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author:("Inoue, marino")
1.  Body mass index, blood pressure, and glucose and lipid metabolism among permanent and fixed-term workers in the manufacturing industry: a cross-sectional study 
BMC Public Health  2014;14:207.
Temporary employment, a precarious form of employment, is recognized as social determinant of poor health. However, evidence supporting precarious employment as a risk factor for health is mainly obtained from subjective data. Studies using objective clinical measurement data in the assessment of health status are limited. This study compared body mass index (BMI), lipid and glucose metabolism, and health-related lifestyle factors between permanent workers and fixed-term workers employed in the manufacturing industry.
Data of 1,701 male manufacturing industry workers <50 years old in Japan were collected and analyzed. Anthropometric data were BMI, calculated using measured height and weight of study participants, and blood pressure. For lipid metabolism, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were determined. For glucose metabolism, fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors was performed.
BMI was significantly higher in permanent workers (22.9 kg/m2) compared with fixed-term workers (22.4 kg/m2). The leaner population (BMI < 18.5) was greater among fixed-term workers (8.3%) compared with permanent workers (4.0%), whereas the overweight population (BMI ≥ 25.0) was greater among permanent workers (21.4%) compared with fixed-term workers (18.1%). Although fixed-term workers tended not to be overweight, regression analysis adjusted for age and lifestyle factors suggested that fixed-term employment was significantly associated with higher blood pressure (systolic β = 2.120, diastolic β = 2.793), triglyceride (β = 11.147), fasting blood glucose (β = 2.218), and HbA1c (β = 0.107) compared with permanent workers (all p < 0.01).
Fixed-term workers showed more health risks, such as poorer blood pressure and lipid and glucose metabolism, even when adjusted for age and lifestyle variables, although BMI of fixed-term workers were lower than permanent workers. Precarious work might contribute to a deteriorating health status even among less overweight populations.
PMCID: PMC3942209  PMID: 24576216
Job insecurity; Unstable employment; Precarious employment; Flexible work; Fixed-term workers; Temporary work; Social determinants of health; Manufacturing industry
3.  Therapeutic approach for type 1 diabetes mellitus using the novel immunomodulator FTY720 (fingolimod) in combination with once‐daily injection of insulin glargine in non‐obese diabetic mice 
Aims/Introduction:  The therapeutic effectiveness against type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) of the novel immunomodulator FTY720 (fingolimod), alone and in combination with insulin glargine, was examined in the non‐obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model.
Materials and Methods:  Female NOD mice that had developed DM spontaneously were divided into four groups: (i) an FTY720 (0.1 mg/kg, p.o., twice weekly)‐treated group; (ii) an insulin glargine (1.0 IU, s.c., once daily)‐treated group; (iii) a combination FTY720 + insulin glargine (0.1–1.0 IU, s.c., once daily)‐treated group; and (iv) a placebo (vehicle)‐treated group. Treatment was initiated at the time of onset of DM and continued for 70 days or until death. The therapeutic efficacy of FTY720, insulin glargine and FTY720 + insulin glargine was evaluated by measuring the ratio of insulin‐positive β‐cells/total islet area, the extent of islet inflammation (insulitis score), blood glucose levels, and serum C‐peptide levels.
Results:  Therapeutic administration of FTY720 to NOD mice with hyperglycemia (i.e. overt DM) significantly prolonged survival (P < 0.05 vs placebo). In the placebo group, all mice died within 63 days on the onset of DM; in contrast, 45% of FTY720‐treated mice survived during the observation period (up to 70 days after the onset of DM). Therapeutic administration of FTY720 in combination with insulin glargine to NOD mice with hyperglycemia further improved survival (P < 0.05) compared with either FTY720 or insulin glargine alone (i.e. 85% of FTY720 + insulin glargine‐treated mice survived to the end of the observation period). The efficacy of FTY720 in combination with insulin glargine was confirmed by histochemical, immunohistochemical and endocrinologic observations.
Conclusions:  Combination therapy with FTY720 plus insulin glargine is a promising candidate for the treatment of DM and may allow for a reduction in the frequency of insulin self‐injections. (J Diabetes Invest, doi:10.1111/j.2040‐1124.2011.00160.x, 2011)
PMCID: PMC4020730  PMID: 24843556
FTY720; Non‐obese diabetic mouse; Type 1 diabetes mellitus
4.  Effort-reward imbalance and its association with health among permanent and fixed-term workers 
In the past decade, the changing labor market seems to have rejected the traditional standards employment and has begun to support a variety of non-standard forms of work in their place. The purpose of our study was to compare the degree of job stress, sources of job stress, and association of high job stress with health among permanent and fixed-term workers.
Our study subjects were 709 male workers aged 30 to 49 years in a suburb of Tokyo, Japan. In 2008, we conducted a cross-sectional study to compare job stress using an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaire. Lifestyles, subjective symptoms, and body mass index were also observed from the 2008 health check-up data.
The rate of job stress of the high-risk group measured by ERI questionnaire was not different between permanent and fixed-term workers. However, the content of the ERI components differed. Permanent workers were distressed more by effort, overwork, or job demand, while fixed-term workers were distressed more by their job insecurity. Moreover, higher ERI was associated with existence of subjective symptoms (OR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.42-3.03) and obesity (OR = 2.84, 95% CI:1.78-4.53) in fixed-term workers while this tendency was not found in permanent workers.
Our study showed that workers with different employment types, permanent and fixed-term, have dissimilar sources of job stress even though their degree of job stress seems to be the same. High ERI was associated with existing subjective symptoms and obesity in fixed-term workers. Therefore, understanding different sources of job stress and their association with health among permanent and fixed-term workers should be considered to prevent further health problems.
PMCID: PMC2990722  PMID: 21054838
5.  The spatial patterning of mouse cone opsin expression is regulated by BMP signaling through downstream effector COUP-TF nuclear receptors 
Cone photopigments, known as opsins, are pivotal elements and the first detection module employed in color vision. In mice, cone photoreceptors are distributed throughout the retina, and S- and M-opsins have unique expression patterns in the retina with a gradient along the dorsoventral axis; however, the mechanisms regulating the spatial patterning of cone opsin expression have not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to define the mechanisms regulating the spatial patterning of cone opsin expression. By analyzing knockouts for bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, we found an essential role for BMP in forming cone opsin expression patterns in the retina; however, BMP signaling is activated only transiently in the dorsal half of the retina during early retinal development. Thus, BMP is not likely to play a direct role in opsin gene expression, which starts at a later stage of retinal development. We identified the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor (COUP-TF) nuclear receptor as a link between BMP and opsin expression. BMP signaling is essential for the correct dorsoventral spatial expression of COUP-TFI and -TFII. Through gain- and loss-of-function analyses, we found that both COUP-TFI and -TFII are required to suppress S-opsin expression in the dorsal retina but that only COUP-TFI plays an essential role in suppressing M-opsin expression in the ventral retina. Based on these findings, we propose a new molecular cascade involving BMP and COUP-TFs that conveys dorsoventral information to direct the expression of cone opsins during retinal development.
PMCID: PMC2791207  PMID: 19812316
BMP signal; mouse retina; nuclear receptor; S-opsin; M-opsin; photoreceptor

Results 1-5 (5)