The objective of this study is to examine the association between acculturation and BMI among Asian Americans using multiple measures of acculturation. Data of 847 Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese recruited for a health education program in Maryland during 2009 to 2010 were used. Acculturation was measured by the short version of Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation Scale (SL-ASIA) and its individual components. Height and weight were measured by trained staff. Multiple linear regressions were used to estimate the association between acculturation and BMI. After adjusting for age, gender, education, income, marital status, and ethnicity, SL-ASIA (β = 0.71, SE = 0.28), having education in the US (β = 0.56, SE = 0.28), younger age of arrival (0–5 years: β = 3.32, SE = 0.76, 6–10 years: β = 1.55, SE = 0.78), self identified as Americans (β = 1.51, SE = 0.77) and equal preference of Asian/American food in restaurants (β = 0.92, SE = 0.28) were significantly associated with increased BMI. The association between acculturation and BMI was stronger among men than women, strongest among Chinese and weakest among Vietnamese. Acculturation was moderately associated with increased BMI among Asian Americans and this association varied by measures of acculturation. The association of acculturation and BMI was moderated by sex and ethnicity groups.
BMI; Obesity; Acculturation; Asian Americans
Chronic inactivation of a neural network is known to induce homeostatic upregulation of synaptic strength, a form of synaptic plasticity that differs from Hebbian-type synaptic plasticity in that it is not input-specific, but involves all synapses of an individual neuron. However, it is unclear how homeostatic and Hebbian synaptic plasticity interact in the same neuron. Here we show that long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses is greatly enhanced in cultured mouse hippocampal slices after chronic (60 hour) network-activity blockade with tetrodotoxin (TTX). This increase in LTP is not due to an altered synaptic NMDA receptor composition or presynaptic function. Instead, we found that silencing neural network activity not only increases the abundance of both AMPA and NMDA receptors at existing synapses as previously described, but also promotes the presence of new glutamatergic synapses that contain only NMDA receptors – a class of synapses that are functionally silent due to the absence of AMPA receptors. Induction of LTP in TTX-treated neurons leads to insertion of AMPA receptors into the silent synapses, therefore “switching on” these silent synapses, which produces the observed enhancement of LTP magnitude. Our findings suggest that homeostatic synaptic plasticity manifests not only in the adjustment of the strength of existing synapses, but also in the modulation of new synapse formation/maintenance. Moreover, presence of new but functionally silent synapses enables more robust LTP to occur through rapid conversion of silent synapses to active synapses, resulting in a stronger input-specific modulation of synapses following prolonged network silencing.
homeostatic plasticity; AMPA receptor; synaptic scaling; silent synapse; LTP
The serine/threonine kinase Akt has proven to be a significant signaling target, involved in various biological functions. Because of its cardinal role in numerous cellular responses, Akt has been implicated in many human diseases, particularly cancer. It has been established that Akt is a viable and feasible target for anticancer therapeutics. Analysis of all Akt kinases reveals conserved homology for an N-terminal regulatory domain, which contains a pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain for cellular translocation, a kinase domain with serine/threonine specificity, and a C-terminal extension domain. These well defined regions have been targeted, and various approaches, including in silico methods, have been implemented to develop Akt inhibitors. In spite of unique techniques and a prolific body of knowledge surrounding Akt, no targeted Akt therapeutics have reached the market yet. Here we will highlight successes and challenges to date on the development of anticancer agents modulating the Akt pathway in recent patents as well as discuss the methods employed for this task. Special attention will be given to patents with focus on those discoveries using computer-aided drug design approaches.
Akt; anticancer therapeutics; computer-aided drug design; drug discovery and development; pleckstrin-homology (PH) domain; serine/threonine kinase
In 1995, the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) opened a trial for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma evaluating whether low-dose involved-field radiation therapy (IFRT) improved event-free survival (EFS) for patients achieving a complete response after chemotherapy. We present the long-term study outcome using final data through March 2007.
Patients and Methods
Between January 1995 and December 1998, 826 eligible patients were enrolled onto CCG 5942. Four hundred ninety-eight patients achieving an initial complete response to chemotherapy were randomly assigned to receive IFRT or no further therapy. EFS and overall survival (OS) were assessed from the date of study entry or random assignment, as appropriate.
Ten-year EFS and OS rates for the entire cohort were 83.5% and 92.5%, respectively. In an as-treated analysis for randomly assigned patients, the 10-year EFS and OS rates were 91.2% and 97.1%, respectively, for IFRT and 82.9% and 95.9%, respectively, for no further therapy. For EFS and OS comparisons, P = .004 and P = .50, respectively. Bulk disease, “B” symptoms, and nodular sclerosis histology were risk factors for inferior EFS.
With a median follow-up of 7.7 years, IFRT produced a statistically significant improvement in EFS but no improvement in OS. For individual patients, the relative risks of relapse versus late effects of IFRT must be considered. Patient and disease characteristics and early response assessment will aid in deciding which patients are most likely to benefit from IFRT.
Breast cancer incidence and the number of breast cancer survivors have been rapidly increasing among Chinese and Korean women in the United States. However, few data are available regarding quality of life in Asian American breast cancer survivors. This qualitative study aims to describe Asian American women’s perceptions of quality of life and their breast cancer experiences. In-depth interviews with four Chinese and five Korean American breast cancer survivors and three oncologists were conducted in Chinese, Korean, or English. Interviews were recorded and transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative analyses were performed by two independent coders and then discussed and agreed upon by the research team. The respondents reported that the breast cancer experience had affected various domains of quality of life, but women reported having limited resources with which to cope effectively. Depression, anxiety, and stress were commonly reported, but women rarely discussed these issues with family and friends or sought professional help. As immigrants, women’s loneliness and a lack of social support and culturally relevant resources seemed to be major barriers to maintaining good quality of life. Women also expressed interest in learning more about alternative therapies and relaxation skills. These findings can be used to help inform the development of a culturally appropriate intervention for Asian American breast cancer survivors. Future programs may provide information in women’s native languages to teach skills to cope with stress and anxiety, increase women’s self-efficacy within the context of their cultural background, and enhance social support among women from the same ethnic group.
breast cancer; quality of life; survivorship; Asian American; Chinese American; Korean American
Apolipoprotein (apo) O is a novel apolipoprotein that is present predominantly in high density lipoprotein (HDL). However, overexpression of apoO does not impact on plasma HDL levels or functionality in human apoA-I transgenic mice. Thus, the physiological function of apoO is not yet known. In the present study, we investigated relationships between plasma apoO levels and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels, as well as other lipid parameters in healthy subjects (n = 111) and patients with established acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (n = 50). ApoO was measured by the sandwich dot-blot technique with recombinant apoO as a protein standard. Mean apoO level in healthy subjects was 2.21 ± 0.83 µg/ml whereas it was 4.94 ± 1.59 µg/ml in ACS patients. There were significant differences in plasma level of apoO between two groups (P < 0.001). In univariate analysis, apoO correlated significantly with lg(hsCRP) (r = 0.48, P < 0.001) in ACS patients. Notably, no significant correlation between apoO and other lipid parameters was observed. Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma apoO level was an independent predictor of ACS (OR = 5.61, 95% CI 2.16–14.60, P < 0.001). In conclusion, apoO increased in ACS patients, and may be regarded as an independent inflammatory predictor of ACS patients.
apolipoproteins; atherosclerosis; high density lipoprotein; inflammation; lipoproteins
Chronic inflammation is thought to be the leading cause of colorectal cancer, and interleukin-10 (IL10) has been identified as a potent immunomodulatory cytokine that regulates inflammatory responses in the gastrointestinal tract. Although several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10 have been associated with the risk of colorectal cancer, their prognostic significance has not been determined. Two hundred and eighty-two colorectal cancer patients were genotyped for two candidate cancer-associated SNPs in IL10. The associations of these SNPs with distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression model. The minor homozygote GG genotype of IL10 rs3021094 was significantly associated with a 3.30-fold higher risk of death compared with the TT+TG genotypes (P=0.011). The patients with IL10 rs3021094 GG genotype also had a poorer overall survival in Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank P=0.007) and in multivariate Cox regression model (P=0.044) adjusting for age, gender, carcinoembryonic antigen levels, tumor differentiation, stage, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion. In conclusion, our results suggest that IL10 rs3021094 might be a valuable prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer patients.
Colorectal Neoplasms; Inflammation; Interleukin-10; Polymorphism; Survival
A new method, named “re-growth etching”, which introduces a unique etchant “AuI”, has been developed to fabricate large-sized porous gold nanostructures. The size of nanostructures and the number of pores can be regulated by the molar ratio of Ag and Au in the precursor. We have evaluated their performance by a model reaction of the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The catalytic property of porous Au from Ag67.6Au32.4 (Sample 3) is higher than those of other obtained products, which are mainly attributed to its hollows-interior, porous-exterior, and the large amount of Au. The method for the large-sized porous metal nanostructures has been established for the first time and shows the potential of this route to expand the scope of fabricating porous metal nanostructures.
The control of RNA splicing is often modulated by exonic motifs near splice sites. Chief among these are exonic splice enhancers (ESEs). Well-described ESEs in mammals are purine rich and cause predictable skews in codon and amino acid usage toward exonic ends. Looking across species, those with relatively abundant intronic sequence are those with the more profound end of exon skews, indicative of exonization of splice site recognition. To date, the only intron-rich species that have been analyzed are mammals, precluding any conclusions about the likely ancestral condition. Here, we examine the patterns of codon and amino acid usage in the vicinity of exon–intron junctions in the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus, a species with abundant large introns, known SR proteins, and classical splice sites. We find that amino acids and codons preferred/avoided at both 3′ and 5′ ends in Ectocarpus, of which there are many, tend, on average, to also be preferred/avoided at the same exon ends in humans. Moreover, the preferences observed at the 5′ ends of exons are largely the same as those at the 3′ ends, a symmetry trend only previously observed in animals. We predict putative hexameric ESEs in Ectocarpus and show that these are purine rich and that there are many more of these identified as functional ESEs in humans than expected by chance. These results are consistent with deep phylogenetic conservation of SR protein binding motifs. Assuming codons preferred near boundaries are “splice optimal” codons, in Ectocarpus, unlike Drosophila, splice optimal and translationally optimal codons are not mutually exclusive. The exclusivity of translationally optimal and splice optimal codon sets is thus not universal.
ESE; Ectocarpus; splicing; translational selection
Recent studies have proposed a new prognostic factor (metastatic lymph node ratio, or MLNR) for patients with esophageal cancer (EC). However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no studies conducted to date regarding MLNR in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of MLNR staging compared with the 2010 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) N staging in elderly patients with EC.
From January 2001 to December 2009, a retrospective analysis of 132 consecutive patients older than 70 years of age with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was conducted. Prognostic factors for disease-specific survival were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were also plotted to verify the accuracy of MLNR staging and N staging for survival prediction.
The disease-specific survival rates of N0, N1, N2 and N3 patients according to the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual Seventh Edition N staging were 65.5%, 42.9%, 22.2% and 0, respectively (N0 vs N1, P = 0.017; N1 vsN2, = 0.050; N2 vs N3, P < 0.001). The disease-specific survival rates of MLNR0, MLNR1, MLNR2 and MLNR3 patients were 65.5%, 45.0%, 21.1% and 0, respectively (MLNR0 vsMLNR1, P = 0.026; MLNR1 vs MLNR2, P = 0.033; MLNR2 vs MLNR3, P = 0.015). The areas under the curve were 0.731 for the 2010 AJCC N staging and 0.737 for the MLNR staging.
MLNR is an independent predictor of survival in elderly patients with ESCC. MLNR staging predicts survival after EC similarly to the 2010 AJCC N classifications and should be considered an alternative to current N staging.
Esophageal cancer; Lymph node ratio; Overall survival; TNM classification
Carbonyl reductases (CBRs) catalyze reduction of anthracyclines to cardiotoxic alcohol metabolites. Polymorphisms in CBR1 and CBR3 influence synthesis of these metabolites. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in CBR1 (CBR1 1096G>A) and/or CBR3 (CBR3 V244M) modified the dose-dependent risk of anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy in childhood cancer survivors.
Patients and Methods
One hundred seventy survivors with cardiomyopathy (patient cases) were compared with 317 survivors with no cardiomyopathy (controls; matched on cancer diagnosis, year of diagnosis, length of follow-up, and race/ethnicity) using conditional logistic regression techniques.
A dose-dependent association was observed between cumulative anthracycline exposure and cardiomyopathy risk (0 mg/m2: reference; 1 to 100 mg/m2: odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 101 to 150 mg/m2: OR, 3.85; 151 to 200 mg/m2: OR, 3.69; 201 to 250 mg/m2: OR, 7.23; 251 to 300 mg/m2: OR, 23.47; > 300 mg/m2: OR, 27.59; Ptrend < .001). Among individuals carrying the variant A allele (CBR1:GA/AA and/or CBR3:GA/AA), exposure to low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines (1 to 250 mg/m2) did not increase the risk of cardiomyopathy. Among individuals with CBR3 V244M homozygous G genotypes (CBR3:GG), exposure to low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines increased cardiomyopathy risk when compared with individuals with CBR3:GA/AA genotypes unexposed to anthracyclines (OR, 5.48; P = .003), as well as exposed to low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines (OR, 3.30; P = .006). High-dose anthracyclines (> 250 mg/m2) were associated with increased cardiomyopathy risk, irrespective of CBR genotype status.
This study demonstrates increased anthracycline-related cardiomyopathy risk at doses as low as 101 to 150 mg/m2. Homozygosis for G allele in CBR3 contributes to increased cardiomyopathy risk associated with low- to moderate-dose anthracyclines, such that there seems to be no safe dose for patients homozygous for the CBR3 V244M G allele. These results suggest a need for targeted intervention for those at increased risk of cardiomyopathy.
Interactions between breast cancer patients and their oncologists are important as effective patient-physician communication can facilitate the delivery of quality cancer care. However, little is known about patient-physician communication processes among Asian American breast cancer patients, who may have unique communication needs and challenges. Thus, we interviewed Asian American patients and several oncologists to explore patient-physician communication processes in breast cancer care.
We conducted in-depth interviews with nine Chinese- or Korean American breast cancer patients and three Asian American oncologists who routinely provided care for Asian American patients in the Washington DC metropolitan area in 2010. We conducted patient interviews in Chinese or Korean and then translated into English. We conducted physicians’ interviews in English. We performed qualitative analyses to identify themes.
For women with limited English proficiency, language was the greatest barrier to understanding information and making treatment-related decisions. Both patients and oncologists believed that interpretation provided by patients’ family members may not be accurate, and patients may neglect to ask questions because of their worry of burdening others. We observed cultural differences regarding expectations of the doctor’s role and views of cancer recovery. As expressed by the patients and observed by oncologists, Asian American women are less likely to be assertive and are mostly reliant on physicians to make treatment decisions. However, many patients expressed a desire to be actively involved in the decision-making process.
Findings provide preliminary insight into patient-physician communication and identify several aspects of patient-physician communication that need to be improved for Asian American breast cancer patients. Proper patient education with linguistically and culturally appropriate information and tools may help improve communication and decision-making processes for Asian American women with breast cancer.
Asian American; breast cancer; patient-physician communication; language barrier; cultural difference; treatment decision making
The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of depression in Chinese university students, and to identify the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in this population. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 5245) in Harbin (Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China), who were aged 16–35 years. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to determine depressive symptoms of the participants. BDI scores of 14 or higher were categorized as depressive for logistic regression analysis. Depression was diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). 11.7% of the participants had a BDI score 14 or higher. Major Depressive Disorder was seen in 4.0% of Chinese university students. There were no statistical differences in the incidence of depression when gender, ethnicity, and university classification were analyzed. Multivariate analysis showed that age, study year, satisfaction with major, family income situation, parental relationship and mother's education were significantly associated with depression. Moderate depression is prevalent in Chinese university students. The students who were older, dissatisfied with their major, had a lower family income, poor parental relationships, and a lower level of mother's education were susceptible to depression.
The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid homeostasis and lymphatic dysfunction due to genetic defects or lymphatic vessel obstruction can cause lymphedema, disfiguring tissue swellings often associated with fibrosis and recurrent infections without available cures to date. In this study, retinoic acids (RAs) were determined to be a potent therapeutic agent that is immediately applicable to reduce secondary lymphedema.
Methods and Results
We report that RAs promote proliferation, migration and tube formation of cultured lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) by activating FGF-receptor signaling. Moreover, RAs control the expression of cell-cycle checkpoint regulators such as p27Kip1, p57Kip2 and the aurora kinases through both an Akt-mediated non-genomic action and a transcription-dependent genomic action that is mediated by Prox1, a master regulator of lymphatic development. Moreover, 9-cisRA was found to activate in vivo lymphangiogenesis in animals based on mouse trachea, matrigel plug and cornea pocket assays. Finally, we demonstrate that 9-cisRA can provide a strong therapeutic efficacy in ameliorating the experimental mouse tail lymphedema by enhancing lymphatic vessel regeneration.
These in vitro and animal studies demonstrate that 9-cisRA potently activates lymphangiogenesis and promotes lymphatic regeneration in an experimental lymphedema model, presenting it as a promising novel therapeutic agent to treat human lymphedema patients.
lymphangiogenesis; lymphedema; retinoic acids; lymphatic regeneration; therapy
We report here the complete genome sequence of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain CH/ZMDZY/11 isolated from central China. Our data, together with sequence data of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) isolates from other parts in China, will help to understand better the epidemiology and genetic diversity of PEDV field isolates in China.
Mutations in the v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) play a critical role in cancer cell growth and resistance to therapy. Most mutations occur at codons 12 and 13. In colorectal cancer, the presence of any mutant KRas amino acid substitution is a negative predictor of patient response to targeted therapy. However, in non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the evidence that KRAS mutation is a predictive factor is conflicting.
We used data from a molecularly targeted clinical trial for 215 patients with tissues available out of 268 evaluable patients with refractory NSCLC to examine associations between specific mutant KRas proteins and progression-free survival and tumor gene expression. Transcriptome microarray studies of patient tumor samples and reverse-phase protein array studies of a panel of 67 NSCLC cell lines with known substitutions in KRas and in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells stably expressing different mutant KRas proteins were used to investigate signaling pathway activation. Molecular modeling was used to study the conformations of wild-type and mutant KRas proteins. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox regression were used to analyze survival data. All statistical tests were two-sided.
Patients whose tumors had either mutant KRas-Gly12Cys or mutant KRas-Gly12Val had worse progression-free survival compared with patients whose tumors had other mutant KRas proteins or wild-type KRas (P = .046, median survival = 1.84 months) compared with all other mutant KRas (median survival = 3.35 months) or wild-type KRas (median survival = 1.95 months). NSCLC cell lines with mutant KRas-Gly12Asp had activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3-K) and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) signaling, whereas those with mutant KRas-Gly12Cys or mutant KRas-Gly12Val had activated Ral signaling and decreased growth factor–dependent Akt activation. Molecular modeling studies showed that different conformations imposed by mutant KRas may lead to altered association with downstream signaling transducers.
Not all mutant KRas proteins affect patient survival or downstream signaling in a similar way. The heterogeneous behavior of mutant KRas proteins implies that therapeutic interventions may need to take into account the specific mutant KRas expressed by the tumor.
Compelling evidence has implicated the Wnt signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. We assessed the use of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)/β-catenin (CTNNB1) genes to predict outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. We selected and genotyped 10 tSNP to predict common variants across entire APC and CTNNB1 genes in 282 colorectal cancer patients. The associations of these tSNPs with distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox regression model, and survival tree analysis. The 5-year overall survival rate was 68.3%. Survival tree analysis identified a higher-order genetic interaction profile consisting of the APC rs565453, CTNNB1 2293303, and APC rs1816769 that was significantly associated with overall survival. The 5-year survival overall rates were 89.2%, 66.1%, and 58.8% for the low-, medium-, and high-risk genetic profiles, respectively (log-rank P = 0.001). After adjusting for possible confounders, including age, gender, carcinoembryonic antigen levels, tumor differentiation, stage, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and lymph node involvement, the genetic interaction profile remained significant. None of the studied SNPs were individually associated with distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival. Our results suggest that the genetic interaction profile among Wnt pathway SNPs might potentially increase the prognostic value in outcome prediction for colorectal cancer.
Background: Colorectal cancer metastasis is a multistep process involving degradation of extracellular matrix components by proteolytic enzymes. Among them, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are the principal degrading enzymes and their expressions/activities are also correlated with survival. Much research has showed the associations between genetic polymorphisms in MMPs and risk of colorectal cancer; however, their prognostic significance has not been well determined.
Methods: We selected and genotyped 4 cancer-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of 282 colorectal cancer patients. The associations of these SNPs with distant metastasis-free survival and overall survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, Cox regression model, and survival tree analysis.
Results: The relative risks of developing distant metastasis after curative surgery were higher in individuals with minor homozygote AA genotype than in those with GG/GA genotypes at MMP2 rs243866 (P = 0.012). Survival tree analysis also identified a higher-order genetic interaction profile consisting of MMP2 rs243866 and MMP2 rs2285053 that was significantly associated with distant metastasis-free survival (Ptrend = 0.016). After adjusting for possible confounders, the genetic interaction profile remained significant (Ptrend = 0.050).
Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic variations in the MMP2 might be potential predictors of distant metastasis-free survival after curative surgery.
colorectal cancer; matrix metalloproteinases; single nucleotide polymorphism; metastasis; survival.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea has re-emerged with devastating impact in central China since October 2010. To investigate and analyze the reason of this outbreak, the M and ORF3 genes of 15 porcine epidemic diarrhea viruses (PEDV), which were collected from different areas of central China during October 2010 and December 2011, were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. Sequence analyses showed that the nucleotides and amino acids were changed at some sites in the M and ORF3 genes of the 15 PEDV strains compared with those genes of CV777 reference strain. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, PEDVs in central China and reference strains could be separated into three groups: G1, G2, and G3. The 15 PEDV strains belonged to G3 group and showed a close relationship with Korean strains (2007), Thai strains (2007–2008), and partial other Chinese strains (2010–2011), but differed genetically from European strains (Br1/87) and the vaccine strain (CV777 vs) being used in China. Furthermore, all 15 PEDV strains from central China and some other isolates in China from 2003 to 2007 (LJB-03, QH, and LZC) belonged to different group. Therefore, PEDV exhibits rapid variation and genetic evolution, and the currently prevailing PEDV strains in central China are a new genotype.
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; Molecular epidemiology; Phylogenetic analysis; M gene; ORF3 gene
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a leukocyte-derived enzyme that appears to be directly involved in atherosclerosis development. We evaluated the association of circulating MPO with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in a large, multiethnic population.
Methods and Results
Plasma levels of MPO were measured in 3294 subjects participating in the Dallas Heart Study, a probability-based population sample. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) was measured by EBCT, and abdominal aorta plaque prevalence (AP) and burden (APB), as well as abdominal aorta wall thickness (AWT) were determined by MRI. Associations between MPO and atherosclerosis phenotypes were assessed in multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional atherosclerosis risk factors. MPO levels in the 4th compared with 1st quartile independently associated with prevalent AP (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08–1.84), APB (beta coefficient 0.23, p=0.02), and AWT (beta coefficient 0.04, p=0.03), but not with prevalent CAC (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.61–1.17). MPO remained associated with aortic atherosclerosis phenotypes but not coronary calcification after adjustment for other inflammatory biomarkers. A significant interaction was observed between race/ethnicity, MPO and AP (pinteraction=0.038), such that MPO levels in the 4th vs 1st quartile associated with prevalent AP in African Americans, (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.23–2.65) but not in White or Hispanic participants (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.68–1.44).
Higher levels of MPO associated with aortic but not coronary atherosclerosis, with significant associations limited to African American participants. These findings suggest that MPO might be a novel risk factor contributing to racial disparities in peripheral vascular disease.
Myeloperoxidase; atherosclerosis; peripheral vascular disease; African American
AIM: To investigate the effects of emergent preoperative self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) vs emergent surgery for acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction.
METHODS: Two investigators independently searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, as well as references of included studies to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared two or more surgical approaches for acute colonic obstruction. Summary risk ratios (RR) and 95% CI for colonic stenting and emergent surgery were calculated.
RESULTS: Eight studies met the selection criteria, involving 444 patients, of whom 219 underwent SEMS and 225 underwent emergent surgery. Seven studies reported difference of the one-stage stoma rates between the two groups (RR, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.48-0.76; P < 0.0001). Only three RCTs described the follow-up stoma rates, which showed no significant difference between the two groups (RR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.59-1.08; P = 0.14). Difference was not significant in the mortality between the two groups (RR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.50-1.66; P = 0.77), but there was significant difference (RR, 0.57; 95% CI: 0.44-0.74; P < 0.0001) in the overall morbidity. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the anastomotic leak rate (RR, 0.60; 95% CI: 0.28-1.28; P = 0.19), occurrence of abscesses, including peristomal abscess, intraperitoneal abscess and parietal abscess (RR, 0.83; 95% CI: 0.36-1.95; P = 0.68), and other abdominal complications (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.40-1.12; P = 0.13).
CONCLUSION: SEMS is not obviously more advantageous than emergent surgery for patients with acute left-sided malignant colonic obstruction.
Acute obstruction; Colonic cancer; Self-expandable metallic stent; Stoma placement; Meta-analysis; Systematic review
Cytoskeletal motors drive the transport of organelles and molecular cargoes within cells1, and have potential applications in molecular detection and diagnostic devices2,3. Engineering molecular motors with dynamically controllable properties will allow selective perturbation of mechanical processes in living cells, and yield optimized device components for complex tasks such as molecular sorting and directed assembly3. Biological motors have previously been modified by introducing activation/deactivation switches that respond to metal ions4,5 and other signals6. Here we show that myosin motors can be engineered to reversibly change their direction of motion in response to a calcium signal. Building on previous protein engineering studies7–11 and guided by a structural model12 for the redirected power stroke of myosin VI, we constructed bidirectional myosins through the rigid recombination of structural modules. The performance of the motors was confirmed using gliding filament assays and single fluorophore tracking. Our general strategy, in which external signals trigger changes in the geometry and mechanics of myosin lever arms, should enable spatiotemporal control over a range of motor properties including processivity, stride size13, and branchpoint turning14.
Blockade of synaptic activity induces homeostatic plasticity, in part by stimulating synthesis of all-trans retinoic acid (RA), which in turn increases AMPA receptor synthesis. However, the synaptic signal that triggers RA synthesis remained unknown. Using multiple activity-blockade protocols that induce homeostatic synaptic plasticity, here we show that RA synthesis is activated whenever postsynaptic Ca2+-entry is significantly decreased, and that RA is required for up-regulation of synaptic strength under these homeostatic plasticity conditions, suggesting that Ca2+ plays an inhibitory role in RA synthesis. Consistent with this notion, we demonstrate that both transient Ca2+-depletion by membrane-permeable Ca2+-chelators and chronic blockage of L-type Ca2+-channels induces RA synthesis. Moreover, the source of dendritic Ca2+ entry that regulates RA synthesis is not specific as mild depolarization with KCl is sufficient to reverse synaptic scaling induced by L-type Ca2+-channel blocker. By expression of a dihydropyridine-insensitive L-type Ca2+-channel, we further show that RA acts cell-autonomously to modulate synaptic transmission. Our findings suggest that in synaptically active neurons, modest ‘basal’ levels of postsynaptic Ca2+ physiologically suppress RA synthesis, whereas in synaptically inactive neurons, decreases in the resting Ca2+-levels induce homeostatic plasticity, by stimulating synthesis of RA that then acts in a cell-autonomous fashion to increase AMPA receptor function.
retinoic acid; homeostatic plasticity; AMPA receptor; synaptic scaling; dendritic calcium; L-type calcium channel
We aimed to explore the role of IL-10 -592 A/C SNP in the susceptibility to gastric cancer through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Each initially included article was scored for quality appraisal. 17 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. We adopted the most probably appropriate genetic model (recessive model). Potential sources of heterogeneity were sought out via subgroup and sensitivity analyses, and publication biases were estimated. IL-10-592 AA genotype is associated with the reduced risk of developing gastric cancer among Asians and even apparently observed among Asians high quality subgroup, suggesting IL-10-592 AA genotype may seem to be more protective from overall gastric cancer in Asian populations. IL-10-592 AA genotype is also associated with the overall reduced gastric cancer susceptibility in persons with H. pylori infection compared with controls without H. pylori infection, suggesting IL-10-592 AA genotype may seem to be more protective from overall gastric cancer susceptibility in persons infected with H. pylori. IL-10-592 AA genotype is not associated with either pathologic subtypes (intestinal or diffuse) or anatomic subtypes (non-cardia or cardia) of gastric cancer susceptibility. Genotyping methods like direct sequencing should be highly advocated to be conducted in future well-designed high quality studies among different ethnicities or populations.