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1.  Associations between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone-Related Genes and Irritable Bowel Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(2):e0149322.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional disorder with distinct features of stress-related pathophysiology. A key mediator of the stress response is corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Although some candidate genes have been identified in stress-related disorders, few studies have examined CRH-related gene polymorphisms. Therefore, we tested our hypothesis that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CRH-related genes influence the features of IBS. Methods: In total, 253 individuals (123 men and 130 women) participated in this study. They comprised 111 IBS individuals and 142 healthy controls. The SNP genotypes in CRH (rs28364015 and rs6472258) and CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) (rs10474485) were determined by direct sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction. The emotional states of the subjects were evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, and the Self-rating Depression Scale. Results: Direct sequencing of the rs28364015 SNP of CRH revealed no genetic variation among the study subjects. There was no difference in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of rs6472258 and rs10474485 between IBS individuals and controls. However, IBS subjects with diarrhea symptoms without the rs10474485 A allele showed a significantly higher emotional state score than carriers. Conclusions: These results suggest that the CRH and CRH-BP genes have no direct effect on IBS status. However, the CRH-BP SNP rs10474485 has some effect on IBS-related emotional abnormalities and resistance to psychosocial stress.
PMCID: PMC4755592  PMID: 26882083
2.  Motility Response to Colonic Distention is Increased in Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome (PI-IBS) 
Acute intestinal infection leads to persistent intestinal smooth muscle hypercontractility and pain hypersensitivity after resolution of the infection in animal models. We investigated whether post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is associated with abnormalities in phasic contractions of the colon, smooth muscle tone and pain sensitivity compared to non-PI-IBS (NI-IBS) or healthy controls (HC).
218 Rome III positive IBS patients and 43 healthy controls participated. IBS patients were designated PI-IBS if their IBS symptoms began following an episode of gastroenteritis characterized by 2 or more of: fever, vomiting, or diarrhea. Pain threshold to phasic distentions of the descending colon was assessed using a barostat. Colonic motility was assessed with the barostat bag minimally inflated to the individual operating pressure (IOP), at 20 mmHg above the IOP, and following a test meal. IBS symptom severity and psychological symptoms were assessed by the IBS Severity Scale (IBS-SS) and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18).
Key Results
Twenty-two (10.1%) met criteria for PI-IBS. Both IBS and HC groups showed a significant increase in motility index during intraluminal distention and following meals. The magnitude of the response to distention above (orad to) the balloon was significantly greater in PI-IBS compared with NI-IBS (p<0.05) or HC (p<0.01). Differences between PI-IBS and NI-IBS were not significant for IBS symptom severity, pain threshold, barostat bag volumes, or any psychological score on the BSI-18.
Conclusions & Inferences
Patients with PI-IBS have greater colonic hypercontractility than NI-IBS. We speculate that sustained mild mucosal inflammation may cause this colonic irritability.
PMCID: PMC4739722  PMID: 24602083
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); gut inflammation; colonic motility; visceral sensitivity
3.  Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 2 Gene Variants in Irritable Bowel Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(1):e0147817.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and regulates the stress response through two CRH receptors (R1 and R2). Previously, we reported that a CRHR1 gene polymorphism (rs110402, rs242924, and rs7209436) and haplotypes were associated with IBS. However, the association between the CRHR2 gene and IBS was not investigated. We tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of CRHR2 are associated with IBS pathophysiology and negative emotion in IBS patients.
A total of 142 IBS patients and 142 healthy controls participated in this study. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CRHR2 gene (rs4722999, rs3779250, rs2240403, rs2267710, rs2190242, rs2284217, and rs2284220) were genotyped. Subjects' psychological states were evaluated using the Perceived-Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale.
We found that rs4722999 and rs3779250, located in intronic region, were associated with IBS in terms of genotype frequency (rs4722999: P = 0.037; rs3779250: P = 0.017) and that the distribution of the major allele was significantly different between patients and controls. There was a significant group effect (controls vs. IBS), and a CRHR2 genotype effect was observed for three psychological scores, but the interaction was not significant. We found a haplotype of four SNPs (rs4722999, rs3779250, rs2240403, and rs2267710) and two SNPs (rs2284217 and rs2284220) in strong linkage disequilibrium (D′ > 0.90). We also found that haplotypes of the CRHR2 gene were significantly different between IBS patients and controls and that they were associated with negative emotion.
Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of CRHR2 are related to IBS. In addition, we found associations between CRHR2 genotypes and haplotypes and negative emotion in IBS patients and controls. Further studies on IBS and the CRH system are warranted.
PMCID: PMC4726564  PMID: 26808377
4.  Validity and Reliability of the Japanese Version of the Rome III Diagnostic Questionnaire for Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Functional Dyspepsia 
Reliable diagnostic instruments for measuring the presence of functional gastrointestinal disorders based on the Rome III criteria have been lacking in Japan. The aims of the present study were to translate and validate the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire which was widely used in Western countries.
The original version of Rome III diagnostic questionnaire was translated from English into Japanese through 3 independent forward translations, resolution, back translation and reconciliation of the differences. Forty-nine patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 32 patients with functional dyspepsia (FD) and 56 subjects without any current GI symptoms as controls were recruited from three hospitals located in different regions of Japan and completed the IBS and FD diagnostic modules twice within 14 days. Kappa statistic was used to assess test-retest reliability. The sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic module for distinguishing IBS or FD patients from controls was tested.
Median kappa statistics were 0.63 for the translated IBS diagnostic module and 0.68 for the FD module. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predict value of the IBS module against physician diagnosis was 61.2%, 100%, and 100% and those of the FD module was 53.2%, 98.2%, and 94.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, IBS patients were significantly more likely to report blood in stools compared to controls (18.4% vs 1.8%, P < 0.01).
The IBS and FD diagnostic modules on the Japanese version of the Rome III diagnostic questionnaire are valid and reliable. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the diagnostic utility of the red flag questionnaire.
PMCID: PMC4622136  PMID: 26350938
Dyspepsia; Functional gastrointestinal disorders; Irritable bowel syndrome; Japan; Questionnaire; Translations
5.  Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphism Modulates Activity and Connectivity within an Emotional Arousal Network of Healthy Men during an Aversive Visceral Stimulus 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(4):e0123183.
Background and Aims
The 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been linked to increased stress responsiveness and negative emotional states. During fearful face recognition individuals with the s allele of 5-HTTLPR show greater amygdala activation. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism differentially affects connectivity within brain networks during an aversive visceral stimulus.
Twenty-three healthy male subjects were enrolled. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood. The genotype of 5-HTTLPR was determined using polymerase chain reaction. Subjects with the s/s genotype (n = 13) were compared to those with the l allele (genotypes l/s, l/l, n = 10). Controlled rectal distension from 0 to 40 mmHg was delivered in random order using a barostat. Radioactive H2[15-O] saline was injected at time of distension followed by positron emission tomography (PET). Changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) and structural equation modeling (SEM).
During baseline, subjects with s/s genotype demonstrated a significantly increased negative influence of pregenual ACC (pACC) on amygdala activity compared to l-carriers. During inflation, subjects with s/s genotype demonstrated a significantly greater positive influence of hippocampus on amygdala activity compared to l-carriers.
In male Japanese subjects, individuals with s/s genotype show alterations in the connectivity of brain regions involved in stress responsiveness and emotion regulation during aversive visceral stimuli compared to those with l carriers.
PMCID: PMC4404144  PMID: 25893242
6.  Gastrointestinal specific anxiety in irritable bowel syndrome: validation of the Japanese version of the visceral sensitivity index for university students 
The visceral sensitivity index (VSI) is a useful self-report measure of the gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety (GSA) of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous research has shown that worsening GSA in IBS patients is related to the severity of GI symptoms, suggesting that GSA is an important endpoint for intervention. However, there is currently no Japanese version of the VSI. We therefore translated the VSI into Japanese (VSI-J) and verified its reliability and validity.
Material and methods
Participants were 349 university students aged 18 and 19 years and recruited from an academic class. We analyzed data from the VSI-J, Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD), and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Severity Index (IBS-SI). The internal consistency, stability, and factor structure of the VSI-J and its associations with anxiety, depression and severity measures were investigated.
The factor structure of the VSI-J is unidimensional and similar to that of the original VSI (Cronbach’s α = 0.93). Construct validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with ASI (r = 0.43, p < 0.0001), HAD-ANX (r = 0.19, p = 0.0003), and IBS-SI scores (r = 0.45, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the VSI-J was a significant predictor of severity scores on the IBS-SI and demonstrated good discriminant (p < 0.0001) and incremental (p < 0.0001) validity.
These findings suggest that the VSI-J is a reliable and valid measure of visceral sensitivity.
PMCID: PMC3994456  PMID: 24655428
Gastrointestinal-specific anxiety; Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS); Motility; Psychosomatics; Validation; Visceral Sensitivity Index (VSI)
7.  Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Association with Colon Motility, Bowel Symptoms, and Psychological Distress 
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although with significant controversy.
To determine the prevalence of SIBO in IBS and its association with colonic motility, bowel symptoms and psychological distress.
Sucrose hydrogen and methane breath tests were performed in 158 IBS and 34 healthy controls (HC). Thresholds for pain and urgency were tested by barostat in the descending colon. The motility index (MI) was calculated as the average area under the curve for all phasic contractions. Questionnaires assessed psychological distress, IBS symptom severity (IBSSS), IBS Quality of Life (IBS-QOL) and self reported bowel symptoms.
52/158 (32.9%) IBS patients had abnormal breath tests compared with 6/34 (17.9%) HC (χ2=0.079). SIBO (SIBO+) and Non-SIBO (SIBO−) did not differ in the prevalence of IBS-subtypes, IBS-SS, IBS-QOL and psychological distress variables. IBS had a greater post-distension increase in MI than HC, but there was no difference between SIBO+ and SIBO−. Predominant methane producers had higher urge thresholds (28.4 vs. 18.3, p<0.05) and higher baseline MI (461 vs. 301.45, p<0.05) than SIBO− IBS, and they reported more “hard or lumpy stools” when compared to predominant hydrogen producers (p<0.05) and SIBO− IBS (p< 0.05).
SIBO is unlikely to contribute significantly in the pathogenesis of IBS. Methane production is associated with constipation.
PMCID: PMC3856223  PMID: 18482250
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; Irritable bowel syndrome; Breath test; Methane; Constipation; Visceral hypersensitivity; Psychological
8.  Contributions of pain sensitivity and colonic motility to IBS symptom severity and predominant bowel habits 
The American journal of gastroenterology  2008;103(10):10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.02066.x.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients show pain hypersensitivity and hypercontractility in response to colonic or rectal distention. Aims were to determine whether predominant bowel habits and IBS symptom severity are related to pain sensitivity, colon motility, or smooth muscle tone.
129 patients classified as IBS with diarrhea (IBS-D, n=44), IBS with constipation (IBS-C, n=29), mixed IBS (IBS-M, n=45) and unspecified IBS (IBS-U, n=11) based on stool consistency, and 30 healthy controls (HC) were studied. A manometric catheter containing a 600-ml capacity plastic bag was positioned in the descending colon. Pain threshold was assessed using a barostat. Motility was assessed for 10 min with the bag minimally inflated (individual operating pressure or IOP), 10 min at 20 mmHg above the IOP, and for 15-min recovery following bag inflation. Motility was also recorded for 30 min following an 810-kcal meal.
Compared to HC, IBS patients had lower pain thresholds (medians: 30 vs. 40 mmHg, p<0.01), but IBS subtypes were not different. IBS symptom severity was correlated with pain thresholds (rho=-0.36, p<0.001). During distention, the motility index (MI) was significantly higher in IBS compared to HC (909±73 vs. 563±78, p<0.01). Average barostat bag volume at baseline was higher (muscle tone lower) in HC compared to IBS-D and IBS-M but not compared to IBS-C. The baseline MI and bag volume differed between IBS-D and IBS-C and correlated with symptoms of abdominal distention and dissatisfaction with bowel movements. Pain thresholds and MI during distention were uncorrelated.
Pain sensitivity and colon motility are independent factors contributing to IBS symptoms. Treatment may need to address both and to be specific to predominant bowel habit.
PMCID: PMC3855425  PMID: 18684175
irritable bowel syndrome; visceral hypersensitivity; colonic motility; symptom severity; subtypes of bowel habit
9.  Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 Gene Variants in Irritable Bowel Syndrome 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e42450.
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) acts mainly via the CRH receptor 1 (CRH-R1) and plays a crucial role in the stress-induced pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Several studies have demonstrated that variants of the CRH-R1 gene carry a potential risk for depression, but evidence for an association between CRH-R1 genotypes and IBS is lacking. We tested the hypothesis that genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of CRH-R1 moderate the IBS phenotype and negative emotion in IBS patients.
A total of 103 patients with IBS and 142 healthy controls participated in the study. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the CRH-R1 gene (rs7209436, rs242924, and rs110402) were genotyped. Subjects' emotional states were evaluated using the Perceived-Stress Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Self-rating Depression Scale.
The TT genotype of rs7209436 (P = 0.01) and rs242924 (P = 0.02) was significantly more common in patients with IBS than in controls. Total sample analysis showed significant association between bowel pattern (normal, diarrhea, constipation, or mixed symptoms) and the T allele of rs7209436 (P = 0.008), T allele of rs242924 (P = 0.019), A allele of rs110402 (P = 0.047), and TAT haplocopies (P = 0.048). Negative emotion was not associated with the examined CRH-R1 SNPs.
These findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms and the CRH-R1 haplotypes moderate IBS and related bowel patterns. There was no clear association between CRH-R1 genotypes and negative emotion accompanying IBS. Further studies on the CRH system are therefore warranted.
PMCID: PMC3434156  PMID: 22957021
10.  Enhanced Auditory Brainstem Response and Parental Bonding Style in Children with Gastrointestinal Symptoms 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e32913.
The electrophysiological properties of the brain and influence of parental bonding in childhood irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are unclear. We hypothesized that children with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms like IBS may show exaggerated brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) responses and receive more inadequate parental bonding.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Children aged seven and their mothers (141 pairs) participated. BAEP was measured by summation of 1,000 waves of the electroencephalogram triggered by 75 dB click sounds. The mothers completed their Children's Somatization Inventory (CSI) and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). CSI results revealed 66 (42%) children without GI symptoms (controls) and 75 (58%) children with one or more GI symptoms (GI group). The III wave in the GI group (median 4.10 interquartile range [3.95–4.24] ms right, 4.04 [3.90–4.18] ms left) had a significantly shorter peak latency than controls (4.18 [4.06–4.34] ms right, p = 0.032, 4.13 [4.02–4.24] ms left, p = 0.018). The female GI group showed a significantly shorter peak latency of the III wave (4.00 [3.90–4.18] ms) than controls (4.18 [3.97–4.31] ms, p = 0.034) in the right side. BAEP in the male GI group did not significantly differ from that in controls. GI scores showed a significant correlation with the peak latency of the III wave in the left side (rho = −0.192, p = 0.025). The maternal care PBI scores in the GI group (29 [26]–[33]) were significantly lower than controls (31 [28.5–33], p = 0.010), while the maternal over-protection PBI scores were significantly higher in the GI group (16 [12]–[17]) than controls (13 [10.5–16], p = 0.024). Multiple regression analysis in females also supported these findings.
It is suggested that children with chronic GI symptoms have exaggerated brainstem responses to environmental stimuli and inadequate parental behaviors aggravate these symptoms.
PMCID: PMC3310045  PMID: 22470430
11.  Biopsychosocial Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome 
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder seen in gastroenterology and primary care practice. It is characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with disturbed bowel function. It is a heterogeneous disorder with varying treatments, and in this regard physicians sometimes struggle with finding the optimal approach to management of patients with IBS. This disorder induces high health care costs and variably reduces health-related quality of life. IBS is in the class of functional gastrointestinal disorders, and results from dysregulation of central and enteric nervous system interactions. Psychosocial factors are closely related to their gut physiology, associated cognitions, symptom manifestations and illness behavior. Therefore, it is important for the physician to recognize the psychosocial issues of patients with IBS and in addition to build a good patient-physician relationship in order to optimize treatment. This review focuses on the interaction between psychological and physiological factors associated with IBS by using a biopsychosocial model. In this article, we describe (1) the predisposing psychological features seen in early life; (2) the psychological factors associated with life stress, the symptom presentation, and their associated coping patterns; (3) gut pathophysiology with emphasis on disturbances in motility, visceral hypersensitivity and brain-gut interactions; and finally (4) the clinical outcomes and effective treatments including psychotherapeutic methods.
PMCID: PMC3093004  PMID: 21602989
Irritable bowel syndrome; Pathophysiology; Psychology
12.  Increased colonic pain sensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome is the result of an increased tendency to report pain rather than increased neurosensory sensitivity 
Gut  2007;56(9):1202-1209.
The aim was to determine whether lower visceral pain thresholds in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) primarily reflect physiological or psychological factors.
Firstly, 121 IBS patients and 28 controls underwent balloon distensions in the descending colon using the ascending methods of limits (AML) to assess pain and urge thresholds. Secondly, sensory decision theory analysis was used to separate physiological from psychological components of perception: neurosensory sensitivity (p(A)) was measured by the ability to discriminate between 30 mm Hg vs 34 mm Hg distensions; psychological influences were measured by the report criterion—that is, the overall tendency to report pain, indexed by the median intensity rating for all distensions, independent of intensity. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI).
IBS patients had lower AML pain thresholds (median: 28 mm Hg vs 40 mm Hg; p<0.001), but similar neurosensory sensitivity (median p(A): 0.5 vs 0.5; p = 0.69; 42.6% vs 42.9% were able to discriminate between the stimuli better than chance) and a greater tendency to report pain (median report criterion: 4.0 (“mild” pain) vs 5.2 (“weak” pain); p = 0.003). AML pain thresholds were not correlated with neurosensory sensitivity (r = −0.13; p = 0.14), but were strongly correlated with report criterion (r = 0.67; p<0.0001). Report criterion was inversely correlated with BSI somatisation (r = −0.26; p = 0.001) and BSI global score (r = −0.18; p = 0.035). Similar results were seen for the non‐painful sensation of urgency.
Increased colonic sensitivity in IBS is strongly influenced by a psychological tendency to report pain and urge rather than increased neurosensory sensitivity.
PMCID: PMC1954968  PMID: 17483191
hypersensitivity; hypervigilance; perceptual response bias; irritable bowel syndrome
13.  Changes in salivary physiological stress markers induced by muscle stretching in patients with irritable bowel syndrome 
Psychophysiological processing has been reported to play a crucial role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) but there has been no report on modulation of the stress marker chromogranin A (CgA) resulting from muscle stretching. We hypothesized that abdominal muscle stretching as a passive operation would have a beneficial effect on a biochemical index of the activity of the sympathetic/adrenomedullary system (salivary CgA) and anxiety.
Fifteen control and eighteen untreated IBS subjects underwent experimental abdominal muscle stretching for 4 min. Subjects relaxed in a supine position with their knees fully flexed while their pelvic and trunk rotation was passively and slowly moved from 0 degrees of abdominal rotation to about 90 degrees or the point where the subject reported feeling discomfort.
Changes in the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale (GSRS), State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), ordinate scale and salivary CgA levels were compared between controls and IBS subjects before and after stretching. A three-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) with period (before vs. after) as the within-subject factor and group (IBS vs. Control), and sex (men vs. female) as the between-subject factors was carried out on salivary CgA.
CgA showed significant interactions between period and groups (F[1, 31] = 4.89, p = 0.03), and between groups and sex (F[1, 31] = 4.73, p = 0.03). Interactions between period and sex of CgA secretion were not shown (F[1, 3] = 2.60, p = 0.12). At the baseline, salivary CgA in IBS subjects (36.7 ± 5.9 pmol/mg) was significantly higher than in controls (19.9 ± 5.5 pmol/mg, p < 0.05). After the stretching, salivary CgA significantly decreased in the IBS group (25.5 ± 4.5 pmol/mg), and this value did not differ from that in controls (18.6 ± 3.9 pmol/mg).
Our results suggest the possibility of improving IBS pathophysiology by passive abdominal muscle stretching as indicated by CgA, a biochemical index of the activity of the sympathetic/adrenomedullary system.
PMCID: PMC2588633  PMID: 18983682
14.  Translation and validation of a Japanese version of the irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life measure (IBS-QOL-J) 
To compare quality of life (QOL) for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) between the U.S. and Japan, it is indispensable to develop common instruments. The IBS-QOL, which is widely used in Western countries, was translated into Japanese as there has been a lack of Japanese disease-specific QOL measures for IBS.
The original 34 items of the IBS-QOL were translated from English into Japanese through two independent forward translations, resolution, back translation, and resolution of differences. Forty nine patients who had GI symptoms but did not have any organic diseases (including 30 IBS patients diagnosed by Rome II criteria) were recruited from Tohoku University Hospital in Sendai, Japan and completed a Japanese version of the IBS-QOL (IBS-QOL-J) concomitant with a Japanese version of the IBS severity index (IBSSI-J) twice within 7–14 days.
The IBS-QOL-J demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; 0.96) and high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient; 0.92, p < 0.001). Convergent analyses confirmed that the overall score of IBS-QOL-J was significantly correlated with overall severity of IBS symptoms on the IBSSI-J (r = -0.36, p = 0.01) and with the individual items on the IBSSI-J that assess interference with life in general (r = -0.47, p = 0.001) and dissatisfaction with bowel habits (r = -0.32, p < 0.05). Eight patients who reported continuous abdominal pain in the past 6 months had significantly lower scores in the IBS-QOL-J than those who did not (53.7 +- 12.7 vs. 73.6 +- 19.5, p < 0.01). Age, sex, education or marital status did not affect scores on the measure.
The IBS-QOL-J is a reliable instrument to assess the disease-specific QOL for IBS. Considering cross-cultural comparison, this measure is likely to be a valuable tool to investigate the QOL in Japanese patients with IBS.
PMCID: PMC1832201  PMID: 17371576

Results 1-14 (14)