The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a single direct injection of viral vector encoding for encephalin to induce a widespread expression of the transgene and potential analgesic effect in trigeminal behavioral pain models in mice. After direct injection of HSV-1 based vectors encoding for human preproenkephalin (SHPE) or the lacZ reporter gene (SHZ.1, control virus) into the trigeminal ganglia in mice, we performed an orofacial formalin test and assessed the cumulative nociceptive behavior at different time points after injection of the viral vectors. We observed an analgesic effect on nociceptive behavior that lasted up to 8 weeks after a single injection of SHPE into the trigeminal ganglia. Control virus injected animals showed nociceptive behavior similar to naïve mice. The analgesic effect of SHPE injection was reversed/attenuated by subcutaneous naloxone injections, a μ-opioid receptor antagonist. SHPE injected mice also showed normalization in withdrawal latencies upon thermal noxious stimulation of inflamed ears after subdermal complete Freund’s adjuvans injection indicating widespread expression of the transgene. Quantitative immunohistochemistry of trigeminal ganglia showed expression of human preproenkephalin after SHPE injection.
Direct injection of viral vectors proved to be useful for exploring the distinct pathophysiology of the trigeminal system and could also be an interesting addition to the pain therapists’ armamentarium.
gene therapy; trigeminal pain; animal model; behavioral test; enkephalin; viral vector
Ventral pallidum (VP) is centrally positioned within mesocorticolimbic reward circuits, and its dense projection to ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulates neuronal activity there. However, VP is a heterogeneous structure, and how this complexity affects its role within wider reward circuits is unclear. Here we demonstrate that projections to VTA from rostral (RVP), but not caudal VP (CVP) are robustly Fos-activated during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking—a rat model of relapse in addiction. Moreover, designer receptor-mediated transient inactivation of RVP neurons, their terminals in VTA, or functional connectivity between RVP and VTA dopamine neurons blocks the ability of drug-associated cues (but not a cocaine prime) to reinstate cocaine seeking. In contrast, CVP neuronal inhibition instead blocked cocaine-primed, but not cue-induced reinstatement. This novel double dissociation in VP sub-regional roles in drug seeking is likely important for understanding mesocorticolimbic circuits underlying reward seeking and addiction.
Marijuana use by teenagers often predates the use of harder drugs, but the neurobiological underpinnings of such vulnerability are unknown. Animal studies suggest enhanced heroin self-administration (SA) and dysregulation of the endogenous opioid system in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcsh) of adults following adolescent Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure. However, a causal link between Penk expression and vulnerability to heroin has yet to be established.
To investigate the functional significance of NAcsh Penk tone, selective viral-mediated knockdown and overexpression of Penk was performed, followed by analysis of subsequent heroin SA behavior. To determine whether adolescent THC exposure was associated with chromatin alteration, we analyzed levels of histone H3 methylation in the NAcsh via ChIP at five sites flanking the Penk gene transcription start site.
Here, we show that regulation of the proenkephalin (Penk) opioid neuropeptide gene in NAcsh directly regulates heroin SA behavior. Selective viral-mediated knockdown of Penk in striatopallidal neurons attenuates heroin SA in adolescent THC-exposed rats, whereas Penk overexpression potentiates heroin SA in THC-naïve rats. Furthermore, we report that adolescent THC exposure mediates Penk upregulation through reduction of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation in the NAcsh, thereby disrupting the normal developmental pattern of H3K9 methylation.
These data establish a direct association between THC-induced NAcsh Penk upregulation and heroin SA and indicate that epigenetic dysregulation of Penk underlies the long-term effects of THC.
drug addiction; marijuana; rat; nucleus accumbens; striatopallidal; epigenetics
Ongoing epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese. There is a growing appreciation that the complications of obesity extend to the central nervous system (CNS) and may result in increased risk for neurological co-morbidities like depressive illness. One potential mechanistic mediator linking obesity and depressive illness is the adipocyte derived hormone leptin. We previously demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptors increases body weight, adiposity and plasma leptin levels, which is consistent with features of the metabolic syndrome. Using this novel model of obesity, we examined performance in the forced swim test (FST), the sucrose preference test and the elevated plus maze (EPM), approaches that are often used as measures of depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors, in rats that received third ventricular injections of either an insulin receptor antisense lentivirus (hypo-IRAS) or a control lentivirus (hypo-Con). Hypo-IRAS rats exhibited significant increases in immobility time and corresponding decreases in active behaviors in the FST and exhibited anhedonia as measured by decreased sucrose intake compared to hypo-Con rats. Hypo-IRAS rats also exhibited increases in anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM. Plasma, hippocampal and amygdalar brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were reduced in hypo-IRAS rats, suggesting that the obesity/hyperleptinemic phenotype may elicit this behavioral phenotype through modulation of neurotrophic factor expression. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis for an increased risk for mood disorders in obesity, which may be related to decreased expression of hippocampal and amygdalar BDNF.
obesity; leptin; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; forced swim test; elevated plus maze; anhedonia
Epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese and there is a growing appreciation that the complications of obesity extend to the central nervous system (CNS). While the vast majority of these studies have focused upon the hypothalamus, more recent studies suggest that the complications of obesity may also affect the structural and functional integrity of the hippocampus. A potential contributor to obesity-related CNS abnormalities is the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin. In this regard, decreases in CNS leptin activity may contribute to deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and suggest that leptin resistance, a well described phenomenon in the hypothalamus, may also be observed in the hippocampus. Unfortunately, the myriad of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities in diabetes/obesity phenotypes makes it challenging to assess the role of leptin in hippocampal neuroplasticity deficits associated with obesity models. To address this question, we examined hippocampal morphological and behavioral plasticity following lentivirus-mediated downregulation of hypothalamic insulin receptors (hypo-IRAS). Hypo-IRAS rats exhibit increases in body weight, adiposity, plasma leptin and triglyceride levels. As such, hypo-IRAS rats develop a phenotype that is consistent with features of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, hippocampal morphological plasticity and performance of hippocampal-dependent tasks are adversely affected in hypo-IRAS rats. Leptin-mediated signaling is also decreased in hypo-IRAS rats. We will discuss these findings in the context of how hyperleptinemia and hypertriglyceridemia may represent mechanistic mediators of the neurological consequences of impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity in obesity.
triglycerides; leptin; adiposity; fear conditioning; STAT3; morphology; lentivirus
Inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia is principally mediated through transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, as demonstrated by prior studies using models of cutaneous inflammation. Muscle pain is significantly different from cutaneous pain, and the involvement of TRPV1 in hyperalgesia induced by muscle inflammation is unknown. We tested whether TRPV1 contributes to the development of mechanical and heat hypersensitivity of the paw in TRPV1−/− mice after muscle inflammation. Because TRPV1−/− mice lack TRPV1 at the site of inflammation (muscle) and at the testing site (paw), we do not know whether TRPV1 is important as a mediator of nociceptor sensitization in the muscle or as a heat sensor in the paw. Using recombinant herpesviruses, we reexpressed TRPV1 in TRPV1−/− mice in primary afferents innervating skin, muscle, or both to determine which sites were important for the behavioral deficits. Responses to repeated application of noxious mechanical stimuli to the hind paw were enhanced in TRPV1−/− mice; this was restored by reexpression of TRPV1 into skin. Withdrawal latencies to noxious heat were increased in TRPV1−/− mice; normal latencies were restored by reexpression of TRPV1 in both skin and muscle. Heat hypersensitivity induced by muscle inflammation did not develop in TRPV1−/− mice; mechanical hypersensitivity was similar between TRPV1−/− and TRPV1+/+ mice. Heat hypersensitivity induced by muscle inflammation was restored by reexpression of TRPV1 into both muscle and skin of TRPV1−/− mice. These results suggest that TRPV1 serves as both a mediator of nociceptor sensitization at the site of inflammation and as a heat sensor at the paw.
Mechanical hypersensitivity; Muscle inflammation; Muscle pain; Thermal hyperalgesia
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are activated by acidic pH and may play a significant role in the development of hyperalgesia. Earlier studies show ASIC3 is important for induction of hyperalgesia after muscle insult using ASIC3−/− mice. ASIC3−/− mice lack ASIC3 throughout the body, and the distribution and composition of ASICs could be different from wild-type mice. We therefore tested whether knockdown of ASIC3 in primary afferents innervating muscle of adult wild-type mice prevented development of hyper-algesia to muscle inflammation. We cloned and characterized artificial miRNAs (miR-ASIC3) directed against mouse ASIC3 (mASIC3) to downregulate ASIC3 expression in vitro and in vivo. In CHO-K1 cells transfected with mASIC3 cDNA in culture, the miR-ASIC3 constructs inhibited protein expression of mASIC3 and acidic pH-evoked currents and had no effect on protein expression or acidic pH-evoked currents of ASIC1a. When miR-ASIC3 was used in vivo, delivered into the muscle of mice using a herpes simplex viral vector, both muscle and paw mechanical hyperalgesia were reduced after carrageenan-induced muscle inflammation. ASIC3 mRNA in DRG and protein levels in muscle were decreased in vivo by miRASIC3. In CHO-K1 cells co-transfected with ASIC1a and ASIC3, miR-ASIC3 reduced the amplitude of acidic pH-evoked currents, suggesting an overall inhibition in the surface expression of heteromeric ASIC3-containing channels. Our results show, for the first time, that reducing ASIC3 in vivo in primary afferent fibers innervating muscle prevents the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia in wild-type mice, and thus, may have applications in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain in humans.
ASIC; HSV; Hyperalgesia; Inflammation; Muscle; Pain
Epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese and there is a growing appreciation that obesity affects the functional integrity of the central nervous system (CNS). We recently developed a lentivirus (LV) vector that produces an insulin receptor (IR) antisense RNA sequence (IRAS) that when injected into the hypothalamus selectively decreases IR signaling in hypothalamus, resulting in increased body weight, peripheral adiposity and plasma leptin levels. To test the hypothesis that this obesity/hyperleptinemic phenotype would impair hippocampal synaptic transmission, we examined short term potentiation (STP) and long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of rats that received the LV-IRAS construct or the LV-Control construct in the hypothalamus (hypo-IRAS and hypo-Con, respectively). Stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicits STP that develops into LTP in the CA1 region of hypo-Con rats; conversely, hypo-IRAS rats exhibit STP that fails to develop into LTP. To more closely examine the potential role of hyperleptinemia in these electrophysiological deficits, hypo-IRAS were subjected to mild food restriction paradigms that would either: 1) prevent the development of the obesity phenotype; or 2) reverse an established obesity phenotype in hypo-IRAS rats. Both of these paradigms restored LTP in the CA1 region and reversed the decreases in the phosphorylated/total ratio of GluA1 Ser845 AMPA receptor subunit expression observed in the hippocampus of hypo-IRAS rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that obesity impairs hippocampal synaptic transmission and support the hypothesis that these deficits are mediated through impairment of hippocampal leptin activity.
triglycerides; leptin; adiposity; long term potentiation; GluA1 receptor; lentivirus
This study elucidates the neural circuits by which circulating angiotensin-II (ANGII) acts in the brain to influence humoral and behavioral responses to psychological stressors. To test the hypothesis that systemic ANGII mediates stress responding via the subfornical organ (SFO), we first found that the timing of increased systemic ANGII in response to 60-min restraint coincides with increased c-fos mRNA expression in the SFO. Next we administered an anterograde neuronal tract tracer into the SFO and found that fibers originating there make appositions onto neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus that are also c-fos positive following restraint stress. To determine whether circulating ANGII stimulates the release of stress hormones via activation of angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1R) within the SFO, we delivered lentivirus to knockdown AT1R expression locally in the SFO. Inhibition of AT1R specifically within the SFO blunted the release of adrencorticotrophin-releasing hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) in response to restraint stress, and caused rats to spend more time in the open arms of an elevated-plus maze than controls, indicating that inhibition of AT1R within the SFO is anxiolytic. Collectively, these results suggest that circulating ANGII acts on AT1R in the SFO to influence responding to psychological stressors.
Increasing the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor in the RVM produces hyperalgesia, while decreasing NR1 in the RVM produces hypoalgesia and prevents development of chronic muscle hyperalgesia.
NR1 subunit; NMDA receptors; rostral ventromedial medulla; muscle pain; hyperalgesia; FIV virus
Phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) plays an important role in mediating memory via the control of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling; inhibition of PDE4 enhances memory. However, development of PDE4 inhibitors as memory enhancers has been hampered by their major side effect of emesis. PDE4 has four subtypes (PDE4A-D), consisting of 25 splice variants. Mice deficient in PDE4D displayed memory enhancement in radial-arm maze, water-maze, and object recognition tests. These effects were mimicked by repeated treatment with rolipram in wild-type mice. In addition, similar to rolipram-treated wild-type mice, PDE4D-deficient mice also displayed increased hippocampal neurogenesis and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB). Further, microinfusion of lentiviral vectors, which contained microRNAs (miRNAs) targeting long-form PDE4D isoforms, into bilateral dentate gyri of the mouse hippocampus down-regulated PDE4D4 and PDE4D5, enhanced memory, and increased hippocampal neurogenesis and pCREB. Finally, while rolipram and PDE4D-deficiency shortened alpha2 adrenergic receptor-mediated anesthesia, a surrogate measure of emesis, miRNA-mediated PDE4D knockdown in the hippocampus did not. The present results suggest that PDE4D, in particular long-form PDE4Ds, plays a critical role in the mediation of memory and hippocampal neurogenesis, which are mediated by cAMP/CREB signaling; reduced expression of PDE4D, at least PDE4D4 and PDE4D5, in the hippocampus enhances memory but appears not to cause emesis. These novel findings will aid in the development of PDE4 subtype- or variant-selective inhibitors for treatment of disorders involving impaired cognition, including Alzheimer’s disease.
phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4); microRNA; memory; neurogenesis; CREB; knockout
This study assessed the efficacy of pancreatic surface delivered enkephalin (ENK)-encoding herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) on spontaneous behaviors and spinal cord and pancreatic enkephalin expression in an experimental pancreatitis model. Replication-defective HSV-1 with proenkephalin complementary DNA (cDNA) (HSV-ENK) or control β-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-β-gal), or media vehicle (Veh) was applied to the pancreatic surface of rats with dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC)-induced pancreatitis. Spontaneous exploratory behavioral activity was monitored on days 0 and 6 post DBTC and vector treatments. The pancreas, thoracic dorsal root ganglia (DRG, T9-10), and spinal cord (T9-10) were immunostained for metenkephalin (met-ENK), β-gal, and HSV-1 proteins. Spinal cord was also immunostained for c-Fos, and pancreas was stained for the inflammatory marker regulated on activation, normal T-cells expressed and secreted (RANTES), mu-opioid receptor, and hemotoxylin/eosin. On day 6, compared to pancreatitis and vector controls, the DBTC/HSV-ENK treated rats had significantly improved spontaneous exploratory activities, increased met-ENK staining in the pancreas and spinal cord, and normalized c-Fos staining in the dorsal horn. Histopathology of pancreas in DBTC/HSV-ENK treated rats showed preservation of acinar cells and cytoarchitecture with minimal inflammatory cell infiltrates, compared to severe inflammation and acinar cell loss seen in DBTC/HSV-β-gal and DBTC/Veh treated rats. Targeted transgene delivery and met-ENK expression successfully produced decreased inflammation in experimental pancreatitis.
Peripheral initiators of muscle pain are virtually unknown, but likely key to development of chronic pain after muscle insult. The current study tested the hypothesis that ASIC3 in muscle is necessary for development of cutaneous mechanical, but not heat hyperalgesia induced by muscle inflammation. Using mechanical and heat stimuli, we assessed behavioral responses in ASIC3−/− and ASIC3+/+ mice after induction of carrageenan muscle inflammation. ASIC3−/−mice did not develop cutaneous mechanical hyperalgesia after muscle inflammation when compared to ASIC3+/+ mice; heat hyperalgesia developed similarly between groups. We then tested if the phenotype could be rescued in ASIC3−/− mice by using a recombinant herpes virus vector to express ASIC3 in skin (where testing occurred) or muscle (where inflammation occurred). Infection of mouse DRG neurons with ASIC3-encoding virus resulted in functional expression of ASICs. Injection of ASIC3-encoding virus into muscle or skin of ASIC3−/− mice resulted in ASIC3 mRNA in DRG and protein expression in DRG and the peripheral injection site. Injection of ASIC3-encoding virus into muscle, but not skin, resulted in development of mechanical hyperalgesia similar to that observed in ASIC3+/+ mice. Thus, ASIC3 in primary afferent fibers innervating muscle is critical to development of hyperalgesia that results from muscle insult.
pain; acid; proton; ion; nociceptor; carrageenan
A chronic pancreatitis model was developed in young male Lewis rats fed a high-fat and alcohol liquid diet beginning at three weeks. The model was used to assess time course and efficacy of a replication defective herpes simplex virus type 1 vector construct delivering human cDNA encoding preproenkephalin (HSV-ENK).
Most surprising was the relative lack of inflammation and tissue disruption after HSV-ENK treatment compared to the histopathology consistent with pancreatitis (inflammatory cell infiltration, edema, acinar cell hypertrophy, fibrosis) present as a result of the high-fat and alcohol diet in controls. The HSV-ENK vector delivered to the pancreatic surface at week 3 reversed pancreatitis-associated hotplate hypersensitive responses for 4–6 weeks, while control virus encoding β-galactosidase cDNA (HSV-β-gal) had no effect. Increased Fos expression seen bilaterally in pain processing regions in control animals with pancreatitis was absent in HSV-ENK-treated animals. Increased met-enkephalin staining was evident in pancreas and lower thoracic spinal cord laminae I–II in the HSV-ENK-treated rats.
Thus, clear evidence is provided that site specific HSV-mediated transgene delivery of human cDNA encoding preproenkephalin ameliorates pancreatic inflammation and significantly reduces hypersensitive hotplate responses for an extended time consistent with HSV mediated overexpression, without tolerance or evidence of other opiate related side effects.
In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes “normal” mammalian nociception.
Chemicals such as capsaicin and acid are considered noxious because they cause irritation and pain when applied to the skin. Acid is, for example, a very noxious stimulus and can cause intense pain. Indeed, acid is both noxious and painful to all animals including amphibians and fish. Here we describe a member of the rodent family, the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), that is behaviorally completely oblivious to capsaicin and acid. Tissue injury and inflammation increase sensitivity to normally non painful stimuli, a phenomenon called hyperalgesia. Here we show that the naked mole-rat does not experience hyperalgesia to painful thermal stimuli after inflammation. To our knowledge, no other mammal has so far been described that is selectively insensitive to chemical pain or that lacks thermal hyperalgesia. Naked mole-rats live in very large subterranean social groups and are remarkably tolerant to low-oxygen and high–carbon dioxide conditions. We hypothesize that naked mole-rats are selectively pain insensitive partly because of selection pressure arising from the extremity of their normal habitat.
Naked but far from vulnerable, the African naked mole-rat is an unusual mammal that is unique because it is impervious to painful chemicals that cause severe pain in all other species studied.
The anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines appear to involve opioid processes in the amygdala. In previous experiments, overexpression of enkephalin in the amygdala enhanced the anxiolytic actions of the benzodiazepine agonist diazepam in the elevated plus maze. The effects of systemically administered diazepam are also blocked by injections of naltrexone into the central nucleus of the amygdala. The current studies investigated the role of delta opioid receptors in the anxiety-related effects of diazepam. Three days following bilateral stereotaxic injections of viral vectors containing cDNA encoding proenkephalin or β-galactosidase (control vector), the delta opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole (10 mg/kg, s.c.) attenuated the enhanced anxiolytic effects of 1–2 mg/kg diazepam in rats overexpressing preproenkephalin in the amygdala. Despite this effect, naltrindole failed to attenuate the anxiolytic action of higher diazepam doses (3 mg/kg) in animals with normal amygdalar enkephalin expression. Similarly, the mu opioid receptor antagonist, β-funaltrexamine (20mg/kg, sc), had no effect on the anxiolytic effect of diazepam alone. These data support a role for delta opioid receptors in the opioid-enhanced anxiolytic effects of diazepam.
Delta Opioid Receptors; Enkephalin; Benzodiazepines; Amygdala; Anxiety; Herpes Viral Vectors
The Center for Disability Resources (CDR) Library is the largest collection of its kind in the Southeastern United States, consisting of over 5,200 books, videos/DVDs, brochures, and audiotapes covering a variety of disability-related topics, from autism to transition resources. The purpose of the library is to support the information needs of families, faculty, students, staff, and other professionals in South Carolina working with individuals with disabilities. The CDR Library is funded on a yearly basis; therefore, maintaining high usage is crucial. A variety of promotional efforts have been used to attract new patrons to the library. Anyone in South Carolina can check out materials from the library, and most of the patrons use the library remotely by requesting materials, which are then mailed to them. The goal of this project was to identify areas of low geographic usage as a means of identifying locations for future library marketing efforts.
Nearly four years worth of library statistics were compiled in a spreadsheet that provided information per county on the number of checkouts, the number of renewals, and the population. Five maps were created using ArcView GIS software to create visual representations of patron checkout and renewal behavior per county.
Out of the 46 counties in South Carolina, eight counties never checked out materials from the library. As expected urban areas and counties near the library's physical location have high usage totals.
The visual representation of the data made identification of low usage regions easier than using a standalone database with no visual-spatial component. The low usage counties will be the focus of future Center for Disability Resources Library marketing efforts. Due to the impressive visual-spatial representations created with Geographic Information Systems, which more efficiently communicate information than stand-alone database information can, librarians may benefit from the software's use as a supplemental tool for tracking library usage and planning promotional efforts.