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1.  Capability and Limitations of Recent Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis 
Because a diagnostic serological marker is unavailable, autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is diagnosed based on unique features. The diagnostic capabilities and potential limitations of four sets of diagnostic criteria for AIP (Japanese diagnostic criteria 2006 and 2011, Asian diagnostic criteria, and international consensus diagnostic criteria (ICDC)) were compared among 85 patients who were diagnosed AIP according to at least one of the four sets. AIP was diagnosed in 87%, 95%, 95%, and 95% of the patients according to the Japanese 2006, Asian, ICDC, and Japanese 2011 criteria, respectively. The ICDC can diagnose types 1 and 2 AIP independently and show high sensitivity for diagnosis of AIP. However, as the ICDC are rather complex, diagnostic criteria for AIP should perhaps be revised and tailored to each country based on the ICDC.
PMCID: PMC3833014  PMID: 24288540
2.  Immunoglobulin G4-related gastrointestinal diseases, are they immunoglobulin G4-related diseases 
In immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (RD), organ enlargement or nodular lesions consisting of abundant infiltration of lymphocytes and IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis are seen in various organs. Although infiltration of many IgG4-positive plasma cells is detected in the gastric and colonic mucosa and major duodenal papilla of patients with autoimmune pancreatitis, it cannot be diagnosed as a gastrointestinal lesion involved in IgG4-RD, because none of the following is observed in these lesions: a mass-like formation; dense fibrosis; or obliterative phlebitis. Based on our review of the literature, there appear to be two types of IgG4-related gastrointestinal disease. One is a gastrointestinal lesion showing marked thickening of the wall of the esophagus and stomach, consisting of dense fibrosis with abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, which usually show submucosal spreading. The other is an IgG4-related pseudotumor occurring in gastrointestinal regions such as the stomach, colon, and major duodenal papilla, showing polypoid or mass-like lesions. Most solitary IgG4-related gastrointestinal lesions that are not associated with other IgG4-RD appear to be difficult to diagnose. It is of utmost importance to rule out malignancy. However, these lesions may respond to steroid therapy. To avoid unnecessary resection, IgG4-related gastrointestinal diseases should be considered in the differential diagnosis.
PMCID: PMC3793131  PMID: 24124321
Immunoglobulin G4; Autoimmune pancreatitis; Gastritis; Colonic polyp; Ulcerative colitis
3.  Translation and validation of a Japanese version of the irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life measure (IBS-QOL-J) 
To compare quality of life (QOL) for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) between the U.S. and Japan, it is indispensable to develop common instruments. The IBS-QOL, which is widely used in Western countries, was translated into Japanese as there has been a lack of Japanese disease-specific QOL measures for IBS.
The original 34 items of the IBS-QOL were translated from English into Japanese through two independent forward translations, resolution, back translation, and resolution of differences. Forty nine patients who had GI symptoms but did not have any organic diseases (including 30 IBS patients diagnosed by Rome II criteria) were recruited from Tohoku University Hospital in Sendai, Japan and completed a Japanese version of the IBS-QOL (IBS-QOL-J) concomitant with a Japanese version of the IBS severity index (IBSSI-J) twice within 7–14 days.
The IBS-QOL-J demonstrated high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; 0.96) and high reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient; 0.92, p < 0.001). Convergent analyses confirmed that the overall score of IBS-QOL-J was significantly correlated with overall severity of IBS symptoms on the IBSSI-J (r = -0.36, p = 0.01) and with the individual items on the IBSSI-J that assess interference with life in general (r = -0.47, p = 0.001) and dissatisfaction with bowel habits (r = -0.32, p < 0.05). Eight patients who reported continuous abdominal pain in the past 6 months had significantly lower scores in the IBS-QOL-J than those who did not (53.7 +- 12.7 vs. 73.6 +- 19.5, p < 0.01). Age, sex, education or marital status did not affect scores on the measure.
The IBS-QOL-J is a reliable instrument to assess the disease-specific QOL for IBS. Considering cross-cultural comparison, this measure is likely to be a valuable tool to investigate the QOL in Japanese patients with IBS.
PMCID: PMC1832201  PMID: 17371576

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