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author:("Wang, shaolin")
1.  The Protective Effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract against Alveolar Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via Regulating Wnt and p38 MAPK Signaling 
Nutrients  2014;6(12):5853-5870.
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Methods: Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX) or RDE by oral gavage or with 17β-estradiol (E2) subcutaneously. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD), the three-dimensional bone architecture of the alveolar bone and the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover were analyzed to assess bone metabolism, and the histomorphometry of the alveolar bone was observed. Microarrays were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of genes was further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: Our results showed that RDE inhibited alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 207 genes and downregulated expression levels of 176 genes in the alveolar bone. The IPA showed that several genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Wnt7a, Fzd2, Tcf3, Spp1, Frzb, Sfrp2 and Sfrp4) and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway (Il1rn and Mapk14). Conclusion: These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may be involved in the reduced abnormal bone remodeling, which is associated with the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin and the p38 MAPK signaling pathways via gene regulation.
doi:10.3390/nu6125853
PMCID: PMC4277003  PMID: 25514564
alveolar bone loss; gene expression profile; herbal medicine; ovariectomized rats; Rhizoma Dioscoreae
2.  Reduced miR-126 expression facilitates angiogenesis of gastric cancer through its regulation on VEGF-A 
Oncotarget  2014;5(23):11873-11885.
miR-126 is an endothelial-specific microRNA essential for governing vascular integrity and angiogenesis. Its role in tumor angiogenesis of gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. This study aimed at determining the role of miR-126 in GC angiogenesis. Down-regulation of miR-126 was found to inversely correlate with an increased microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression in gastric cancer tissues. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-126 directly targeted the 3′-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of VEGF-A mRNA. In addition, the restoration of miR-126 expression by lentivirus-miR-126 (Lenti-miR-126) transfection obviously reduced the expression of VEGF-A and the activition of its downstream genes, Akt, mTOR and Erk1/2 in gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, MKN-28 and MKN-45. In contrast, the down-regulation of miR-126 expression by lentivirus-anti-miR-126 (Lenti-anti-miR-126) transfection obviously up-regulated the expression of VEGF-A and its downstream signaling pathways. In vivo xenograft mice model experiments clarified the down-regulation of VEGF-A and MVD as well as inhibition of tumor growth by up-regulation of miR-126. Overall, the results from our study suggested that miR-126 could suppress tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of GC through VEGF-A signaling, and it is a novel potential therapeutic target for GC.
PMCID: PMC4322979  PMID: 25428912
miR-126; gastric cancer; angiogenesis; VEGF; Akt/m-TOR phosphorylation
3.  High-Dose Diosgenin Reduces Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via Attenuation of the RANKL/OPG Ratio 
The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of diosgenin (DG) on rats that had osteoporosis-like features induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Seventy-two six-month-old female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy (n = 60) or Sham operation (SHAM group, n = 12). Beginning at one week post-ovariectomy, the OVX rats were treated with vehicle (OVX group, n = 12), estradiol valerate (EV group, n = 12), or DG at three doses (DG-L, -M, -H group, n = 12, respectively). After a 12-week treatment, administration of EV or DG-H inhibited OVX-induced weight gain, and administration of EV or DG-H or DG-M had a significantly uterotrophic effect. Bone mineral density (BMD) and indices of bone histomorphometry of tibia were measured. Levels of protein and mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) in tibia were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our results show that DG at a high dose (DG-H) had a significant anti-osteoporotic effect compared to OVX control. DG-H treatment down-regulated expression of RANKL and up-regulated expression of OPG significantly in tibia from OVX rats compared to control, and thus lowered the RANKL/OPG ratio. This suggests that the anti-osteoporotic effect of DG might be associated with modulating the RANKL/OPG ratio and DG had potential to be developed as alternative therapeutic agents of osteoporosis induced by postmenopause.
doi:10.3390/ijms150917130
PMCID: PMC4200779  PMID: 25257532
diosgenin; bone loss; ovariectomized rats; osteoprotegerin; receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand
4.  Activation of hypothalamic gono-like neurons in female rats during estrus☆ 
Neural Regeneration Research  2012;7(31):2413-2423.
In mammals, gonadal function is controlled by the activity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, which control the secretion of adenohypophyseal and gonadal hormones. However, there are a number of unanswered questions in relation to gonadal function. It is currently unknown how erotogenic stimulation of the genitals influences the subpopulation of hypothalamic medial preoptic area neurons, antidromically identified as projecting to the median eminence at different periods of the estrous cycle. Additionally, the distinctiveness of hypothalamic medial preoptic area neurons, with respect to methods of feedback control by exogenous hormones, is also unknown. In this study, spontaneous discharges from individual neurons encountered within the medial preoptic area, gono-like neurons, were recorded extracellularly using glass microelectrodes. To confirm the cellular and histochemical properties of the recording units, antidromic stimulation was performed using a side-by-side bipolar stimulating electrode placed into the median eminence, alongside microiontophoretic injections of the conventional tracer, horseradish peroxidase. In addition, further immunohistochemical analyses were performed. Results showed that elevated gono-neuron activity was accompanied by increased background activity and greater responses to erotogenic stimuli during estrus. Application of clitoral traction stimulation resulted in increased activation of the gono-like neurons. This neuronal activity was noticeably inhibited by β-estradiol administration. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-reactive protein in hypothalamic cells in which electrophysiological recordings were taken. Thus, medial preoptic area neurons represent the subset of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons described from brain slices in vitro, and might serve as a useful physiological model to form the basis of future in vivo studies.
doi:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.31.002
PMCID: PMC4200715  PMID: 25337091
medial preoptic area; gonadotropin-releasing hormone; erotogenic stimuli; estrous cycle; neuronal discharge; feedback control; neural regeneration

Results 1-4 (4)