Patterned surfaces with special wettability and adhesion (sliding, sticky or patterned superoleophobic surface) can be found on many living creatures. They offer a versatile platform for microfluidic management and other biological functions. Inspired by their precise arrangement of structure and chemical component, we described a facile one-step approach to construct large scale pinecone-like anatase TiO2 particles (ATP) film. The as-prepared ATP film exhibits excellent superamphiphilic property in air, changes to underwater superoleophobicity with good dynamical stability. In addition, erasable and rewritable patterned superamphiphobic ATP films or three-dimensional (3D) Janus surfaces were constructed for a versatile platform for microfluidic management and biomedical applications. In a proof-of-concept study, robust super-antiwetting feet for artificial anti-oil strider at the oil/water interface, novel superamphiphobic surface for repeatable oil/water separation, and multifunctional patterned superamphiphobic ATP template for cell, fluorecent probe and inorganic nanoparticles site-selective immobilization were demonstrated.
Cycloadditions involving oxyallyl intermediates typically require an electron-rich diene or alkene, but we have discovered the first examples of the cycloaddition of heteroatom-stabilized oxyallyls onto carbonyl groups. An oxazolidinone-substituted oxyallyl undergoes chemoselective (3+2) cycloaddition onto the carbonyl group of a tethered dienone, in preference to formation of the expected (4+3) cycloadduct. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the (3+2) cycloaddition takes place through a concerted, highly asynchronous mechanism. The transition state features simultaneous interactions of the oxyallyl LUMO with the carbonyl π and lone pair orbitals, which place this reaction halfway between a purely pericyclic and a purely pseudopericyclic process (“hemipseudopericyclic”). Further (3+2) cycloadditions involving tethered phenylketones and a tethered enone were predicted theoretically and verified experimentally.
With the establishment of minimally invasive surgery in society, the robot has been increasingly widely used in the urologic field, including in partial nephrectomy. This study aimed to comprehensively summarize the currently available evidence on the feasibility and safety of robotic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors of >4 cm.
Method and Findings
An electronic database search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was performed. This systematic review and meta-analysis was based on all relevant studies that assessed robotic partial nephrectomy for renal tumors of >4 cm. Five studies were included. The meta-analysis involved 3 studies from 11 institutions including 154 patients, while the narrative review involved the remaining 2 studies from 5 institutions including 64 patients. In the meta-analysis, the mean ischemic time, operation time, and console time was 28, 319, and 189 minutes, respectively. The estimated blood loss and length of stay was 317 ml and 3.8 days, respectively. The rates of conversion, positive margins, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, hilar clamping, and collecting system repair were 7.0%, 3.5%, 7.0%, 9.8%, 93.9%, and 47.5%, respectively. The narrative review showed results similar to those of the meta-analysis.
Robotic partial nephrectomy is feasible and safe for renal tumors of >4 cm with an acceptable warm ischemic time, positive margin rate, conversion rate, complication rate, operation time, estimated blood loss, and length of stay.
The structure of a complex of an endoglucanase with cellotriose was determined with a hexagonal unit cell and showed how the substrate interacts with the enzyme.
The endoglucanase EglA from Piromyces rhizinflata found in cattle stomach belongs to the GH5 family of glycoside hydrolases. The crystal structure of the catalytic domain of EglA shows the (β/α)8-barrel fold typical of GH5 enzymes. Adjacent to the active site of EglA, a loop containing a disulfide bond not found in other similar structures may participate in substrate binding. Because the active site was blocked by the N-terminal His tag of a neighbouring protein molecule in the crystal, enzyme–substrate complexes could not be obtained by soaking but were prepared by cocrystallization. The E154A mutant structure with a cellotriose bound to the −3, −2 and −1 subsites shows an extensive hydrogen-bonding network between the enzyme and the substrate, along with a stacking interaction between Trp44 and the −3 sugar. A possible dimer was observed in the crystal structure, but retention of activity in the E242A mutant suggested that the enzyme probably does not function as a dimer in solution. On the other hand, the first 100 amino acids encoded by the original cDNA fragment are very similar to those in the last third of the (β/α)8-barrel fold, indicating that EglA comprises at least two catalytic domains acting in tandem.
carbohydrate utilization; catalytic domain; cellulase; molecular interactions
The authors conducted a genome-wide linkage scan and positional association analysis to identify the genetic determinants of salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) in a large family-based, dietary-feeding study. The dietary intervention was conducted among 1,906 participants in rural China (2003–2005). A 7-day low-sodium intervention was followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention. Salt sensitivity was defined as BP responses to low- and high-sodium interventions. Signals of the logarithm of the odds to the base 10 (LOD ≥ 3) were detected at 33–42 centimorgans of chromosome 2 (2p24.3-2p24.1), with a maximum LOD score of 3.33 for diastolic blood pressure responses to high-sodium intervention. LOD scores were 2.35–2.91 for mean arterial pressure (MAP) and 0.80–1.49 for systolic blood pressure responses in this region, respectively. Correcting for multiple tests, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11674786 (2.7 kilobases upstream of the family with sequence similarity 84, member A, gene (FAM84A)) in the linkage region was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.0007) and MAP responses (P = 0.0007), and SNP rs16983422 (2.8 kilobases upstream of the visinin-like 1 gene (VSNL1)) was marginally associated with diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.005) and MAP responses (P = 0.005). An additive interaction between SNPs rs11674786 and rs16983422 was observed, with P = 7.00 × 10−5 and P = 7.23 × 10−5 for diastolic blood pressure and MAP responses, respectively. The authors concluded that genetic region 2p24.3-2p24.1 might harbor functional variants for the salt sensitivity of BP.
allelic association; blood pressure; genetic linkage; salt sensitivity
Salt sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. A dietary feeding study was conducted from October 2003 to July 2005 that included a 7-day low-sodium intervention (51.3 mmol sodium/day) followed by a 7-day high-sodium intervention (307.8 mmol sodium/day) among 1,906 individuals who were 16 years of age or older and living in rural northern China. Salt sensitivity of BP was defined as mean BP change from the low-sodium intervention to the high-sodium intervention. Usual physical activity during the past 12 months was assessed at baseline using a standard questionnaire. The multivariable-adjusted means of systolic BP responses to high-sodium intervention were 5.21 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.55, 5.88), 4.97 mm Hg (95% CI: 4.35, 5.59), 5.02 mm Hg (95% CI: 4.38, 5.67), and 3.96 mm Hg (95% CI: 3.29, 4.63) among participants from the lowest to the highest quartiles of physical activity, respectively (P = 0.003 for linear trend). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of high salt sensitivity of systolic BP was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.88) for persons in the highest quartile of physical activity compared with those in the lowest quartile. Physical activity is significantly, independently, and inversely related to salt sensitivity of BP and may be particularly effective in lowering BP among salt-sensitive individuals.
blood pressure; dietary sodium; physical activity; salt sensitivity
We study the absolute penalized maximum partial likelihood estimator in sparse, high-dimensional Cox proportional hazards regression models where the number of time-dependent covariates can be larger than the sample size. We establish oracle inequalities based on natural extensions of the compatibility and cone invertibility factors of the Hessian matrix at the true regression coefficients. Similar results based on an extension of the restricted eigenvalue can be also proved by our method. However, the presented oracle inequalities are sharper since the compatibility and cone invertibility factors are always greater than the corresponding restricted eigenvalue. In the Cox regression model, the Hessian matrix is based on time-dependent covariates in censored risk sets, so that the compatibility and cone invertibility factors, and the restricted eigenvalue as well, are random variables even when they are evaluated for the Hessian at the true regression coefficients. Under mild conditions, we prove that these quantities are bounded from below by positive constants for time-dependent covariates, including cases where the number of covariates is of greater order than the sample size. Consequently, the compatibility and cone invertibility factors can be treated as positive constants in our oracle inequalities.
Proportional hazards; regression; absolute penalty; regularization; oracle inequality; survival analysis
In breast cancer research, it is of great interest to identify genomic markers associated with prognosis. Multiple gene profiling studies have been conducted for such a purpose. Genomic markers identified from the analysis of single datasets often do not have satisfactory reproducibility. Among the multiple possible reasons, the most important one is the small sample sizes of individual studies. A cost-effective solution is to pool data from multiple comparable studies and conduct integrative analysis. In this study, we collect four breast cancer prognosis studies with gene expression measurements. We describe the relationship between prognosis and gene expressions using the accelerated failure time (AFT) models. We adopt a 2-norm group bridge penalization approach for marker identification. This integrative analysis approach can effectively identify markers with consistent effects across multiple datasets and naturally accommodate the heterogeneity among studies. Statistical and simulation studies demonstrate satisfactory performance of this approach. Breast cancer prognosis markers identified using this approach have sound biological implications and satisfactory prediction performance.
Breast cancer prognosis; Gene expression; Marker identification; Integrative analysis; 2-norm group bridge
The increase in isometric twitch force observed in fast-twitch rodent muscles during or after activity, known universally as potentiation, is normally associated with myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation. Interestingly, fast muscles from mice devoid of detectable skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) retain a reduced ability to potentiate twitch force, indicating the presence of a secondary origin for this characteristic feature of the fast muscle phenotype. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in intracellular cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) after a potentiating stimulus in mouse lumbrical muscle (37°C). Lumbricals were loaded with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent indicators fura-2 or furaptra to detect changes in resting and peak, respectively, intracellular Ca2+ levels caused by 2.5 s of 20-Hz stimulation. Although this protocol produced an immediate increase in twitch force of 17 ± 3% (all data are n = 10) (P < 0.01), this potentiation dissipated quickly and was absent 30 s afterward. Fura-2 fluorescence signals at rest were increased by 11.1 ± 1.3% (P < 0.01) during potentiation, indicating a significant increase in resting [Ca2+]i. Interestingly, furaptra signals showed no change to either the amplitude or the duration of the intracellular Ca2+ transients (ICTs) that triggered potentiated twitches during this time (P < 0.50). Immunofluorescence work showed that 77% of lumbrical fibers expressed myosin heavy chain isoform IIx and/or IIb, but with low expression of skMLCK and high expression of myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 2. As a result, lumbrical muscles displayed no detectable RLC phosphorylation either at rest or after stimulation. We conclude that stimulation-induced elevations in resting [Ca2+]i, in the absence of change in the ICT, are responsible for a small-magnitude, short-lived potentiation of isometric twitch force. If operative in other fast-twitch muscles, this mechanism may complement the potentiating influence of myosin RLC phosphorylation.
Poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with late diagnosis necessitates the development of early diagnostic biomarkers. We have previously delineated the landscape of DNA methylation in HCC patients unraveling the importance of promoter hypomethylation in activation of cancer- and metastasis-driving genes. The purpose of the present study was to test the feasibility that genes that are hypomethylated in HCC could serve as candidate diagnostic markers. We use high resolution melting analysis (HRM) as a simple translatable PCR-based method to define methylation states in clinical samples. We tested seven regions selected from the shortlist of genes hypomethylated in HCC and showed that HRM analysis of several of them distinguishes methylation states in liver cancer specimens from normal adjacent liver and chronic hepatitis in the Shanghai area. Such regions were identified within promoters of neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6-B (GPM6B) and melanoma antigen family A12 (MAGEA12) genes. Differences in HRM in the immunoglobulin superfamily Fc receptor (FCRL1) separated invasive tumors from less invasive HCC. The identified biomarkers differentiated HCC from chronic hepatitis in another set of samples from Dhaka. Although the main thrust in DNA methylation diagnostics in cancer is on hypermethylated genes, our study for the first time illustrates the potential use of hypomethylated genes as markers for solid tumors. After further validation in a larger cohort, the identified DNA hypomethylated regions can become important candidate biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis and prognosis, especially in populations with high risk for HCC development.
Many studies have reported the prognostic predictive value of CD166 as a cancer stem cell marker in cancers of the digestive system; however, its predictive value remains controversial. Here, we investigate the correlation between CD166 positivity in digestive system cancers and clinicopathological features using meta-analysis.
A comprehensive search in PubMed and ISI Web of Science through March of 2013 was performed. Only articles containing CD166 antigen immunohistochemical staining in cancers of the digestive system were included,including pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Data comparing 3- and 5-year overall survival along with other clinicopathological features were collected.
Nine studies with 2553 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included for the analysis. The median rate of CD166 immunohistochemical staining expression was 56% (25.4%–76.3%). In colorectal cancer specifically, the results of a fixed-effects model indicated that CD166-positive expression was an independent marker associated with a smaller tumor burden (T category; RR = 0.93, 95%, CI: 0.88–0.98) but worse spread to nearby lymph nodes (N category; RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05–1.30). The 5-year overall survival rate was showed relationship with cytoplasmic positive staining of CD166 (RR = 1.47 95% 1.21–1.79), but no significant association was found in the pool or any other stratified analysis with 3- or 5- year overall survival rate.
Based on the published studies, different cellular location of CD166 has distinct prognostic value and cytoplasmic positive expression is associated with worse prognosis outcome. Besides, our results also find CD166 expression indicate advanced T category and N-positive status in colorectal cancer specifically.
Using the event-related optical signal (EROS) technique, this study investigated the dynamics of semantic brain activation during sentence comprehension. Participants read sentences constituent-by-constituent and made a semantic judgment at the end of each sentence. The EROSs were recorded simultaneously with ERPs and time-locked to expected or unexpected sentence-final target words. The unexpected words evoked a larger N400 and a late positivity than the expected ones. Critically, the EROS results revealed activations first in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (LpMTG) between 128 and 192 ms, then in the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (LaIFG), the left middle frontal gyrus (LMFG), and the LpMTG in the N400 time window, and finally in the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (LpIFG) between 832 and 864 ms. Also, expected words elicited greater activation than unexpected words in the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) between 192 and 256 ms. These results suggest that the early lexical-semantic retrieval reflected by the LpMTG activation is followed by two different semantic integration processes: a relatively rapid and transient integration in the LATL and a relatively slow but enduring integration in the LaIFG/LMFG and the LpMTG. The late activation in the LpIFG, however, may reflect cognitive control.
Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) persist throughout life to replace mature cells that are lost during turnover, disease, or injury. The investigation of NSC creates novel treatments for central nervous system (CNS) injuries and neurodegenerative disorders. The plasticity and reparative potential of NSC are regulated by different factors, which are critical for neurological regenerative medicine research. We investigated the effects of Psoralen, which is the mature fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L., on NSC behaviors and the underlying mechanisms. The self-renewal and proliferation of NSC were examined. We detected neuron- and/or astrocyte-specific markers using immunofluorescence and Western blotting, which could evaluate NSC differentiation. Psoralen treatment significantly inhibited neurosphere formation in a dose-dependent manner. Psoralen treatment increased the expression of the astrocyte-specific marker but decreased neuron-specific marker expression. These results suggested that Psoralen was a differentiation inducer in astrocyte. Differential gene expression following Psoralen treatment was screened using DNA microarray and confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Our microarray study demonstrated that Psoralen could effectively regulate the specific gene expression profile of NSC. The genes involved in the classification of cellular differentiation, proliferation, and metabolism, the transcription factors belonging to Ets family, and the hedgehog pathway may be closely related to the regulation.
Patients with chronic inflammatory disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, often have osteoporosis due to a combination of Tumor necrosis factor-induced increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. To test if TNF inhibits bone formation by affecting the commitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts, we examined the osteogenic potential of MSCs from TNF transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice, a model of chronic inflammatory arthritis. MSC-enriched cells were isolated from bone marrow stromal cells using negative selection with anti-CD45 antibody coated magnetic beads. The expression profile of MSC surface markers the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic properties of CD45− cells were confirmed by FACS and cell differentiation assays. MSC-enriched CD45− cells from TNF-Tg mice formed significantly decreased numbers of fibroblast and ALP+ colonies and had a decreased expression of osteoblast marker genes. As TNF may upregulate ubiquitin ligases, which negatively regulate osteoblast differentiation, we examined the expression levels of several ubiquitin ligases and found that Wwp1 expression was significantly increased in MSC-enriched CD45− cells of TNF-Tg mice. Wwp1 knockdown rescued impaired osteoblast differentiation of TNF-Tg CD45− cells. Wwp1 promotes ubiquitination and degradation of JunB, an AP-1 transcription factor that positively regulates osteoblast differentiation. Injection of TNF into wild-type mice resulted in decreased osteoblast differentiation of MSCs and increased JunB ubiquitination, which was completely blocked in Wwp1−/− mice. Thus, Wwp1 targets JunB for ubiquitination and degradation in MSCs after chronic exposure to TNF, and inhibition of Wwp1 in MSCs could be a new mechanism to limit inflammation-mediated osteoporosis by promoting their differentiation into osteoblasts.
Tumor necrosis factor; Mesenchymal stem cells; osteoblasts; Wwp1; E3 ligase
Translation of the sigma factor RpoS is activated by DsrA, RprA and ArcA, three small non-coding sRNAs (sRNA) that expose the ribosome-binding site (RBS) by opening up an inhibitory loop. In the RpoS network, no sRNAs have been found to pair with the RBS, a most common sRNA target site in bacteria. Here, we generate Ribo-0, an artificial sRNA, which represses rpoS translation by pairing with the RBS. Ribo-0 bypasses the RNA chaperon Hfq but requires the RBS to be loosely blocked. Ribo-0 interacts with DsrA and reshapes the RpoS network. Specifically, in the intact RpoS network, DsrA activates rpoS translation by freeing up the RBS. In the modified RpoS network where Ribo-0 is introduced, the DsrA-caused RBS exposure facilitates Ribo-0 binding, thereby strengthening Ribo-0 inhibition. In other words, Ribo-0 changes DsrA from an activator to an accomplice for repressing rpoS translation. This work presents an artificial mechanism of rpoS regulation, reveals mutual effects of native and synthetic players and demonstrates genetic context-dependency of their functions.
In high-throughput cancer genomic studies, markers identified from the analysis of single data sets often suffer a lack of reproducibility because of the small sample sizes. An ideal solution is to conduct large-scale prospective studies, which are extremely expensive and time consuming. A cost-effective remedy is to pool data from multiple comparable studies and conduct integrative analysis. Integrative analysis of multiple data sets is challenging because of the high dimensionality of genomic measurements and heterogeneity among studies. In this article, we propose a sparse boosting approach for marker identification in integrative analysis of multiple heterogeneous cancer diagnosis studies with gene expression measurements. The proposed approach can effectively accommodate the heterogeneity among multiple studies and identify markers with consistent effects across studies. Simulation shows that the proposed approach has satisfactory identification results and outperforms alternatives including an intensity approach and meta-analysis. The proposed approach is used to identify markers of pancreatic cancer and liver cancer.
Cancer genomics; Marker identification; Sparse boosting
The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of vena cava filter (VCF) placement via percutaneous puncture of the great saphenous vein (GSV) in the prevention of pulmonary embolisms. Using ultrasound positioning, VCF placement via percutaneous puncture of the GSV was performed on 12 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in the lower extremities. Transcatheter thrombolysis was conducted simultaneously. The postoperative filter position, puncture wound recovery and fluency of the GSV were observed. All filters were successfully released, with accurate positioning. No hematoma was observed at the puncture point during the perioperative period. In certain patients, local petechiae appeared around the puncture point during the thrombolysis period, which did not require special treatment. Re-examination using ultrasound revealed unobstructed blood flow in the GSV. VCF placement via percutaneous puncture of the GSV is a new filter placement method. The feasibility and safety of this method for the prevention of pulmonary embolisms has been demonstrated in a small number of sample cases.
percutaneous puncture; great saphenous vein; vena cava filter
The aim of this study was to analyze the therapeutic effects of various methods for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF). Randomized controlled trials (RCT) concerning drug therapy and catheter ablation for the treatment of chronic AF were retrieved. The RevMan 5.1 software package was used for the meta-analysis. A total of 20 papers were assessed in this study. The results of the analysis indicated that the success rate was lower [odds ratio (OR), 8.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 4.70–17.02; P<0.0001] and the relapse rate was higher (OR, 0.07, 95% CI, 0.05–0.10; P<0.0001) for drug therapy compared with that for catheter ablation. With regard to different catheter ablation procedures, the success rate for pulmonary vein antrum isolation (PVAI) was lower compared with that for PVAI plus complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE; OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37–0.78; P=0.0001). Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) plus left atrial ablation (LAA) had a higher success rate compared with PVI alone (OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.59–4.88, P=0.0003). There was not identified to be a significant difference in the success rates between PVAI and CFAE (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 0.06–205.74; P=0.76) or between PVI and circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI; OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.29–3.00; P=0.91). All the funnel plots of publication bias were essentially symmetrical. In conclusion, the success rate was higher and the relapse rate was lower for catheter ablation compared with drug therapy. Among the different procedures of catheter ablation, there were no significant differences in success rate between two single procedures; however, the success rates were higher for the combined methods compared with those for the single methods.
chronic atrial fibrillation; radiofrequency catheter ablation; drug therapy
Activation of ErbB2/4 receptor tyrosine kinases in cardiomyocytes by neuregulin treatment is associated with improvement in cardiac function, supporting its use in human patients with heart failure despite the lack of a specific mechanism. Neuregulin infusion in rodents increases cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) expression and cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) phosphorylation which may improve actin-myosin interactions for contraction. We generated a cMLCK knockout mouse to test the hypothesis that cMLCK is necessary for neuregulin-induced improvement in cardiac function by increasing RLC phosphorylation.
The cMLCK knockout mice have attenuated RLC phosphorylation and decreased cardiac performance measured as fractional shortening. Neuregulin infusion for seven days in wildtype mice increased cardiac cMLCK protein expression and RLC phosphorylation while increasing Akt phosphorylation and decreasing phospholamban phosphorylation. There was no change in fractional shortening. In contrast, neuregulin infusion in cMLCK knockout animals increased cardiac performance in the absence of cMLCK without increasing RLC phosphorylation. In addition, CaMKII signaling appeared to be enhanced in neuregulin-treated knockout mice.
Thus, Neuregulin may improve cardiac performance in the failing heart without increasing cMLCK and RLC phosphorylation by activating other signaling pathways.
Metuximab is the generic name of Licartin, a new drug for radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it is known to be a mouse monoclonal antibody against CD147, the complete epitope mediating the binding of metuximab to CD147 remains unknown. We panned the Ph.D.-12 phage display peptide library against metuximab and got six mimotopes. The following bioinformatics analysis based on mimotopes suggested that metuximab recognizes a conformational epitope composed of more than 20 residues. The residues of its epitope may include T28, V30, K36, L38, K57, F74, D77, S78, D79, D80, Q81, G83, S86, N98, Q100, L101, H102, G103, P104, V131, P132, and K191. The homology modeling of metuximab and the docking of CD147 to metuximab were also performed. Based on the top one docking model, the epitope was predicted to contain 28 residues: AGTVFTTV (23–30), I37, D45, E84, V88, EPMGTANIQLH (92–102), VPP (131–133), Q164, and K191. Almost half of the residues predicted on the basis of mimotope analysis also appear in the docking result, indicating that both results are reliable. As the predicted epitopes of metuximab largely overlap with interfaces of CD147-CD147 interactions, a structural mechanism of metuximab is proposed as blocking the formation of CD147 dimer.
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and lineage commitment depend on complex interactions with the microenvironment, and the ability to maintain or expand HSCs for clinical applications or for basic research has been significantly limited because these interactions are not well defined. Recent evidence suggests that HSCs reside in a low perfusion, reduced nutrient niche and that nutrient sensing pathways contribute to HSC homeostasis. Here we report that suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, an established nutrient sensor, combined with activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling, allows the ex vivo maintenance of human and mouse long-term HSCs under cytokine-free conditions. We also show that combining two clinically approved medications that activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling and inhibit mTOR increases the number (but not the proportion) of long-term HSCs in vivo.
β-catenin plays a key role in the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its prognostic significance for patients with CRC remains controversial.
Identical search strategies were used to search relevant literatures in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. The correlation between β-catenin expression and clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed.
A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria, which comprised 3665 cases. Meta-analysis suggested that β-catenin overexpression in the nucleus was significantly associated with disease free survival (DFS) (n = 541 in 3 studies; HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.28–2.71; Z = 3.26; P = 0.001) and overall survival (OS) for CRC patients (n = 2630 in 10 studies; HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.12–2.14; Z = 2.62; P = 0.009). However, there was no significant association between β-catenin expression in the cytoplasm and OS (n = 1327 in 3 studies; HR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.88–1.24, Z = 0.46, P = 0.643). The combined odds ratio (OR) of β-catenin in the nucleus indicated that β-catenin overexpression was associated with advanced stage CRC (n = 950 in 7 studies; OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53–0.94; Z = 2.35; P = 0.019) and metastasis of CRC (n = 628 in 5 studies; OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25–0.96, Z = 2.06, P = 0.039). β-catenin overexpression in the nucleus had no correlation with the tumor site (colon or rectum), differentiation grade, lymph node status or depth of invasion. The pooled ORs were 1.09 (95% CI: 0.41–2.91, Z = 0.18, P = 0.856), 1.27(95% CI: 0.76–2.10, Z = 0.92, P = 0.357), 0.71(95% CI: 0.46–1.09, Z = 1.58, P = 0.115) and 0.82(95% CI: 0.4–1.68, Z = 0.53, P = 0.594).
This study showed that β-catenin overexpression in the nucleus, rather than in the cytoplasm, appeared to be associated with progress disease and a worse prognosis for CRC patients.
Objective. To determine the effects of the moxa smoke on human heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods. Fifty-five healthy young adults were randomly divided into experimental (n = 28) and control (n = 27) groups. Experimental subjects were exposed to moxa smoke (2.5 ± 0.5 mg/m3) twice for 25 minutes in one week. ECG monitoring was performed before, during, and after exposure. Control subjects were exposed to normal indoor air in a similar environment and similarly monitored. Followup was performed the following week. Short-term (5 min) HRV parameters were analyzed with HRV analysis software. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results. During and after the first exposure, comparison of percentage changes or changes in all parameters between groups showed no significant differences. During the second exposure, percentage decrease in HR, percentage increases in lnTP, lnHF, lnLF, and RMSSD, and increase in PNN50 were significantly greater in the experimental group than in control. Conclusion. No significant adverse HRV effects were associated with this clinically routine 25-minute exposure to moxa smoke, and the data suggests that short-term exposure to moxa smoke might have positive regulating effects on human autonomic function. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10), a kind of tumor suppressor gene, plays important roles in female reproductive system. But its expression and roles in the formation of polycystic ovaries are yet to be known. In this study, we constructed a rat model of PCOS using norethindrone and HCG injections and found the expressions of pten mRNA and PTEN protein increased significantly in the polycystic ovary tissue by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and western blot. Furthermore, the results showed that in vivo ovaries could be effectively transfected by lentiviral vectors through the ovarian microinjection method and indicated that pten shRNA may inhibit the formation of polycystic ovaries by pten down-regulation. Our study provides new information regarding the role of PTEN in female reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome.
Polycystic ovary; pten; RNA interference; Follicular development
Semaphorin 5A, a member of the semaphorin family, was originally identified as an axonal guidance factor functioning during neuronal development. Previously, we showed that the expression of semaphorin 5A might contribute to the metastasis of gastric cancer. However, less information is currently available as to the involvement of uPA in the semaphorin 5A-induced metastasis and invasion of gastric cancer cells.
The present study was designed to test whether semaphorin 5A mediates the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer via PI3K/Akt/uPA signaling.
The semaphorin 5A-overexpressing cell was established from the gastric cancer cell line AGS. The effect of semaphorin 5A on the expression of uPA was evaluated by ELISA and Western blotting as well as RT-PCR assays, respectively. Synthetic or natural inhibitors and dominant-negative mutants were used to determine the hierarchical relationship between semaphorin 5A, PI3K/Akt and uPA in the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer.
Overpression of semaphorin 5A enhanced the expression of uPA, and synthetic or natural inhibitors of uPA abolished semaphorin 5A-induced cell migration and invasion. Semaphorin 5A overexpression promoted the phosphorylation of Akt. Blocking effects of PI3K/Akt using pharmacologic inhibitors, dominant-negative mutants abolished the ability of semaphorin 5A to induce uPA expression and cell invasion and migration.
Semaphorin 5A could promote invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer through the PI3K/Akt/uPA signal transduction pathway. Semaphorin 5A and its regulated molecules could be the potential targets for cancer therapy.
Semaphorin 5A; Gastric cancer; Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA); Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K); Protein kinase B (Akt)