This Phase I/II study tests the hypothesis that single-fraction SBRT for previously un-irradiated spinal metastases is a safe, feasible, and efficacious treatment approach.
All patients were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team. Spinal MRI was performed before treatment and at regular intervals to both define target volume and response to treatment. SBRT was delivered to a peripheral dose of 16–24 Gy in 1 fraction while limiting dose to the spinal cord. Higher doses were used for renal cell histology. The NCI Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0 and McCormick neurological function score were used as toxicity assessment tools.
A total of 61 patients harboring 63 tumors of the non-cervical spine were enrolled and treated with SBRT between 2005 and 2010 on a prospective Phase I/II trial at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Mean follow-up was 20 months. Actuarial 18-month imaging local control for all patients was 88%. Actuarial 18-month overall survival for all patients was 64%. Median survival for all patients was 30 months. No significant differences in outcomes were noted with respect to tumor histology and SBRT dose. Two patients experienced radiation adverse events (Grade 3 or higher). Actuarial 18-month freedom from neurologic deterioration from any cause as was 82%.
This Phase I/II data support an expanded indication for SBRT as first-line treatment of selected spinal metastases patients. Additional studies that can prospectively identify predictive factors for spinal cord toxicity after SBRT are warranted to minimize the incidence of this serious yet rare complication.
radiation; stereotactic body radiotherapy; radiosurgery; spinal metastases
Cortical dysplasias (CDs) are highly epileptogenic lesions with a good prognosis of seizure freedom, if totally resected. However, their accurate delineation and resection can be difficult, and depend on the extent of pathology and lesion location. Intraoperative neurophysiologic assessments are valuable in these situations. We present an illustrative case of intractable epilepsy where judicious use of intraoperative neurophysiologic–techniques guided resection of precentral CD, under general anesthesia and in the absence of preoperative electrophysiologic mapping data. Ictal onset was accurately delineated using electrocorticography (ECoG). Phase reversal of the median somatosensory-evoked potentials (MSSEPs) localized the central sulcus (CS). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) triggered by high-frequency monopolar anodal electrical cortical stimulation at the primary motor cortex (PMC) threshold delineated the PMC. Using this technique, PMC and the corticospinal tract (CST) were continuously monitored during resection. No changes in MEPs from the pre-resection baseline were seen; no residual abnormal activity was present in the postresection ECoG. The patient emerged from surgery without deficits and has been seizure free during a 10-month follow-up. Staged multimodal intraoperative neurophysiology can be used successfully under general anesthesia to guide resection of epileptogenic lesions within the precentral gyrus, as an add-on or, in certain situations, as a viable alternative to preoperative electrophysiologic mapping.
Electrocorticography; Motor mapping; Cortical dysplasia; Central sulcus
To create a highly accurate coreference system in discharge summaries for the 2011 i2b2 challenge. The coreference categories include Person, Problem, Treatment, and Test.
An integrated coreference resolution system was developed by exploiting Person attributes, contextual semantic clues, and world knowledge. It includes three subsystems: Person coreference system based on three Person attributes, Problem/Treatment/Test system based on numerous contextual semantic extractors and world knowledge, and Pronoun system based on a multi-class support vector machine classifier. The three Person attributes are patient, relative and hospital personnel. Contextual semantic extractors include anatomy, position, medication, indicator, temporal, spatial, section, modifier, equipment, operation, and assertion. The world knowledge is extracted from external resources such as Wikipedia.
Micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure in MUC, BCubed and CEAF were used to evaluate results.
The system achieved an overall micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure of 0.906, 0.925, and 0.915, respectively, on test data (from four hospitals) released by the challenge organizers. It achieved a precision, recall and F-measure of 0.905, 0.920 and 0.913, respectively, on test data without Pittsburgh data. We ranked the first out of 20 competing teams. Among the four sub-tasks on Person, Problem, Treatment, and Test, the highest F-measure was seen for Person coreference.
This system achieved encouraging results. The Person system can determine whether personal pronouns and proper names are coreferent or not. The Problem/Treatment/Test system benefits from both world knowledge in evaluating the similarity of two mentions and contextual semantic extractors in identifying semantic clues. The Pronoun system can automatically detect whether a Pronoun mention is coreferent to that of the other four types. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to accomplish the coreference task in discharge summaries.
Natural language processing; information retrieval; clinical decision support; biomedical informatics; text processing; medical records
A system that translates narrative text in the medical domain into structured representation is in great demand. The system performs three sub-tasks: concept extraction, assertion classification, and relation identification.
The overall system consists of five steps: (1) pre-processing sentences, (2) marking noun phrases (NPs) and adjective phrases (APs), (3) extracting concepts that use a dosage-unit dictionary to dynamically switch two models based on Conditional Random Fields (CRF), (4) classifying assertions based on voting of five classifiers, and (5) identifying relations using normalized sentences with a set of effective discriminating features.
Macro-averaged and micro-averaged precision, recall and F-measure were used to evaluate results.
The performance is competitive with the state-of-the-art systems with micro-averaged F-measure of 0.8489 for concept extraction, 0.9392 for assertion classification and 0.7326 for relation identification.
The system exploits an array of common features and achieves state-of-the-art performance. Prudent feature engineering sets the foundation of our systems. In concept extraction, we demonstrated that switching models, one of which is especially designed for telegraphic sentences, improved extraction of the treatment concept significantly. In assertion classification, a set of features derived from a rule-based classifier were proven to be effective for the classes such as conditional and possible. These classes would suffer from data scarcity in conventional machine-learning methods. In relation identification, we use two-staged architecture, the second of which applies pairwise classifiers to possible candidate classes. This architecture significantly improves performance.
xy804280; thu; text processing; natural language processing; medical records
To develop a system to extract follow-up information from radiology reports. The method may be used as a component in a system which automatically generates follow-up information in a timely fashion.
A novel method of combining an LSP (labeled sequential pattern) classifier with a CRF (conditional random field) recognizer was devised. The LSP classifier filters out irrelevant sentences, while the CRF recognizer extracts follow-up and time phrases from candidate sentences presented by the LSP classifier.
The standard performance metrics of precision (P), recall (R), and F measure (F) in the exact and inexact matching settings were used for evaluation.
Four experiments conducted using 20 000 radiology reports showed that the CRF recognizer achieved high performance without time-consuming feature engineering and that the LSP classifier further improved the performance of the CRF recognizer. The performance of the current system is P=0.90, R=0.86, F=0.88 in the exact matching setting and P=0.98, R=0.93, F=0.95 in the inexact matching setting.
The experiments demonstrate that the system performs far better than a baseline rule-based system and is worth considering for deployment trials in an alert generation system. The LSP classifier successfully compensated for the inherent weakness of CRF, that is, its inability to use global information.
Text processing; natural language processing; medical records
To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (), Object Recall (), and Surface Head recall (). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.
The bony shell of the turtle is an evolutionary novelty not found in any other group of animals, however, research into its formation has suggested that it has evolved through modification of conserved developmental mechanisms. Although these mechanisms have been extensively characterized in model organisms, the tools for characterizing them in non-model organisms such as turtles have been limited by a lack of genomic resources. We have used a next generation sequencing approach to generate and assemble a transcriptome from stage 14 and 17 Trachemys scripta embryos, stages during which important events in shell development are known to take place. The transcriptome consists of 231,876 sequences with an N50 of 1,166 bp. GO terms and EC codes were assigned to the 61,643 unique predicted proteins identified in the transcriptome sequences. All major GO categories and metabolic pathways are represented in the transcriptome. Transcriptome sequences were used to amplify several cDNA fragments designed for use as RNA in situ probes. One of these, BMP5, was hybridized to a T. scripta embryo and exhibits both conserved and novel expression patterns. The transcriptome sequences should be of broad use for understanding the evolution and development of the turtle shell and for annotating any future T. scripta genome sequences.
Shortening of telomeres, which are essential for maintenance of genomic integrity, is a mechanism commonly associated with the aging process. Here we ascertained whether changes in telomere lengths or telomerase activity correlated with age in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), or with phenotypes of aging in breast. Accordingly, flow cytometry fluorescence in situ hybridization (flowFISH) was used to determine relative telomere lengths (RTL), and telomerase activity was measured by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), in a collection of 41 primary HMEC strains established from women aged 16 to 91 years.
RTL measurements of HMEC strains that were heterogeneous with respect to lineage composition revealed no significant associations between telomere length with age, maximum observed population doublings, or with lineage composition of the strains. However, within strains, luminal epithelial and cKit-expressing epithelial progenitor cells that were flow cytometry-enriched from individual HMEC strains exhibited significantly shorter telomeres relative to isogenic myoepithelial cells (P < 0.01). In unsorted strains, detectable telomerase activity did not correlate with RTL. Telomerase activity declined with age; the average age of strains that exhibited TRAP activity was 29.7 ± 3.9y, whereas the average age of strains with no detectable TRAP activity was 49.0 ± 4.9y (P < 0.01). Non-detectable TRAP activity also was correlated with phenotypes of aging previously described in HMEC strains; increased proportions of CD227-expressing luminal epithelial cells (P < 0.05) and cKit-expressing progenitor cells (P < 0.05).
Telomere shortening did not correlate with the chronological ages of HMEC strains, whereas decreased telomerase activity correlated with age and with lineage distribution phenotypes characteristic of aging.
Aging; Human mammary epithelial cell; HMEC; Telomere; Telomerase
While Ras is well-known to function on the plasma membrane (PM) to mediate growth factor signaling, increasing evidence suggests that Ras has complex roles in the cytoplasm. To uncover these roles, we screened a cDNA library and isolated H-Ras-binding proteins that also influence Ras functions. Many isolated proteins regulate trafficking involving endosomes; CHMP6/VPS20 and VPS4A, which interact with ESCRT-III, were chosen for further study. We showed that the binding is direct and occurs in endosomes. Furthermore, the binding is most efficient when H-Ras has a functional effector-binding-loop and is GTP-bound and ubiquitylated. CHMP6 and VPS4A also bound N-Ras, but not K-Ras. Repressing CHMP6 and VPS4A blocked Ras-induced transformation, which correlated with inefficient Ras localization to the PM as measured by cell fractionation and photobleaching. Moreover, silencing CHMP6 and VPS4A also blocked EGFR recycling. These data suggest that Ras interacts with key ESCRT-III components to promote recycling of itself and EGFR back to the PM to create a positive feedback loop to enhance growth factor signaling.
signal transduction; oncogene; tumorigenesis; trafficking; ESCRT-III
This study investigated the clinical benefit of using hypofractionated stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) to manage spinal metastases in patients with cancer and to reduce cancer-related symptoms.
Cancer patients (n=149) with mechanically stable, non–cord-compressing, spinal metastases (n=166) were treated by SBRT in a phase I/II study. Patients received a total dose of 27–30 Gy, typically in three fractions. Symptoms were measured repeatedly by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) and the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). The primary endpoint was to establish the safety, feasibility, and efficacy of using a CT-on-Rails or Trilogy Stereotactic Spine Radiation Therapy system to treat spinal and paraspinal tumors and to document pain relief and toxicity associated with such treatment. Symptom outcomes were estimated according to protocol using descriptive analysis and ordinal regression modeling. This is the final report for the completed enrollment and follow-up.
The median follow-up time was 15·9 (interquartile range 9·5–30·3) months and the mean was 20·9 (SD=17·1) months. The actuarial tumor progression-free survival rates at one year and two years post-SBRT were 80·5% and 72·4%, respectively. Patients reported significant MDASI pain reduction (p=0·00003) during the six months post-SBRT. Patients reporting no pain from bone metastases on the BPI increased from 39/149 (26·2%) before SBRT to 55/102 (53·9%) six months post-SBRT (p<0·0001). BPI pain reduction from baseline to four weeks post-SBRT was clinically meaningful (effect size=0·47, p<0·01). These improvements were accompanied by significant reduction in opioid use during the six months post-SBRT (p<0·05) and a significant reduction in MDASI symptom interference with daily life (p<0·01).. Only a few instances of nonneurological grade 3 toxicities occurred (one report each of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, dysphagia, neck pain, diaphoresis, two reports of pain associated with severe tongue edema and trismus, and 3 reports of noncardiac chest pain). No grade 4 toxicities occurred.
SBRT is an effective primary or salvage treatment of mechanically stable spinal metastasis. Significant reduction in patient-reported pain and other symptoms was evident six months post-SBRT, along with satisfactory progression-free survival and no late spinal cord toxicities.
SBRT; pain; symptoms; patient-reported outcomes (PROs); spine; metastasis
Ras proteins are best known to function on the plasma membrane to mediate growth factor signaling. Controlling the length of time that Ras proteins stay on the plasma membrane is an effective way to properly modulate the intensity and duration of growth factor signaling. It has been shown previously that H- and N-Ras proteins in the GTP-bound state can be ubiquitylated via a K-63 linkage, which leads to endosome internalization and results in a negative-feedback loop for efficient signal attenuation. In a more recent study, two new Ras effectors have been isolated, CHMP6 and VPS4A, which are components of the ESCRT-III complex, best known for mediating protein sorting in the endosomes. Surprisingly, these molecules are required for efficient Ras-induced transformation. They apparently do so by controlling recycling of components of the Ras pathway back to the plasma membrane, thus creating a positive-feedback loop to enhance growth factor signaling. These results suggest the fates of endosomal Ras proteins are complex and dynamic — they can be either stored and/or destroyed or recycled. Further work is needed to decipher how the fate of these endosomal Ras proteins is determined.
ubiquitination; trafficking; desensitization; G-protein; signal transduction; post-translational modfication; endocytosis; cancer; oncogene; tumorigenesis
We characterized the Schizosaccharomyces pombe arc3 gene, whose product shares sequence homology with that of the budding yeast ARC18 and human ARPC3/p21 subunits of the Arp2/3 complex. Our data showed that Arc3p co-localizes with F-actin patches at the cell ends, but not with F-actin cables or the equatorial actin ring, and binds other subunits of the Arp2/3 complex. Gene deletion analysis showed that arc3 is essential for viability. When arc3 expression was repressed, F-actin patches became dispersed throughout the cell with greatly reduced mobility. Furthermore in arc3-repressed cells, endocytosis was also inhibited. Human ARPC3 rescued the viability of the S. pombe arc3 null mutant; in addition, ARPC3 also localizes to F-actin patches in human cells. These data suggest that Arc3p is an evolutionarily conserved subunit of the Arp2/3 complex required for proper F-actin organization and efficient endocytosis.
Dose constraints for traditional neural critical structures (e.g. optic chiasm, brain stem) are a standard component of planning radiation therapy to the central nervous system. Increasingly, investigators are becoming interested in accounting for the dose delivered to other non-target neural structures (e.g. hippocampi), which are not easily identified on axial imaging. In this pilot study, a commercially available digital atlas was used to identify cryptic neural structures (hippocampus, optic radiations, and visual cortices) in 6 patients who received intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as part of multimodal management of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The patient's original IMRT plans were re-optimized, with avoidance parameters for the newly identified critical structures. Re-optimization was able to reduce both mean and maximum dose to the volumes of interest, with a more pronounced effect for contralateral structures. Mean dose was reduced by 11% and 3% to contralateral and ipsilateral structures, respectively, with comparable reduction in maximum dose of 10% and 2%, respectively. Importantly, target coverage was not compromised, with an average change in coverage of 0.2%. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating tools for cryptic critical structure identification into the treatment planning process for GBM.
The medial temporal lobe (MTL) encompasses a network of interconnected cortical areas that is considered the neural substrate for some types of memory, such as spatial, episodic, recognition, and associative memory. Within the MTL, the subiculum has been well characterized in terms of its connectivity and structure, but its functional role remains elusive. A long-held view is that the subiculum is mainly involved in spatial encoding because it exhibits spatially selective firing and receives prominent projections from the CA1 field, which is an essential substrate for spatial memory. However, the dorsal subiculum (DS) is also reciprocally connected to the perirhinal and postrhinal cortices, which are critically involved in recognition memory. This connectivity pattern suggests that DS might encode not only spatial signals but also recognition signals. Here, we examined this hypothesis by recording with multi-electrodes in DS and CA1 of freely behaving mice, as they performed the novel object recognition (NOR) task. Analysis of network oscillations revealed that theta power was significantly higher in DS when mice explored novel objects as compared to familiar objects and that this theta modulation was absent in CA1. We also found significant differences in coherence between DS and CA1, in the theta and gamma bands, depending on whether mice examined objects or engaged in spatial exploration. Furthermore, single-unit recordings revealed that DS cells did not exhibit phase-locked firing to theta and differed from CA1 place cells in that they had multiple peaks of spatially selective firing. We also detected DS units that were responsive specifically to novel object exploration, indicating that a subset of DS neurons were tuned to novelty during the NOR task. We have thus identified clear neurophysiological correlates for recognition within the DS, at the network and single-unit levels, strongly suggesting that it participates in encoding recognition-related signals.
novel object; theta; gamma; coherence; place cell; mouse
Ras GTPases were long thought to function exclusively from the plasma membrane (PM). However, a current model suggests that Ras proteins can compartmentalize to regulate different functions, and an oncogenic H-Ras mutant that is restricted to the endomembrane can still transform cells. In this study, we demonstrated that cells transformed by endomembrane-restricted oncogenic H-Ras formed tumors in nude mice. To define downstream targets of endomembrane Ras pathways, we analyzed Cdc42, which concentrates in the endomembrane and has been shown to act downstream of Ras in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Our data show that cell transformation induced by endomembrane-restricted oncogenic H-Ras was blocked when Cdc42 activity was inhibited. Moreover, H-Ras formed a complex with Cdc42 on the endomembrane, and this interaction was enhanced when H-Ras was GTP bound or when cells were stimulated by growth factors. H-Ras binding evidently induced Cdc42 activation by recruiting and/or activating Cdc42 exchange factors. In contrast, when constitutively active H-Ras was restricted to the PM by fusing to a PM localization signal from the Rit GTPase, the resulting protein did not detectably activate Cdc42 although it activated Raf-1 and efficiently induced hallmarks of Ras-induced senescence in human BJ foreskin fibroblasts. Surprisingly, PM-restricted oncogenic Ras when expressed alone could only weakly transform NIH 3T3 cells; however, when constitutively active Cdc42 was coexpressed, together they transformed cells much more efficiently than either one alone. These data suggest that efficient cell transformation requires Ras proteins to interact with Cdc42 on the endomembrane and that in order for a given Ras protein to fully transform cells, multiple compartment-specific Ras pathways need to work cooperatively.
INT6/EIF3E has been implicated in breast tumorigenesis, but its functional activities remain poorly defined. We found that repressing INT6 expression induced transformed properties in normal human mammary epithelium (MCF10A); in contrast, Int6 silencing induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. As in yeast, Int6 in human cells was required for assembly of active proteasomes. A reverse phase protein array screen identified SRC3/AIB1 as one oncoprotein whose level and stability increased when Int6 was silenced in MCF10A cells. Our data further show that Int6 binds SRC3 and its ubiquitin ligase Fbw7, thus perhaps mediating the interaction between SRC3-Fbw7 and proteasomes. Consistent with this, Int6 silencing did not increase SRC3 levels in HeLa cells, which have low Fbw7 levels.
Surprisingly, however, polyubiquitylated proteins do not accumulate or may even decrease in Int6-silenced cells that contain defective proteasomes. Considering that decreased ubiquitin might explain this observation and that Int6 might control ubiquitin levels in its role as a subunit of eIF3 (eukaryote translation initiation factor), we found that silencing Int6 reduced monoubiquitin protein levels, which correlated with a shift of ubiquitin mRNAs from larger polysomes to non-translating ribosomes. In contrast, levels of many housekeeping proteins did not change. This apparent reduction in the translation of ubiquitin genes correlated with a modest reduction in protein synthesis rate and formation of large polysomes. To further determine whether Int6 can selectively control translation, we analyzed translation of different 5′-UTR reporters and found that indeed, loss of Int6 had differential effects on these reporters.
Together the data suggest that Int6 depletion blocks ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis by decreasing both ubiquitin levels and the assembly of functional proteasome machinery, leading to accumulation of oncoproteins such as SRC3 that can transform mammary epithelium. Our data also raise the possibility that Int6 can further fine-tune protein levels by selectively controlling translation of specific mRNAs.
eIF3; translation; ubiquitin; proteasomes; tumor suppressor; oncogene
Adjuvant whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) after resection of single brain metastases remains controversial. Despite a phase III trial to the contrary, clinicians often withhold WBRT after resection of single brain metastases based on the argument that available evidence does not inform regarding treatment of all patients, such as those with radioresistant tumors. However, there is limited information about whether subpopulations benefit equally from WBRT after resection. Therefore, we undertook a retrospective study to determine the clinical, radiographic, and histologic features that influenced the effectiveness of adjuvant WBRT. We reviewed 358 patients with newly diagnosed, single brain metastases, who underwent resection, of which 142 (40%) received adjuvant WBRT and 216 (60%) did not. Median follow-up was 60.1 months. There were multiple tumor histologies, including 197 (55%) "radiosensitive" and 161 (45%) "radioresistant" tumors. Compared with observation, WBRT significantly reduced recurrence both locally (HR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.35–0.98, P = .04) and at distant brain sites (HR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.30–0.61, P < .001). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that withholding WBRT was an independent predictor of local and distant recurrence. For local recurrence, tumors with a maximum diameter of ≥3 cm that did not receive adjuvant WBRT had an increased risk of recurring locally (HR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.02–9.69, P = .05). For distant recurrence, patients whose primary disease was progressing and who did not receive WBRT had an increased risk of distant recurrence (HR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.01–4.66, P = .05). There was no effect of WBRT based on tumor type. Adjuvant WBRT significantly reduces local and distant recurrences in subsets of patients, particularly those with metastases >3 cm or with active systemic disease.
brain metastases; surgical resection; whole-brain radiation therapy
Int6/eIF3e is implicated in tumorigenesis, but its molecular functions remain unclear. We have studied its fission homolog Yin6, reporting that it regulates proteolysis by controlling the assembly/localization of proteasomes, and binds directly to another conserved protein, Moe1. In the present study, we isolated Cdc48 as a Moe1-binding protein from a yeast two-hybrid screen, and confirmed biochemically that they form a stable complex in fission yeast. Overexpressing Moe1 or Yin6 partially rescued phenotypes of cdc48 mutants; conversely, overexpressing Cdc48 partially rescued phenotypes of moe1 or yin6 mutants. Mutants defective in both Cdc48 and the Yin6-Moe1 complex showed growth defects that were far more severe than either alone. These double mutants were severely deficient in endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD), as they were hypersensitive to accumulation of misfolded proteins. In addition, their chromosomes showed frequent defects in spindle attachment and segregation—these mitotic defects correlated with Ase1 and Bir1/survivin mislocalization. These results suggest that Cdc48, Yin6 and Moe1 act in the same protein complex to concertedly control ERAD and chromosome segregation. Many of these properties are evolutionarily conserved in humans, since human Cdc48 rescued the lethality of the yeast cdc48Δ mutant, and Int6 and Moe1/eIF3d bind Cdc48 in human cells.
eIF3; proteolysis; mitosis; spindle; proteasome
Proteasomes must efficiently remove their substrates throughout the cells in a timely manner as many of these proteins can be toxic. This study shows that proteasomes can do so efficiently because they are highly mobile. Furthermore this study uncovers that proteasome mobility requires functional Arc3, a subunit of the Arp2/3 complex.
Proteasomes must remove regulatory molecules and abnormal proteins throughout the cell, but how proteasomes can do so efficiently remains unclear. We have isolated a subunit of the Arp2/3 complex, Arc3, which binds proteasomes. When overexpressed, Arc3 rescues phenotypes associated with proteasome deficiencies; when its expression is repressed, proteasome deficiencies intensify. Arp2/3 is best known for regulating membrane dynamics and vesicular transport; thus, we performed photobleaching experiments and showed that proteasomes are readily imported into the nucleus but exit the nucleus slowly. Proteasome nuclear import is reduced when Arc3 is inactivated, leading to hypersensitivity to DNA damage and inefficient cyclin-B degradation, two events occurring in the nucleus. These data suggest that proteasomes display Arc3-dependent mobility in the cell, and mobile proteasomes can efficiently access substrates throughout the cell, allowing them to effectively regulate cell-compartment–specific activities.
eIF3 promotes translation initiation, but relatively little is known about its full range of activities in the cell. Here, we employed affinity purification and highly sensitive LC-MS/MS to decipher the fission yeast eIF3 interactome, which was found to contain 230 proteins. eIF3 assembles into a large supercomplex, the translasome, which contains elongation factors, tRNA-synthetases, 40S and 60S ribosomal proteins, chaperones, and the proteasome. eIF3 also associates with ribosome biogenesis factors and the importins-β Kap123p and Sal3p. Our genetic data indicated that the binding to both importins-β is essential for cell growth, and photobleaching experiments revealed a critical role for Sal3p in the nuclear import of one of the translasome constituents, the proteasome. Our data reveal the breadth of the eIF3 interactome and suggest that factors involved in translation initiation, ribosome biogenesis, translation elongation, quality control, and transport are physically linked to facilitate efficient protein synthesis.
External beam radiation therapy (XRT) with concomitant temozolomide and 6 cycles of adjuvant temozolomide (5/28-day schedule) improves survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma compared with XRT alone. Studies suggest that dose-dense temozolomide schedules and addition of cytostatic agents may further improve efficacy. This factorial design phase I/II protocol tested dose-dense temozolomide alone and combined with cytostatic agents. Patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma received fractionated XRT to 60 Gy concomitant with temozolomide (75 mg/m2/day for 42 days). In the phase I portion, patients with stable disease or radiologic response 1 month after chemoradiation were randomized to adjuvant temozolomide alone (150 mg/m2/day, 7/14-day schedule) or with doublet combinations of thalidomide (400 mg/day), isotretinoin (100 mg/m2/day), and/or celecoxib (400 mg twice daily), or all 3 agents. Toxicity was assessed after 4 weeks. Among 54 patients enrolled (median age, 52 years; median Karnofsky performance status, 90), adjuvant treatment was not administered to 12 (22%), primarily because of disease progression (n = 10). All combinations were well tolerated. Grade 3/4 lymphopenia developed in 63% of patients, but no related infections occurred. One patient treated with temozolomide plus isotretinoin plus thalidomide had dose-limiting grade 3 fatigue and rash, and 1 patient receiving all 4 agents had dose-limiting grade 4 neutropenia. Venous thrombosis occurred in 7 patients, 4 of whom received thalidomide. From study entry, median survival was 20 months and the 2-year survival rate was 40%. Multiple cytostatic agents can be safely combined with dose-dense temozolomide. The factorial-based phase II portion of this study is currently ongoing.
dose-dense; glioblastoma; glioma; radiotherapy; temozolomide
Cells from the bone marrow contribute to ischemic neovascularization, but the identity of these cells remains unclear. The authors identify mesenchymal stem cells as a bone marrow–derived progenitor population that is able to engraft into peripheral tissue in response to ischemia.
A murine model of skin ischemia was used. Bone marrow, blood, and skin were harvested at different time points and subjected to flow cytometric analysis for mesenchymal and hematopoietic markers (n = 3 to 7 per time point). Using a parabiotic model pairing donor green fluorescent protein (GFP)–positive with recipient wild-type mice, progenitor cell engraftment was examined in ischemic tissue by fluorescence microscopy, and engrafted cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for endothelial and mesenchymal markers. In vitro, the ability of both bone marrow–and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to adopt endothelial characteristics was examined by analyzing (1) the ability of mesenchymal stem cells to take up DiI-acetylated low-density lipoprotein and Alexa Fluor lectin, and (2) phenotypic changes of mesenchymal stem cells co-cultured with GFP-labeled endothelial cells or under hypoxic/vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation.
In vivo, the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell population decreased significantly immediately after surgery, with subsequent engraftment of these cells in ischemic tissue. Engrafted cells lacked the panhematopoietic antigen CD45, consistent with a mesenchymal origin. In vitro, bone marrow–and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells took up DiI-acetylated low-density lipoprotein and Alexa Fluor lectin, and expressed endothelial markers under hypoxic conditions.
The authors’ data suggest that mesenchymal precursor cells can give rise to endothelial progenitors. Consequently, cell-based therapies augmenting the mesenchymal stem cell population could represent powerful alternatives to current therapies for ischemic vascular disease.
Dysregulated cholesterol metabolism is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis and other late-onset disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI) is critical in maintaining the homeostasis of cholesterol and α-tocopherol. SR-BI binds high density lipoproteins (HDL) and mediates the selective transfer of cholesteryl esters and α-tocopherol from circulating HDL to cells. SR-BI is also involved in reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral tissues into the liver. Previous studies using SR-BI genetic knockout mice indicated that the deletion of SR-BI resulted in an accelerated onset of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that SR-BI dependent lipid dysregulation might disrupt brain function leading to cognitive impairment. Here, we report that very old SR-BI knockout mice show deficient synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Very old SR-BI KO mice also display selective impairments in recognition memory and spatial memory. Thus, SR-BI influences neural and cognitive processes, a finding that highlights the contribution of cholesterol and α-tocopherol homeostasis in proper cognitive function.
cholesterol; HDL; α-tocopherol; scavenger receptors; lipid metabolism; atherosclerosis; late-onset Alzheimer’s disease; LTP; recognition memory; spatial memory