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1.  Anatomical Entity Recognition with a Hierarchical Framework Augmented by External Resources 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e108396.
References to anatomical entities in medical records consist not only of explicit references to anatomical locations, but also other diverse types of expressions, such as specific diseases, clinical tests, clinical treatments, which constitute implicit references to anatomical entities. In order to identify these implicit anatomical entities, we propose a hierarchical framework, in which two layers of named entity recognizers (NERs) work in a cooperative manner. Each of the NERs is implemented using the Conditional Random Fields (CRF) model, which use a range of external resources to generate features. We constructed a dictionary of anatomical entity expressions by exploiting four existing resources, i.e., UMLS, MeSH, RadLex and BodyPart3D, and supplemented information from two external knowledge bases, i.e., Wikipedia and WordNet, to improve inference of anatomical entities from implicit expressions. Experiments conducted on 300 discharge summaries showed a micro-averaged performance of 0.8509 Precision, 0.7796 Recall and 0.8137 F1 for explicit anatomical entity recognition, and 0.8695 Precision, 0.6893 Recall and 0.7690 F1 for implicit anatomical entity recognition. The use of the hierarchical framework, which combines the recognition of named entities of various types (diseases, clinical tests, treatments) with information embedded in external knowledge bases, resulted in a 5.08% increment in F1. The resources constructed for this research will be made publicly available.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108396
PMCID: PMC4208750  PMID: 25343498
2.  An end-to-end system to identify temporal relation in discharge summaries: 2012 i2b2 challenge 
Objective
To create an end-to-end system to identify temporal relation in discharge summaries for the 2012 i2b2 challenge. The challenge includes event extraction, timex extraction, and temporal relation identification.
Design
An end-to-end temporal relation system was developed. It includes three subsystems: an event extraction system (conditional random fields (CRF) name entity extraction and their corresponding attribute classifiers), a temporal extraction system (CRF name entity extraction, their corresponding attribute classifiers, and context-free grammar based normalization system), and a temporal relation system (10 multi-support vector machine (SVM) classifiers and a Markov logic networks inference system) using labeled sequential pattern mining, syntactic structures based on parse trees, and results from a coordination classifier. Micro-averaged precision (P), recall (R), averaged P&R (P&R), and F measure (F) were used to evaluate results.
Results
For event extraction, the system achieved 0.9415 (P), 0.8930 (R), 0.9166 (P&R), and 0.9166 (F). The accuracies of their type, polarity, and modality were 0.8574, 0.8585, and 0.8560, respectively. For timex extraction, the system achieved 0.8818, 0.9489, 0.9141, and 0.9141, respectively. The accuracies of their type, value, and modifier were 0.8929, 0.7170, and 0.8907, respectively. For temporal relation, the system achieved 0.6589, 0.7129, 0.6767, and 0.6849, respectively. For end-to-end temporal relation, it achieved 0.5904, 0.5944, 0.5921, and 0.5924, respectively. With the F measure used for evaluation, we were ranked first out of 14 competing teams (event extraction), first out of 14 teams (timex extraction), third out of 12 teams (temporal relation), and second out of seven teams (end-to-end temporal relation).
Conclusions
The system achieved encouraging results, demonstrating the feasibility of the tasks defined by the i2b2 organizers. The experiment result demonstrates that both global and local information is useful in the 2012 challenge.
doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2012-001607
PMCID: PMC3756267  PMID: 23467472
Context-Free Grammar; Syntax; Labeled Sequential Pattern; Dependency Tree; Coordination
3.  Correction: Building Large Collections of Chinese and English Medical Terms from Semi-Structured and Encyclopedia Websites 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):10.1371/annotation/fab3bd89-3ae3-445f-a418-207bbd7d4377.
doi:10.1371/annotation/fab3bd89-3ae3-445f-a418-207bbd7d4377
PMCID: PMC3865328
4.  A classification approach to coreference in discharge summaries: 2011 i2b2 challenge 
Objective
To create a highly accurate coreference system in discharge summaries for the 2011 i2b2 challenge. The coreference categories include Person, Problem, Treatment, and Test.
Design
An integrated coreference resolution system was developed by exploiting Person attributes, contextual semantic clues, and world knowledge. It includes three subsystems: Person coreference system based on three Person attributes, Problem/Treatment/Test system based on numerous contextual semantic extractors and world knowledge, and Pronoun system based on a multi-class support vector machine classifier. The three Person attributes are patient, relative and hospital personnel. Contextual semantic extractors include anatomy, position, medication, indicator, temporal, spatial, section, modifier, equipment, operation, and assertion. The world knowledge is extracted from external resources such as Wikipedia.
Measurements
Micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure in MUC, BCubed and CEAF were used to evaluate results.
Results
The system achieved an overall micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure of 0.906, 0.925, and 0.915, respectively, on test data (from four hospitals) released by the challenge organizers. It achieved a precision, recall and F-measure of 0.905, 0.920 and 0.913, respectively, on test data without Pittsburgh data. We ranked the first out of 20 competing teams. Among the four sub-tasks on Person, Problem, Treatment, and Test, the highest F-measure was seen for Person coreference.
Conclusions
This system achieved encouraging results. The Person system can determine whether personal pronouns and proper names are coreferent or not. The Problem/Treatment/Test system benefits from both world knowledge in evaluating the similarity of two mentions and contextual semantic extractors in identifying semantic clues. The Pronoun system can automatically detect whether a Pronoun mention is coreferent to that of the other four types. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to accomplish the coreference task in discharge summaries.
doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000734
PMCID: PMC3422828  PMID: 22505762
Natural language processing; information retrieval; clinical decision support; biomedical informatics; text processing; medical records
5.  Feature engineering combined with machine learning and rule-based methods for structured information extraction from narrative clinical discharge summaries 
Objective
A system that translates narrative text in the medical domain into structured representation is in great demand. The system performs three sub-tasks: concept extraction, assertion classification, and relation identification.
Design
The overall system consists of five steps: (1) pre-processing sentences, (2) marking noun phrases (NPs) and adjective phrases (APs), (3) extracting concepts that use a dosage-unit dictionary to dynamically switch two models based on Conditional Random Fields (CRF), (4) classifying assertions based on voting of five classifiers, and (5) identifying relations using normalized sentences with a set of effective discriminating features.
Measurements
Macro-averaged and micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure were used to evaluate results.
Results
The performance is competitive with the state-of-the-art systems with micro-averaged F-measure of 0.8489 for concept extraction, 0.9392 for assertion classification and 0.7326 for relation identification.
Conclusions
The system exploits an array of common features and achieves state-of-the-art performance. Prudent feature engineering sets the foundation of our systems. In concept extraction, we demonstrated that switching models, one of which is especially designed for telegraphic sentences, improved extraction of the treatment concept significantly. In assertion classification, a set of features derived from a rule-based classifier were proven to be effective for the classes such as conditional and possible. These classes would suffer from data scarcity in conventional machine-learning methods. In relation identification, we use two-staged architecture, the second of which applies pairwise classifiers to possible candidate classes. This architecture significantly improves performance.
doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000776
PMCID: PMC3422834  PMID: 22586067
xy804280; thu; text processing; natural language processing; medical records
6.  Named entity recognition of follow-up and time information in 20 000 radiology reports 
Objective
To develop a system to extract follow-up information from radiology reports. The method may be used as a component in a system which automatically generates follow-up information in a timely fashion.
Methods
A novel method of combining an LSP (labeled sequential pattern) classifier with a CRF (conditional random field) recognizer was devised. The LSP classifier filters out irrelevant sentences, while the CRF recognizer extracts follow-up and time phrases from candidate sentences presented by the LSP classifier.
Measurements
The standard performance metrics of precision (P), recall (R), and F measure (F) in the exact and inexact matching settings were used for evaluation.
Results
Four experiments conducted using 20 000 radiology reports showed that the CRF recognizer achieved high performance without time-consuming feature engineering and that the LSP classifier further improved the performance of the CRF recognizer. The performance of the current system is P=0.90, R=0.86, F=0.88 in the exact matching setting and P=0.98, R=0.93, F=0.95 in the inexact matching setting.
Conclusion
The experiments demonstrate that the system performs far better than a baseline rule-based system and is worth considering for deployment trials in an alert generation system. The LSP classifier successfully compensated for the inherent weakness of CRF, that is, its inability to use global information.
doi:10.1136/amiajnl-2012-000812
PMCID: PMC3422839  PMID: 22771530
Text processing; natural language processing; medical records
7.  Building Large Collections of Chinese and English Medical Terms from Semi-Structured and Encyclopedia Websites 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e67526.
To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (), Object Recall (), and Surface Head recall (). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0067526
PMCID: PMC3706590  PMID: 23874426
8.  Improving protein coreference resolution by simple semantic classification 
BMC Bioinformatics  2012;13:304.
Background
Current research has shown that major difficulties in event extraction for the biomedical domain are traceable to coreference. Therefore, coreference resolution is believed to be useful for improving event extraction. To address coreference resolution in molecular biology literature, the Protein Coreference (COREF) task was arranged in the BioNLP Shared Task (BioNLP-ST, hereafter) 2011, as a supporting task. However, the shared task results indicated that transferring coreference resolution methods developed for other domains to the biological domain was not a straight-forward task, due to the domain differences in the coreference phenomena.
Results
We analyzed the contribution of domain-specific information, including the information that indicates the protein type, in a rule-based protein coreference resolution system. In particular, the domain-specific information is encoded into semantic classification modules for which the output is used in different components of the coreference resolution. We compared our system with the top four systems in the BioNLP-ST 2011; surprisingly, we found that the minimal configuration had outperformed the best system in the BioNLP-ST 2011. Analysis of the experimental results revealed that semantic classification, using protein information, has contributed to an increase in performance by 2.3% on the test data, and 4.0% on the development data, in F-score.
Conclusions
The use of domain-specific information in semantic classification is important for effective coreference resolution. Since it is difficult to transfer domain-specific information across different domains, we need to continue seek for methods to utilize such information in coreference resolution.
doi:10.1186/1471-2105-13-304
PMCID: PMC3582588  PMID: 23157272
9.  Using Workflows to Explore and Optimise Named Entity Recognition for Chemistry 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(5):e20181.
Chemistry text mining tools should be interoperable and adaptable regardless of system-level implementation, installation or even programming issues. We aim to abstract the functionality of these tools from the underlying implementation via reconfigurable workflows for automatically identifying chemical names. To achieve this, we refactored an established named entity recogniser (in the chemistry domain), OSCAR and studied the impact of each component on the net performance. We developed two reconfigurable workflows from OSCAR using an interoperable text mining framework, U-Compare. These workflows can be altered using the drag-&-drop mechanism of the graphical user interface of U-Compare. These workflows also provide a platform to study the relationship between text mining components such as tokenisation and named entity recognition (using maximum entropy Markov model (MEMM) and pattern recognition based classifiers). Results indicate that, for chemistry in particular, eliminating noise generated by tokenisation techniques lead to a slightly better performance than others, in terms of named entity recognition (NER) accuracy. Poor tokenisation translates into poorer input to the classifier components which in turn leads to an increase in Type I or Type II errors, thus, lowering the overall performance. On the Sciborg corpus, the workflow based system, which uses a new tokeniser whilst retaining the same MEMM component, increases the F-score from 82.35% to 84.44%. On the PubMed corpus, it recorded an F-score of 84.84% as against 84.23% by OSCAR.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020181
PMCID: PMC3102085  PMID: 21633495
10.  Named Entity Recognition for Bacterial Type IV Secretion Systems 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(3):e14780.
Research on specialized biological systems is often hampered by a lack of consistent terminology, especially across species. In bacterial Type IV secretion systems genes within one set of orthologs may have over a dozen different names. Classifying research publications based on biological processes, cellular components, molecular functions, and microorganism species should improve the precision and recall of literature searches allowing researchers to keep up with the exponentially growing literature, through resources such as the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, patricbrc.org). We developed named entity recognition (NER) tools for four entities related to Type IV secretion systems: 1) bacteria names, 2) biological processes, 3) molecular functions, and 4) cellular components. These four entities are important to pathogenesis and virulence research but have received less attention than other entities, e.g., genes and proteins. Based on an annotated corpus, large domain terminological resources, and machine learning techniques, we developed recognizers for these entities. High accuracy rates (>80%) are achieved for bacteria, biological processes, and molecular function. Contrastive experiments highlighted the effectiveness of alternate recognition strategies; results of term extraction on contrasting document sets demonstrated the utility of these classes for identifying T4SS-related documents.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014780
PMCID: PMC3066171  PMID: 21468321

Results 1-10 (10)