The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 5245) in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China), who were aged 16–35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms of the participants. BDI scores of 14 or higher were categorized as depressive for logistic regression analysis. Depression was diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). 11.7% of the participants had a BDI score 14 or higher. Major Depressive Disorder was seen in 4.0% of Chinese university students. There were no statistical differences in the incidence of depression when gender, ethnicity, and university classification were analyzed. Multivariate analysis showed that age, study year, satisfaction with major, family income situation, parental relationship and mother's education were significantly associated with depression. Moderate depression is prevalent in Chinese university students. The students who were older, dissatisfied with their major, had a lower family income, poor parental relationships, and a lower level of mother's education were susceptible to depression.
The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid homeostasis and lymphatic dysfunction due to genetic defects or lymphatic vessel obstruction can cause lymphedema, disfiguring tissue swellings often associated with fibrosis and recurrent infections without available cures to date. In this study, retinoic acids (RAs) were determined to be a potent therapeutic agent that is immediately applicable to reduce secondary lymphedema.
Methods and Results
We report that RAs promote proliferation, migration and tube formation of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) by activating FGF-receptor signaling. Moreover, RAs control the expression of cell-cycle checkpoint regulators such as p27Kip1, p57Kip2 and the aurora kinases through both an Akt-mediated non-genomic action and a transcription-dependent genomic action that is mediated by Prox1, a master regulator of lymphatic development. Moreover, 9-cisRA was found to activate in vivo lymphangiogenesis in animals based on mouse trachea, matrigel plug and cornea pocket assays. Finally, we demonstrate that 9-cisRA can provide a strong therapeutic efficacy in ameliorating the experimental mouse tail lymphedema by enhancing lymphatic vessel regeneration.
These in vitro and animal studies demonstrate that 9-cisRA potently activates lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic regeneration in an experimental lymphedema model, presenting it as a promising novel therapeutic agent to treat human lymphedema patients.
lymphangiogenesis; lymphedema; retinoic acids; lymphatic regeneration; therapy
We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain CH/ZMDZY/11 isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) isolates from other parts in China, will help to understand better the epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates in China.
Mutations in the v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) play a critical role in cancer cell growth and resistance to therapy. Most mutations occur at codons 12 and 13. In colorectal cancer, the presence of any mutant KRas amino acid substitution is a negative predictor of patient response to targeted therapy. However, in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the evidence that KRAS mutation is a predictive factor is conflicting.
We used data from a molecularly targeted clinical trial for 215 patients with tissues available out of 268 evaluable patients with refractory NSCLC to examine associations between specific mutant KRas proteins and progression-free survival and tumor gene expression. Transcriptome microarray studies of patient tumor samples and reverse-phase protein array studies of a panel of 67 NSCLC cell lines with known substitutions in KRas and in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells stably expressing different mutant KRas proteins were used to investigate signaling pathway activation. Molecular modeling was used to study the conformations of wild-type and mutant KRas proteins. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression were used to analyze survival data. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Patients whose tumors had either mutant KRas-Gly12Cys or mutant KRas-Gly12Val had worse progression-free survival compared with patients whose tumors had other mutant KRas proteins or wild-type KRas (P = .046, median survival = 1.84 months) compared with all other mutant KRas (median survival = 3.35 months) or wild-type KRas (median survival = 1.95 months). NSCLC cell lines with mutant KRas-Gly12Asp had activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3-K) and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) signaling, whereas those with mutant KRas-Gly12Cys or mutant KRas-Gly12Val had activated Ral signaling and decreased growth factor–dependent Akt activation. Molecular modeling studies showed that different conformations imposed by mutant KRas may lead to altered association with downstream signaling transducers.
Not all mutant KRas proteins affect patient survival or downstream signaling in a similar way. The heterogeneous behavior of mutant KRas proteins implies that therapeutic interventions may need to take into account the specific mutant KRas expressed by the tumor.
Compelling evidence has implicated the Wnt signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. We assessed the use of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)/β-catenin (CTNNB1) genes to predict outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. We selected and genotyped 10 tSNP to predict common variants across entire APC and CTNNB1 genes in 282 colorectal cancer patients. The associations of these tSNPs with distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox regression model, and survival tree analysis. The 5-year overall survival rate was 68.3%. Survival tree analysis identified a higher-order genetic interaction profile consisting of the APC rs565453, CTNNB1 2293303, and APC rs1816769 that was significantly associated with overall survival. The 5-year survival overall rates were 89.2%, 66.1%, and 58.8% for the low-, medium-, and high-risk genetic profiles, respectively (log-rank P = 0.001). After adjusting for possible confounders, including age, gender, carcinoembryonic antigen levels, tumor differentiation, stage, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymph node involvement, the genetic interaction profile remained significant. None of the studied SNPs were individually associated with distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that the genetic interaction profile among Wnt pathway SNPs might potentially increase the prognostic value in outcome prediction for colorectal cancer.
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme that appears to be directly involved in atherosclerosis development. We evaluated the association of circulating MPO with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in a large, multiethnic population.
Methods and Results
Plasma levels of MPO were measured in 3294 subjects participating in the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based population sample. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was measured by EBCT, and abdominal aorta plaque prevalence (AP) and burden (APB), as well as abdominal aorta wall thickness (AWT) were determined by MRI. Associations between MPO and atherosclerosis phenotypes were assessed in multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. MPO levels in the 4th compared with 1st quartile independently associated with prevalent AP (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08–1.84), APB (beta coefficient 0.23, p=0.02), and AWT (beta coefficient 0.04, p=0.03), but not with prevalent CAC (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.61–1.17). MPO remained associated with aortic atherosclerosis phenotypes but not coronary calcification after adjustment for other inflammatory biomarkers. A significant interaction was observed between race/ethnicity, MPO and AP (pinteraction=0.038), such that MPO levels in the 4th vs 1st quartile associated with prevalent AP in African Americans, (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.23–2.65) but not in White or Hispanic participants (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.68–1.44).
Higher levels of MPO associated with aortic but not coronary atherosclerosis, with significant associations limited to African American participants. These findings suggest that MPO might be a novel risk factor contributing to racial disparities in peripheral vascular disease.
Myeloperoxidase; atherosclerosis; peripheral vascular disease; African American
AIM: To investigate the effects of emergent preoperative self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) vs emergent surgery for acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction.
METHODS: Two investigators independently searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, as well as references of included studies to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared two or more surgical approaches for acute colonic obstruction. Summary risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI for colonic stenting and emergent surgery were calculated.
RESULTS: Eight studies met the selection criteria, involving 444 patients, of whom 219 underwent SEMS and 225 underwent emergent surgery. Seven studies reported difference of the one-stage stoma rates between the two groups (RR, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.48-0.76; P < 0.0001). Only three RCTs described the follow-up stoma rates, which showed no significant difference between the two groups (RR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.59-1.08; P = 0.14). Difference was not significant in the mortality between the two groups (RR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.50-1.66; P = 0.77), but there was significant difference (RR, 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.74; P < 0.0001) in the overall morbidity. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the anastomotic leak rate (RR, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.28-1.28; P = 0.19), occurrence of abscesses, including peristomal abscess, intraperitoneal abscess and parietal abscess (RR, 0.83; 95% CI: 0.36-1.95; P = 0.68), and other abdominal complications (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.40-1.12; P = 0.13).
CONCLUSION: SEMS is not obviously more advantageous than emergent surgery for patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction.
Acute obstruction; Colonic cancer; Self-expandable metallic stent; Stoma placement; Meta-analysis; Systematic review
Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells1, and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices2,3. Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells, and yield optimized device components for complex tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly3. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions4,5 and other signals6. Here we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies7–11 and guided by a structural model12 for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our general strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should enable spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size13, and branchpoint turning14.
Blockade of synaptic activity induces homeostatic plasticity, in part by stimulating synthesis of all-trans retinoic acid (RA), which in turn increases AMPA receptor synthesis. However, the synaptic signal that triggers RA synthesis remained unknown. Using multiple activity-blockade protocols that induce homeostatic synaptic plasticity, here we show that RA synthesis is activated whenever postsynaptic Ca2+-entry is significantly decreased, and that RA is required for up-regulation of synaptic strength under these homeostatic plasticity conditions, suggesting that Ca2+ plays an inhibitory role in RA synthesis. Consistent with this notion, we demonstrate that both transient Ca2+-depletion by membrane-permeable Ca2+-chelators and chronic blockage of L-type Ca2+-channels induces RA synthesis. Moreover, the source of dendritic Ca2+ entry that regulates RA synthesis is not specific as mild depolarization with KCl is sufficient to reverse synaptic scaling induced by L-type Ca2+-channel blocker. By expression of a dihydropyridine-insensitive L-type Ca2+-channel, we further show that RA acts cell-autonomously to modulate synaptic transmission. Our findings suggest that in synaptically active neurons, modest ‘basal’ levels of postsynaptic Ca2+ physiologically suppress RA synthesis, whereas in synaptically inactive neurons, decreases in the resting Ca2+-levels induce homeostatic plasticity, by stimulating synthesis of RA that then acts in a cell-autonomous fashion to increase AMPA receptor function.
retinoic acid; homeostatic plasticity; AMPA receptor; synaptic scaling; dendritic calcium; L-type calcium channel
We aimed to explore the role of IL-10 -592 A/C SNP in the susceptibility to gastric cancer through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Each initially included article was scored for quality appraisal. 17 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. We adopted the most probably appropriate genetic model (recessive model). Potential sources of heterogeneity were sought out via subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and publication biases were estimated. IL-10-592 AA genotype is associated with the reduced risk of developing gastric cancer among Asians and even apparently observed among Asians high quality subgroup, suggesting IL-10-592 AA genotype may seem to be more protective from overall gastric cancer in Asian populations. IL-10-592 AA genotype is also associated with the overall reduced gastric cancer susceptibility in persons with H. pylori infection compared with controls without H. pylori infection, suggesting IL-10-592 AA genotype may seem to be more protective from overall gastric cancer susceptibility in persons infected with H. pylori. IL-10-592 AA genotype is not associated with either pathologic subtypes (intestinal or diffuse) or anatomic subtypes (non-cardia or cardia) of gastric cancer susceptibility. Genotyping methods like direct sequencing should be highly advocated to be conducted in future well-designed high quality studies among different ethnicities or populations.
To examine the relationship between age, race, ethnicity, education, insurance coverage, and income and use of cancer screening services.
We used a population-based sample (N = 1863) from a community randomized intervention study that took place in eastern Washington State.
Pap testing was directly associated with having public health insurance, being 40 and older, and having a high income (>$35,000). Having Medicare coverage was predictive of having had a mammogram or sigmoidoscopy / colonoscopy screening, but not an FOBT.
Our findings may reflect age-dependent factors that influence access to health care.
cervical cancer; breast cancer; colorectal cancer; Hispanic; demographic factors
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most common causes of end stage renal disease (ESRD) in China, which requires renal replacement therapy. Recent investigations have suggested an essential role of podocyte injury in the initial stage of DN. This study investigated the potential therapeutic role of genipin, an active extract from a traditional Chinese medicine, on progression of DN in diabetic mice induced by intraperitoneally injection of streptozocin (STZ). In diabetic mice, orally administration of genipin postponed the progression of DN, as demonstrated by ameliorating body weight loss and urine albumin leakage, attenuating glomerular basement membrane thickness, restoring the podocyte expression of podocin and WT1 in diabetic mice. The protective role of genipin on DN is probably through suppressing the up-regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in diabetic kidneys. Meanwhile, through inhibiting the up-regulation of UCP2, genipin restores podocin and WT1 expression in cultured podocytes and attenuates glucose-induced albumin leakage through podocytes monolayer. Therefore, these results revealed that genipin inhibited UCP2 expression and ameliorated podocyte injury in DN mice.
Alternative splicing (AS) is a common posttranscriptional process in eukaryotic organisms, by which multiple distinct functional transcripts are produced from a single gene. The release of the human genome draft revealed a much smaller number of genes than anticipated. Because of its potential role in expanding protein diversity, interest in alternative splicing has been increasing over the last decade. Although recent studies have shown that 94% human multiexon genes undergo AS, evolution of AS and thus its potential role in functional innovation in eukaryotic genomes remain largely unexplored. Here we review available evidence regarding the evolution of AS prevalence and functional role. In addition we stress the need to correct for the strong effect of transcript coverage in AS detection and set out a strategy to ultimately elucidate the extent of the role of AS in functional innovation on a genomic scale.
Corneal lymphangiogenesis (LG) and hemangiogenesis (HG) accompany many diseases after inflammatory, infectious, traumatic or chemical insults. They also contribute to transplant rejection. It is known that corneal transplants in infants or children have a higher rejection rate than in adults. However, it has never been studied whether infant corneas differ from adult corneas in inflammatory LG, HG, or both, which is the focus of this study.
Methods and Results
Corneal inflammatory LG and HG were induced by a standard suture placement model in C57BL/6 mice of 3 weeks and 8 weeks of age, respectively. Corneal LG, HG, and macrophage infiltration were assessed by immunofluorescent microscopic studies using specific antibodies against CD31 (a panendothelial cell marker), LYVE-1 (a lymphatic marker), and F4/80 (a macrophage marker). Blood vessels were also examined by ophthalmic slit-lamp microscopic assays in vivo. Digital images were analyzed by NIH Image J software. It was found, for the first time, that infant corneas exhibited a higher level of LG, HG, and macrophage infiltration during inflammation. Infant lymphatic and blood vessels demonstrated greater density and invasion area but similar branching points. Additionally, infant lymphatic vessels were also of larger diameter.
Infant and adult corneas differ greatly in their inflammatory responses of LG, HG, and macrophage infiltration. These novel findings will shed some light on our understanding of the LG and HG processes, as well as the development of new therapeutic protocols for corneal diseases, particularly, in infants or children, where an early restoration of sight is critically important in preventing amblyopia or permanent vision loss.
AIM: To investigate the role of Lactobacillus crispatus (L. crispatus) strain China Center for Type Culture Collection (CCTCC) M206119 in intestinal inflammation.
METHODS: Forty 8-wk-old Balb/c mice (20 ± 2 g) were divided into four groups of 10 mice each. Three groups that had received dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) were administered normal saline, sulfasalazine or CCTCC M206119 strain, and the fourth group received none of these. We assessed the severity of colitis using a disease activity index, measured the colon length and weight, collected stools and mesenteric lymph nodes for bacterial microﬂora analysis. One centimeter of the proximal colon, middle colon and distal colon were collected and ﬁxed in 10% buffered formalin, dehydrated in ethanol, and embedded in parafﬁn. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression was detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Protective factors zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and β-defensin 2 were detected by immunoblotting. The features of CCTCC M206119 strain were identified based on morphology, biochemical profile, and 16S RNA sequencing.
RESULTS: DSS-colitis animals treated with CCTCC M206119 had markedly more severe disease, with greater weight loss, diarrhea, fecal bleeding, and shortened colon length. In addition, the CCTCC-M206119-treated group had comparatively higher histological scores and more neutrophil infiltration than the controls. Expression of protective factors ZO-1 and β-defensin 2 was downregulated due to destruction of the mucosal barrier after CCTCC M206119 strain treatment. An in vitro assay demonstrated that CCTCC M206119 strain increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB in epithelial cells. Intestinal proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokine responses were evaluated. Proinflammatory colonic cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) levels were clearly increased in CCTCC-M206119-treated animals, whereas anti-inflammatory colonic cytokine (IL-10) level was lowered compared with saline or 5-aminosalicylic-acid-treated DSS-colitis mice. Next, CCTCC M206119 strain was characterized as L. crispatus by microscopic morphology, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene level.
CONCLUSION: Not all lactobacilli are beneficial for intestinal inflammation, and L. crispatus CCTCC M206119 strain is involved in exacerbation of intestinal inflammation in DSS-colitis mice.
Colitis; Lactobacillus crispatus; Intestine; Dextra sodium sulfate; Mice
TR4 is a nuclear receptor without clear pathophysiological roles. We investigated the roles of hepatic TR4 in the regulation of lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in vivo and in vitro.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
TR4 activity and phosphorylation assays were carried out using hepatocytes and various TR4 wild-type and mutant constructs. Liver tissues from TR4 knockout, C57BL/6, and db/db mice were examined to investigate TR4 target gene stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) 1 regulation.
TR4 transactivation is inhibited via phosphorylation by metformin-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) at the amino acid serine 351, which results in the suppression of SCD1 gene expression. Additional mechanistic dissection finds TR4-transactivated SCD1 promoter activity via direct binding to the TR4-responsive element located at −243 to −255 on the promoter region. The pathophysiological consequences of the metformin→AMPK→TR4→SCD1 pathway are examined via TR4 knockout mice and primary hepatocytes with either knockdown or overexpression of TR4. The results show that the suppression of SCD1 via loss of TR4 resulted in reduced fat mass and increased insulin sensitivity with increased β-oxidation and decreased lipogenic gene expression.
The pathway from metformin→AMPK→TR4→SCD1→insulin sensitivity suggests that TR4 may function as an important modulator to control lipid metabolism, which sheds light on the use of small molecules to modulate TR4 activity as a new alternative approach to battle the metabolic syndrome.
RasGRPs, which load GTP onto Ras and Rap1, are expressed in vertebrate and invertebrate neurons. Functions, regulation and mechanisms of action of neuronal RasGRPs are unknown. Here, we show how C. elegans RGEF-1b, a prototypical neuronal RasGRP, regulates a critical behavior. Chemotaxis to volatile odorants was disrupted in RGEF-1b deficient (rgef-1 null) animals and wild type animals expressing dominant negative RGEF-1b in AWC sensory neurons. AWC-specific expression of RGEF-1b-GFP restored chemotaxis in rgef-1 null mutants. Signals disseminated by RGEF-1b in AWC neurons activated a LET-60(Ras)-MPK-1(ERK) signaling cascade. Other RGEF-1b and LET-60 effectors were dispensable for chemotaxis. A bifunctional C1 domain controlled intracellular targeting and catalytic activity of RGEF-1b and was essential for sensory signaling in vivo. Chemotaxis was unaffected when Ca2+-binding EF hands and a conserved phosphorylation site of RGEF-1b were inactivated. Diacylglycerol-activated RGEF-1b links external stimuli (odorants) to behavior (chemotaxis) by activating the LET-60-MPK-1 pathway in specific neurons.
Due to its unique characteristics, the cornea has been widely used for vascular research. However, it has never been studied whether lymphatic vessels in the conjunctiva, its neighboring tissue, are affected by corneal lymphangiogenesis (LG). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the distribution pattern of conjunctival lymphatic vessels changes during LG using a standardized two-suture placement model. Our data from immunofluorescent microscopic studies demonstrate, for the first time, that conjunctival lymphatic vessels were more distributed in the nasal side under both normal and inflamed conditions. Additionally, under the inflamed condition, conjunctival lymphatic vessels showed a higher density and more branching points, indicating that LG occurs in the conjunctiva in response to corneal inflammation. This study not only provides novel insights into lymphatic events in the ocular surface but also offers new guidelines for developing therapeutic strategies to treat lymphatic diseases at related sites.
AIM: To investigate the expression of B7-H1 in human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) to define its regulating effects on T cells in tumor microenvironment.
METHODS: One hundred and two paraffin blocks and 33 fresh samples of CRC tissues were subject to this study. Immunohistochemistry was performed for B7-H1 and CD3 staining in CRC tissues. Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation was used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells of fresh CRC tissues; flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining were used for detection of regulatory T cells. Data was analyzed with statistical software.
RESULTS: Costimulatory molecule B7-H1 was found strongly expressed in CRC tissues, localized in tumor cell membrane and cytoplasm, while weak or none expression of B7-H1 was detected in pared normal colorectal tissues. Meanwhile, CD3 positive T cells were found congregated in CRC tumor nest and stroma. Statistic analysis showed that B7-H1 expression level was negatively correlated to the total T cell density in tumor nest (P < 0.0001) and tumor stroma (P = 0.0200) of 102 cases of CRC tissues. Among the total T cells, a variable amount of regulatory T cells with a clear Foxp3+ (forkhead box P3) staining could be detected in CRC tissues and patients’ blood. Interestingly, in the 33 samples (15 cases of B7-H1high CRC tissues and 18 cases of B7-H1low CRC tissues) of freshly isolated mononuclear cells from CRC tissues, the percentages of CD4+Foxp3+ and CD8+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were found remarkably higher in B7-H1high CRC tissues than in B7-H1low CRC tissues (P = 0.0024, P = 0.0182), indicating that B7-H1 expression was involved in proliferation of regulatory T cell. No significant difference was found in CRC peripheral blood (P = 0.0863, P = 0.0678). PD-1 is the specific ligand for B7-H1 pathway transferring inhibitory signal to T cell, which is expressed by activated T cell. Our further analysis of PD-1 expression on T cells in CRC tissues showed that conventional T cells (CD4+Foxp3-/CD8+Foxp3-), which was thought to contribute to the anti-tumor immune response, highly expressed PD-1; while regulatory T cells (CD4+Foxp3+/CD8+Foxp3-) almost failed to express PD-1. The average percentage of PD-1 expression on regulatory T cells was significantly higher than the percentage of PD-1 on conventional T cells (CD4+Foxp3- T cell, P < 0.0001; CD8+Foxp3- T cell, P < 0.0001). The diverse expression of PD-1 might lead to different fate of T cell subsets in B7-H1 over-expression CRC tumor microenvironment.
CONCLUSION: B7-H1 expression in tumor cells can inhibit the conventional T cell proliferation in tumor microenvironment through the PD-1 expression on conventional T cells.
Costimulatory molecule; B7-H1; PD-1; Regulatory T cell; Colorectal carcinoma
H-reflex conditioning is a model for studying the plasticity associated with a new motor skill. We are exploring its effects on other reflexes and on locomotion.
Rats were implanted with EMG electrodes in both solei (SOLR and SOLL) and right quadriceps (QDR), and stimulating cuffs on both posterior tibial (PT) nerves and right posterior femoral nerve. When SOLR EMG remained in a defined range, PTR stimulation just above M-response threshold elicited the SOLR H-reflex. Analogous procedures elicited the QDR and SOLL H-reflexes. After a control period, each rat was exposed for 50 days to a protocol that rewarded SOLR H-reflexes that were above (HRup rats) or below (HRdown rats) a criterion.
HRup conditioning increased the SOLR H-reflex to 214(±37SEM)% of control (P=0.02) and decreased the QDR H-reflex to 71(±26)% (P=0.06). HRdown conditioning decreased the SOLR H-reflex to 69(±2)% (P<0.001) and increased the QDR H-reflex to 121(±7)% (P=0.02). These changes remained during locomotion. The SOLL H-reflex did not change. During the stance phase of locomotion, ankle plantarflexion increased in HRup rats and decreased in HRdown rats, hip extension did the opposite, and hip height did not change.
The plasticity that changes the QDR H-reflex and locomotor kinematics may be inevitable (i.e., reactive) due to the ubiquity of activity-dependent CNS plasticity, and/or necessary (i.e., compensatory) to preserve other behaviors (e.g., locomotion) that would otherwise be disturbed by the change in the SOLR H-reflex pathway. The changes in joint angles, coupled with the preservation of hip height, suggest that compensatory plasticity did occur.
The authors provide the first evidence that a combined blockade of VEGFR-3 and VLA-1 promotes 90% survival of high-risk corneal transplants. Moreover, a strong correlation is revealed between high-risk transplant rejection and high degree of lymphangiogenesis reaching the donor-graft border.
High-risk corneal transplantation refers to grafting performed on inflamed and highly vascularized host beds. It represents a clinical dilemma because the rejection rate can be as high as 90%, irrespective of current treatment modalities. This study was conducted to investigate whether combined blockade of VEGFR-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3) and VLA-1 (very late antigen-1) promotes high-risk transplant survival and how it correlates with corneal lymphangiogenesis and hemangiogenesis before and after transplantation.
High-risk corneal transplantation was performed between normal C57BL/6 (donor) and inflamed BALB/c (recipient) mice. The recipients were randomized to receive intraperitoneal injections of VEGFR-3 and VLA-1–neutralizing antibodies or their controls twice a week for up to 8 weeks after transplantation. Corneal grafts were evaluated by ophthalmic slit-lamp biomicroscopy and analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Additionally, whole-mount corneas before and after transplantation were examined by immunofluorescent microscopic assays, and the correlation between lymphatic or blood vessel distribution and transplant outcome was analyzed.
The combined blockade markedly promotes 90% survival of high-risk transplants. This strategy specifically modified host beds by selective inhibition of lymphangiogenesis but not hemangiogenesis. A strong correlation was also identified between high-risk transplant rejection and severe lymphatic invasion reaching the donor-graft border.
These novel findings not only provide a new and potentially powerful strategy to promote high-risk transplant survival, they also confirm a critical role of high-degree lymphangiogenesis in mediating high-risk transplant rejection. Results from this study may also shed new light on our understanding and management of other lymphatic- and immune-related diseases in general.
This paper presents our solution for the i2b2 sentiment classification challenge. Our hybrid system consists of machine learning and rule-based classifiers. For the machine learning classifier, we investigate a variety of lexical, syntactic and knowledge-based features, and show how much these features contribute to the performance of the classifier through experiments. For the rule-based classifier, we propose an algorithm to automatically extract effective syntactic and lexical patterns from training examples. The experimental results show that the rule-based classifier outperforms the baseline machine learning classifier using unigram features. By combining the machine learning classifier and the rule-based classifier, the hybrid system gains a better trade-off between precision and recall, and yields the highest micro-averaged F-measure (0.5038), which is better than the mean (0.4875) and median (0.5027) micro-average F-measures among all participating teams.
sentiment analysis; emotion identification; suicide note
All-trans retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles in brain development through regulating gene transcription. Recently, a novel post-developmental role of RA in mature brain was proposed. Specifically, RA rapidly enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission independent of transcriptional regulation. RA synthesis was induced when excitatory synaptic transmission was chronically blocked, and RA then activated dendritic protein synthesis and synaptic insertion of homomeric GluA1 AMPA receptors, thereby compensating for the loss of neuronal activity in a homeostatic fashion. This action of RA was suggested to be mediated by its canonical receptor RARα but no genetic evidence was available. Thus, we here tested the fundamental requirement of RARα in homeostatic plasticity using conditional RARα knockout (KO) mice, and additionally performed a structure-function analysis of RARα. We show that acutely deleting RARα in neurons eliminated RA's effect on excitatory synaptic transmission, and inhibited activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. By expressing various RARα rescue constructs in RARα KO neurons, we found that the DNA-binding domain of RARα was dispensable for its role in regulating synaptic strength, further supporting the notion that RA and RARα act in a non-transcriptional manner in this context. By contrast, the ligand-binding domain (LBD) and the mRNA-binding domain (F-domain) are both necessary and sufficient for the function of RARα in homeostatic plasticity. Furthermore, we found that homeostatic regulation performed by the LBD/F-domains leads to insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. Our results confirm with unequivocal genetic approaches that RA and RARα perform essential non-transcriptional functions in regulating synaptic strength, and establish a functional link between the various domains of RARα and their involvement in regulating protein synthesis and excitatory synaptic transmission during homeostatic plasticity.
retinoic acid; retinoic acid receptor alpha; homeostatic synaptic plasticity; synaptic scaling; mRNA binding; calcium-permeable AMPA receptor; dendritic protein translation; conditional RARalpha knockout
This article reports the novel finding that VLA-1 directly mediates lymphangiogenesis. Anti–VLA-1 treatment is effective in suppressing corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis in vivo and several lymphatic endothelial cell functions in vitro.
To investigate the specific role of very late antigen-1 (VLA-1; also known as integrin α1β1) in corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis in vivo and lymphatic endothelial cell functions in vitro.
A standard suture-induced corneal inflammatory lymphangiogenesis model was used in normal adult BALB/c mice to test the effect of systemic administration of VLA-1–neutralizing antibody on lymphatic formation and macrophage infiltration in vivo. Additionally, a human lymphatic endothelial cell culture system was used to examine the effect of VLA-1 gene depletion on lymphatic endothelial cell functions in vitro using small interfering RNAs.
These data demonstrated, for the first time, that VLA-1 blockade significantly suppressed corneal lymphangiogenesis and macrophage infiltration during inflammation. Moreover, VLA-1 gene depletion led to a marked inhibition of lymphatic endothelial cell processes of adhesion, proliferation, and capillary tube formation.
These novel findings together indicate that VLA-1 is critically involved in the processes of lymphangiogenesis. Further investigation on this factor may provide novel therapies for corneal inflammation, transplant rejection, and other lymphatic-related disorders in the body.