio = 0.717, 95% CI 0.557–0.922, P = 0.0094). Our results suggest that having the minor 385A allele of the FAAH gene may be protective against AN, especially restricting AN. This finding supports the possible role of the endocannabinoid system in susceptibility to AN.
PMCID: PMC4113271  PMID: 25077173
Anandamide; cannabinoid 1 receptor; eating disorder; endocannabinoid
5.  The longitudinal BMI pattern and body composition of patients with anorexia nervosa who require urgent hospitalization: A case control study 
The prevention of serious physical complications in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is important. The purpose of this study is to clarify which physical and social factors are related to the necessity for urgent hospitalization of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients in a long-term starvation state. We hypothesized that the change of longitudinal BMI, body composition and social background would be useful as an index of the necessity for urgent hospitalization.
AN patients were classified into; urgent hospitalization, due to disturbance of consciousness or difficulty walking(n = 17); planned admission (n = 96); and outpatient treatment only groups (n = 136). The longitudinal BMI pattern and the clinical features of these groups were examined. In the hospitalization groups, comparison was done of body composition variation and the social background, including the educational level and advice from family members.
After adjusting for age and duration of illness, the BMI of the urgent hospitalization group was lower than that of the other groups at one year before hospitalization (P < 0.01) and decreased more rapidly (P < 0.01). Urgent hospitalization was associated with the fat free mass (FFM) (P < 0.01). Between the groups, no considerable difference in social factors was found.
The longitudinal pattern of BMI and FFM may be useful for understanding the severity in AN from the viewpoint of failure of the homeostasis system.
PMCID: PMC3275451  PMID: 22142436
6.  Relation between psychosocial variables and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional and prospective study 
This cross-sectional and prospective study used a variety of psychological inventories to evaluate the relationship between psychosocial factors and the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes.
Participants were 304 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated as outpatients at diabetes clinics. All participants were assessed for HbA1c and completed the following self-report psychological inventories: 1) Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (DTSQ), 2) Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (PAID), 3) Well-being Questionnaire 12 (W-BQ12), 4) Self-Esteem Scale (SES), 5) Social Support Scale, and 6) Self-Efficacy Scale. HbA1c was again measured one year later. The relationships between the psychosocial variables obtained by analysis of the psychological inventories and baseline or one-year follow-up HbA1c were determined.
Baseline HbA1cwas significantly correlated with age, diet treatment regimen, number of microvascular complication of diabetes, and the total scores of DTSQ, W-BQ12, PAID, SES and the Self-Efficacy Scale. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression revealed that significant predictors of baseline HbA1c were total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age, diet treatment regimen, and number of microvascular complication of diabetes after adjustment for demographic, clinical and other psychosocial variables. Two hundred and ninety patients (95.4% of 304) were followed and assessed one year after baseline. Hierarchical stepwise multiple regression analysis showed the significant predictors of follow-up HbA1c to be total DTSQ and PAID scores, along with age and diet treatment regimen. However, the correlation between baseline and follow-up HbA1c was so high that the only other variable to retain significance was diet treatment regimen once baseline HbA1c was included in the regression of follow-up HbA1c.
The DTSQ and the PAID predicted both current and future HbA1c to a similar and significant degree in patients with type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC2667542  PMID: 19298645
7.  Psychological and weight-related characteristics of patients with anorexia nervosa-restricting type who later develop bulimia nervosa 
Patients with anorexia nervosa-restricting type (AN-R) sometimes develop accompanying bulimic symptoms or the full syndrome of bulimia nervosa (BN). If clinicians could predict who might change into the bulimic sub-type or BN, preventative steps could be taken. Therefore, we investigated anthropometric and psychological factors possibly associated with such changes.
All participants were from a study by the Japanese Genetic Research Group for Eating Disorders. Of 80 patients initially diagnosed with AN-R, 22 changed to the AN-Binge Eating/Purging Type (AN-BP) and 14 to BN for some period of time. The remaining 44 patients remained AN-R only from the onset to the investigation period. Variables compared by ANOVA included anthropometric measures, personality traits such as Multiple Perfectionism Scale scores and Temperament and Character Inventory scores, and Beck Depression Inventory-II scores.
In comparison with AN-R only patients, those who developed BN had significantly higher current BMI (p < 0.05) and maximum BMI in the past (p < 0.05). They also scored significantly higher for the psychological characteristic of parental criticism (p < 0.05) and lower in self-directedness (p < 0.05), which confirms previous reports, but these differences disappeared when the depression score was used as a co-variant. No significant differences were obtained for personality traits or depression among the AN-R only patients irrespective of their duration of illness.
The present findings suggest a tendency toward obesity among patients who cross over from AN-R to BN. Low self-directedness and high parental criticism may be associated with the development of BN by patients with AN-R, although the differences may also be associated with depression.
PMCID: PMC2275291  PMID: 18267038
8.  Psychopathological features of anorectic patients who dropped out of inpatient treatment as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 
Anorexia nervosa often requires inpatient treatment that includes psychotherapeutic intervention in addition to physical and nutritional management for severe low body weight. However, such patients sometimes terminate inpatient treatment prematurely because of resistance to treatment, poor motivation for treatment, unstable emotions, and problematic behaviors. In this study, the psychopathological factors related to the personality of anorexic patients that might predict discontinuation of inpatient treatment were investigated using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI).
Subjects were 75 consecutive anorectic inpatients who received cognitive behavioral therapy with a behavior protocol governing privileges in a university hospital based general (not psychiatric) ward. The MMPI was done on admission for all patients. A comparison was done of patients who completed the process of inpatient treatment, including attainment of target body weight (completers), and patients who dropped out of inpatient treatment (dropouts). Results: No significant differences between completers (n = 51) and dropouts (n = 24) were found in the type of eating disorder, age of onset, duration of illness, age, or BMI at admission. Logistic regression analysis found the MMPI scales schizophrenia (Sc), hypomania (HYP), deviant thinking and experience, and antisocial attitude to be factors predicting completion or dropout.
Dropouts have difficulty adapting to inpatient treatment protocols such as our behavior protocol governing privileges because they have social and emotional alienation, a lack of ego mastery (Sc), emotional instability (HYP) and an antisocial attitude. As a result, they have decreased motivation for treatment, leave the hospital without permission, attempt suicide, or shoplift, which leads them to terminate inpatient treatment prematurely. Treatments based on cognitive behavioral therapy with a behavior protocol governing privileges should be carefully adopted for anorectic patients who exhibit the psychopathological elements identified in this study.
PMCID: PMC1971270  PMID: 17651492
9.  Aggressive behavior and serum testosterone concentration during the maturation process of male mice: the effects of fetal exposure to bisphenol A. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  2003;111(2):175-178.
The relationship between exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDs) and risk to reproductive organs is well documented, but the influence of EDs on behavioral development has not been studied. In this study we evaluated the effect of fetal exposure to bisphenol A, which mimics estrogenic activity, on aggressive behavior and hormonal change in male mice. On gestation days 11-17, female mice were fed bisphenol A at 2 ng/g or 20 ng/g of body weight (environmentally relevant concentration). Aggression rating and blood sampling of the offspring were done at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age. Aggression scores increased significantly (p < 0.01) at 8 weeks of age in male mice exposed to bisphenol A at both the 2 ng/g and 20 ng/g concentrations compared with a control group, but no difference was found after 12 weeks. Relative testis weight (per gram of body weight) was significantly lower at 8 and 12 weeks in mice treated with 2 ng/g than in controls (p < 0.05) and was significantly lower at 12 weeks in mice treated with 20 ng/g than in controls (p < 0.01). The serum testosterone concentration in treated mice was not significantly different from that in controls. These results demonstrate that bisphenol A temporarily activated aggressive behavior in mice at 8 weeks of age and that low doses of bisphenol A interfered with the normal development of reproductive organs. The mechanism activating this aggressive behavior was not elevated testosterone concentration.
PMCID: PMC1241346  PMID: 12573901

Results 1-9 (9)