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1.  Venous and arterial endothelial proteomics: mining for markers and mechanisms of endothelial diversity 
Expert review of proteomics  2010;7(6):823-831.
Endothelial cells (ECs) line the inside of arterial and venous blood vessels in a continuous monolayer and have the important function of responding to environmental cues to regulate vascular tone and new blood vessel formation. They also have well-defined roles in supporting tumorigenesis, and alterations in their function lead to cardiovascular disease. Consequently, ECs have been studied extensively as a cellular model of both normal and abnormal physiology. Despite their importance and the increased utility of proteomic tools in medical research, there are relatively few publications on the topic of vascular endothelial proteomics. A thorough search of the literature mined 52 publications focused exclusively on arterial and/or venous endothelial proteomics. These studies mostly relied upon examination of whole-cell lysates from cultured human umbilical vein ECs to investigate in vitro effects of various molecules, such as VEGF in the context of altering human umbilical vein EC functions related to angiogenesis. Only a few of these publications focused solely on a proteomic characterization of ECs and our analysis further revealed a lack of published studies incorporating proteomic analysis of freshly isolated ECs from tissues or in vitro conditions that mimic in vivo variables, such as oxygen tension and shear stress. It is the purpose of this article to account for the diversity of vascular EC proteomic investigations and comment on the issues that have been and should be addressed in future work.
PMCID: PMC3444238  PMID: 21142885
artery; endothelial; human umbilical vein endothelial cell; HUVEC; LC-MS/MS; vein
2.  Endothelial progenitor cells: Quo Vadis? 
The term endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) was coined to refer to circulating cells that displayed the ability to display cell surface antigens similar to endothelial cells in vitro, to circulate and lodge in areas of ischemia or vascular injury, and to facilitate the repair of damaged blood vessels or augment development of new vessels as needed by a tissue. More than 10 years after the first report, the term EPC is used to refer to a host of circulating cells that display some or all of the qualities indicated above, however, essentially all of the cells are now known to be members of the hematopoietic lineage. The exception is a rare viable circulating endothelial cell with clonal proliferative potential that displays the ability to spontaneously form inosculating human blood vessels upon implantation into immunodeficient murine host tissues. This paper will review the current lineage relationships among all the cells called EPC and will propose that the term EPC be retired and that each of the circulating cell subsets be referred to according to the terms already existent for each subset. This article is part of a special issue entitled, "Cardiovascular Stem Cells Revisited".
PMCID: PMC3444239  PMID: 20673769
Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC); Endothelial cells
3.  Alterations in the aqueous humor proteome in patients with a glaucoma shunt device 
Molecular Vision  2011;17:1891-1900.
To investigate whether implantation of a glaucoma shunt device leads to inappropriate accumulation of plasma derived proteins in the aqueous humor.
Aqueous humor samples were collected from 11 patients (study group) with a glaucoma shunt device undergoing either cataract surgery or a corneal transplant and 11 patients (control) with senile cataract undergoing routine cataract extraction. Of the study group, 9 had an Ahmed valve implant and 2 eyes had a Baerveldt implant. Tryptic digests of the mixture of proteins in aqueous humor (AH) were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins were identified with high confidence using stringent criteria and compared quantitatively using a label-free platform (IdentiQuantXLTM).
We identified 135 proteins in the albumin-depleted fraction in both the study and control group AH. Using stringent criteria, 13 proteins were detected at a significantly higher level compared to controls. These proteins are known to play a role in oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation and/or immunity and include gelsolin (p=0.00005), plasminogen (p=0.00009), angiotensinogen (p=0.0001), apolipoprotein A-II (p=0.0002), beta-2-microglobulin (p=0.0002), dickkopf-3 (DKK-3; p=0.0002), pigment epithelium-derived factor (p=0.0002), RIG-like 7–1 (p=0.0002), afamin (p=0.0003), fibronectin 1 (FN1; p=0.0003), apolipoprotein A-I (p=0.0004), activated complement C4 protein (C4a; p=0.0004) and prothrombin (p=0.0004). Many of the identified proteins were novel proteins that have not been associated with glaucoma in prior studies. All but C4a (complement C4 is a plasma protein but not in an activated form) are known plasma proteins and the elevated levels of these proteins in the aqueous humor suggests a breach in the blood-aqueous barrier with passive influx into the anterior chamber of the eye.
The presence of these proteins in the aqueous humor suggests that glaucoma shunt device causes either a breach in blood-aqueous barrier or chronic trauma, increasing influx of oxidative, apoptotic and inflammatory proteins that could potentially cause corneal endothelial damage.
PMCID: PMC3144728  PMID: 21850163
4.  Diabetic dyslipidemia and exercise alter the plasma low-density lipoproteome in Yucatan pigs 
Proteomics  2009;9(9):2468-2483.
Although low-density lipoprotein (LDL) plays a predominant role in atherogenesis, the low-density lipoproteome has not been fully characterized. Moreover, alterations from a Western diet, diabetes, and physical inactivity on this proteome have yet to be determined. Accordingly, relative quantification was determined in LDL proteins from male Yucatan diabetic dyslipidemic (DD) swine in the early stages of atherosclerosis compared to healthy control (C) and non-diabetic hyperlipidemic (H) swine. Importantly, coronary vascular dysfunction was prevented by aerobic exercise training in these animals (DDX) without altering total LDL concentration. Using 2-DE, Western blot, label-free quantitative MS, and selected reaction monitoring, alterations in the abundance of apolipoproteins A-I, B, C-III, D, E, and J and noncovalently associated proteins were determined in LDL isolated using fast protein liquid chromatography. At least 28 unique proteins, many of which were novel, were identified with high confidence. An apolipoprotein E isoform demonstrated stronger correlation to disease (percent of coronary artery segments with intimal thickening) than some traditional risk factors (total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and LDL/HDL cholesterol). Taken together, this work identifies new possible biomarkers, potential therapeutic targets for atherosclerosis, and generates new hypotheses regarding the role of LDL in atherogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2859442  PMID: 19402046
Fast protein liquid chromatography; Low density lipoprotein; Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; Tandem mass spectrometry; Yucatan pig
5.  Sample complexity reduction for two-dimensional electrophoresis using solution isoelectric focusing prefractionation 
Electrophoresis  2008;29(12):2637-2644.
Despite its excellent resolving power, 2-DE is of limited use when analyzing cellular proteomes, especially in differential expression studies. Frequently, fewer than 2000 protein spots are detected on a single 2-D gel (a fraction of the total proteome) regardless of the gel platform, sample, or detection method used. This is due to the vast number of proteins expressed and their equally vast dynamic range. To exploit 2-DE unique ability as both an analytical and a preparative tool, the significant sample prefractionation is necessary. We have used solution isoelectric focusing (sIEF) via the ZOOM® IEF Fractionator (Invitrogen) to generate sample fractions from complex bacterial lysates, followed by parallel 2-DE, using narrow-range IPG strips that bracket the sIEF fractions. The net result of this process is a significant enrichment of the bacterial proteome resolved on multiple 2-D gels. After prefractionation, we detected 5525 spots, an approximate 3.5-fold increase over the 1577 spots detected in an unfractionated gel. We concluded that sIEF is an effective means of prefractionation to increase depth of field and improve the analysis of low-abundance proteins.
PMCID: PMC2853967  PMID: 18494027
2-DE; Escherichia coli; Narrow pH range; Prefractionation; Solution isoelectric focusing
6.  Alterations in the aqueous humor proteome in patients with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy 
Molecular Vision  2010;16:2376-2383.
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is a progressive disorder characterized by corneal endothelial decompensation leading to corneal edema, clouding, and vision impairment. Despite improved understanding over the last century since its first description, the exact mechanism(s) behind the pathogenesis of FECD remain unknown, and surgical correction is the only effective treatment available. Previous studies have suggested a role for changes in aqueous humor (AH) composition in FECD pathogenesis, so to explore this possibility, we probed the AH proteome for alterations correlating with end-stage corneal disease. Following albumin depletion we performed label-free quantitative tandem mass spectrometry on proteins isolated from patients with and without FECD who were scheduled to undergo routine cataract extraction. We identified 64 proteins, most of which were identified in previous AH proteomic studies of patients with cataracts, in the albumin-depleted fraction. The levels of five of these were significantly lower (afamin, complement C3, histidine-rich glycoprotein, immunoglobulin heavy [IgH], and protein family with sequence similarity 3, member C [FAM3C]), while the levels of one (suprabasin) was significantly higher in patients with FECD compared to controls (p≤0.01). We also identified 34 proteins in the albumin-bound fraction, four of which were significantly elevated in patients with FECD including a hemoglobin fragment, immunoglobulin kappa (IgK), immunoglobulin lambda (IgL), and uncharacterized protein albumin (ALB), (p≤0.01). Although it has been reported that females have a greater extent of disease than males, we were unable to detect any significant differences in protein levels due to gender. Because FECD is a progressive disorder, regression analyses were performed to determine any significant correlations with age, and of interest retinol-binding protein 3 was significantly correlated with age in patients with FECD (p≤0.01), whereas no proteins in the control group correlated with age. This is the first report indicating alterations in the AH proteome with FECD, and taken together this study suggests several novel hypotheses regarding AH proteins role in FECD pathogenesis.
PMCID: PMC2994738  PMID: 21139973
7.  Proteomic analysis of human aqueous humor using multidimensional protein identification technology 
Molecular Vision  2009;15:2740-2750.
Aqueous humor (AH) supports avascular tissues in the anterior segment of the eye, maintains intraocular pressure, and potentially influences the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. Nevertheless, the AH proteome is still poorly defined despite several previous efforts, which were hindered by interfering high abundance proteins, inadequate animal models, and limited proteomic technologies. To facilitate future investigations into AH function, the AH proteome was extensively characterized using an advanced proteomic approach. Samples from patients undergoing cataract surgery were pooled and depleted of interfering abundant proteins and thereby divided into two fractions: albumin-bound and albumin-depleted. Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) was utilized for each fraction; this incorporates strong cation exchange chromatography to reduce sample complexity before reversed-phase liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometric analysis. Twelve proteins had multi-peptide, high confidence identifications in the albumin-bound fraction and 50 proteins had multi-peptide, high confidence identifications in the albumin-depleted fraction. Gene ontological analyses were performed to determine which cellular components and functions were enriched. Many proteins were previously identified in the AH and for several their potential role in the AH has been investigated; however, the majority of identified proteins were novel and only speculative roles can be suggested. The AH was abundant in anti-oxidant and immunoregulatory proteins as well as anti-angiogenic proteins, which may be involved in maintaining the avascular tissues. This is the first known report to extensively characterize and describe the human AH proteome and lays the foundation for future work regarding its function in homeostatic and pathologic states.
PMCID: PMC2793904  PMID: 20019884

Results 1-7 (7)