Mixture toxicity is an important issue for the risk assessment of environmental pollutants, for which an extensive amount of data are necessary in evaluating their potential adverse health effects. However, it is very hard to decipher the interaction between compounds due to limited techniques. Contamination of heavy metals and organophosphoric insecticides under the environmental and biological settings poses substantial health risk to humans. Although previous studies demonstrated the co-occurrence of cadmium (Cd) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) in environmental medium and food chains, their interaction and potentially synergistic toxicity remain elusive thus far. Here we integrated the approaches of thin-layer chromatography and 1H NMR to study the interaction between Cd2+ and CPF in inducing hepatoxicity. A novel interaction was identified between Cd2+ and CPF, which might be the bonding between Cd2+ and nitrogen atom in the pyridine ring of CPF, or the chelation formation between one Cd2+ and two CPF molecules. The Cd-CPF complex was conferred with distinct biological fate and toxicological performances from its parental components. We further demonstrated that the joint hepatoxicity of Cd ion and CPF was chiefly due to the Cd-CPF complex-facilitated intracellular transport associated with oxidative stress.
Cotton is the leading fiber crop worldwide. Gossypium barbadense is an important species of cotton because of its extra-long staple fibers with superior luster and silkiness. However, a systematic analysis and utilization of cDNA sequences from G. barbadense fiber development remains understudied.
A total of 21,079 high quality sequences were generated from two non-normalized cDNA libraries prepared by using a mixture of G. barbadense Hai7124 fibers and ovules. After assembly processing, a set of 8,653 unigenes were obtained. Of those, 7,786 were matched to known proteins and 7,316 were assigned to functional categories. The molecular functions of these unigenes were mostly related to binding and catalytic activity, and carbohydrate, amino acid, and energy metabolisms were major contributors among the subsets of metabolism. Sequences comparison between G. barbadense and G. hirsutum revealed that 8,245 unigenes from G. barbadense were detected the similarity with those released publicly in G. hirsutum, however, the remaining 408 sequences had no hits against G. hirsutum unigenes database. Furthermore, 13,275 putative ESTs InDels loci involved in the orthologous and/or homoeologous differences between/within G. barbadense and G. hirsutum were discovered by in silico analyses, and 2,160 InDel markers were developed by ESTs with more than five insertions or deletions. By gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing verification, 71.11% candidate InDel loci were reconfirmed orthologous and/or homoeologous loci polymorphisms using G. hirsutum acc TM-1 and G. barbadense cv Hai7124. Blastx result showed among 2,160 InDel loci, 81 with significant function similarity with known genes associated with secondary wall synthesis process, indicating the important roles in fiber quality in tetraploid cultivated cotton species.
Sequence comparisons and InDel markers development will lay the groundwork for promoting the identification of genes related to superior agronomic traits, genetic differentiation and comparative genomic studies between G. hirsutum and G. barbadense.
Mitogen/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-5 (MEK5), which belongs to a network of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, play a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether variants in the MEK5 gene promoter were involved in susceptivity of individuals to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present hospital-based case–control study of 737 patients with sporadic CRC and 703 healthy control subjects in a southern Chinese population, the two polymorphisms of MEK5 promoter (i.e., rs7172582C>T and rs3743354T>C) were genotyped by TaqMan assay. There were significant differences between cases and controls in the genotype and allele distribution of the MEK5 gene rs3743354T>C polymorphism. The rs3743354 CC genotype was associated with a significantly decreased risk of CRC when compared with the TT genotype (adjusted odds ratios [ORs]=0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24–0.77). Compared to the T allele, a significant correlation was detected between the presence of the C allele and decreased risk of CRC (adjusted OR=0.79; 95% CI, 0.61–0.94). The decreased risk of CRC associated with rs3743354 variant genotypes (i.e., CT+CC) was found in the smoker subgroup (adjusted OR=0.63; 95% CI=0.45–0.88). Further, environmental factors, including smoking and drinking, interacted with rs3743354C variant genotypes to reduce CRC risk. Western blot analysis showed that the levels of MEK5 protein in sporadic CRC neoplastic tissues and adjacent normal colorectal epithelium tissues were lower in the carriers of rs3743354 CC genotypes than that in those with rs3743354 TT genotypes or those with rs3743354 TC genotypes. However, no significant association was found between the rs7172582C>T polymorphism and risk of CRC. These data indicate that the rs3743354 polymorphism in the MEK5 promoter may affect the risk of developing CRC.
We reported the selective transport of classical 2-amino-4-oxo-6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines with a thienoyl-for-benzoyl-substituted side chain and a 3- (3a) and 4-carbon (3b) bridge. Compound 3a was more potent than 3b against tumor cells; While 3b was completely selective for transport by folate receptors (FRs) and the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) over reduced folate carrier (RFC), 3a was not. To determine if decreasing the distance between the bicyclic scaffold and L-glutamate in 3b would preserve transport selectivity and potency against human tumor cells, 3b regioisomers with [1,3] (7 and 8) and [1,2] (4, 5 and 6) substitutions on the thienoyl ring, and with acetylenic insertions in the 4-atom bridge, were synthesized and evaluated. Compounds 7 and 8 were potent nanomolar inhibitors of KB and IGROV1 human tumor cells with complete selectivity for FRα and PCFT over RFC.
Glioma is a type of tumor that develops in the central nerve system, mainly the brain. Alterations of genomic sequence and sequence segments (such as copy number variations or CNV and copy neutral loss of heterozygosities or cnLOH) are thought to be a major determinant of the tumor grade.
We mapped genomic variations between low-grade and high-grade gliomas (LGG and HGG) in Chinese population based on Illumina’s Beadchip and validated the results using real-time qPCR.
At the cytoband level, we discovered: (1) unique losses in LGG on 5q, 8p and 11q, and in HGG on 6q, 11p, 13q and 19q; (2) unique gains in the LGG on 1p and in HGG at 5p, 7p, 7q and 20q; and (3) cnLOH in HGG only on 3q, 8q, 10p, 14q, 15q, 17p, 17q, 18q and 21q. Subsequently, we confirmed well-characterized oncogenes among tumor-related loci (such as EGFR and KIT) and detected novel genes that gained chromosome sequences (such as AASS, HYAL4, NDUFA5 and SPAM1) in both LGG and HGG. In addition, we found gains, losses, and cnLOH in several genes, including VN1R2, VN1R4, and ZNF677, in multiple samples. Mapping grade-associated pathways and their related gene ontology (GO) terms, we classified LGG-associated functions as “arachidonic acid metabolism”, “DNA binding” and “regulation of DNA-dependent transcription” and the HGG-associated as “neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction”, “neuronal cell body” and “defense response to bacterium”.
LGG and HGG appear to have different molecular signatures in genomic variations and our results provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and treatment of gliomas in patients with variable duration or diverse tumor differentiation.
The 677C>T polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is considered to have a significant effect on colorectal cancer susceptibility, but the results are inconsistent. In order to investigate the association between the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer, a meta-analysis was held based on 71 published studies.
Eligible studies were identified through searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM) and CNKI database. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the association. The statistical heterogeneity across studies was examined with x2-based Q-test. Begg's and Egger's test were also carried out to evaluate publication bias. Sensitive and subgroup analysis were also held in this meta-analysis.
Overall, 71 publications including 31,572 cases and 44,066 controls were identified. The MTHFR 677 C>T variant genotypes are significantly associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were also found among Caucasians for CC vs TT (OR = 1.076; 95%CI = 1.008–1.150; I2 = 52.3%), CT vs TT (OR = 1.102; 95%CI = 1.032–1.177; I2 = 51.4%) and dominant model (OR = 1.086; 95%CI = 1.021–1.156; I2 = 53.6%). Asians for CC vs TT (OR = 1.226; 95%CI = 1.116–1.346; I2 = 55.3%), CT vs TT (OR = 1.180; 95%CI = 1.079–1.291; I2 = 36.2%), recessive (OR = 1.069; 95%CI = 1.003-1.140; I2 = 30.9%) and dominant model (OR = 1.198; 95%CI = 1.101-1.303; I2 = 52.4%), and Mixed populations for CT vs TT (OR = 1.142; 95%CI = 1.005-1.296; I2 = 0.0%). However, no associations were found in Africans for all genetic models.
This meta-analysis suggests that the MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism increases the risk for developing colorectal cancer, while there is no association among Africans found in subgroup analysis by ethnicity.
The defensive skin secretions of amphibians are a rich resource for the discovery of novel, bioactive peptides. Here we report the identification of a novel vascular smooth muscle-relaxing peptide, named vasorelaxin, from the skin secretion of the Chinese piebald odorous frog, Odorrana schmackeri. Vasorelaxin consists of 20 amino acid residues, SRVVKCSGFRPGSPDSREFC, with a disulfide-bridge between Cys-6 and Cys-20. The structure of its biosynthetic precursor was deduced from cloned skin cDNA and consists of 67 amino acid residues encoding a single copy of vasorelaxin (vasorelaxin, accession number: HE860494). Synthetic vasorelaxin caused a profound relaxation of rat arterial smooth muscle with an EC50 of 6.76 nM.
Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, is the major commercial source of natural rubber (NR). NR is a latex polymer with high elasticity, flexibility, and resilience that has played a critical role in the world economy since 1876.
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of H. brasiliensis. The assembly spans ~1.1 Gb of the estimated 2.15 Gb haploid genome. Overall, ~78% of the genome was identified as repetitive DNA. Gene prediction shows 68,955 gene models, of which 12.7% are unique to Hevea. Most of the key genes associated with rubber biosynthesis, rubberwood formation, disease resistance, and allergenicity have been identified.
The knowledge gained from this genome sequence will aid in the future development of high-yielding clones to keep up with the ever increasing need for natural rubber.
Hevea brasiliensis; Euphorbiaceae; Natural rubber; Genome
To explore sperm chromosomal aneuploidy, sperm membrane and DNA integrity in infertile patients with anejaculation.
Semen samples were collected from 18 infertile men with spinal cord injury (SCI) by penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and from 14 psychogenic anejaculation (PA) patients by percutaneous vasal sperm aspiration (PVSA). These semen samples as well as samples from 16 donors were analyzed using the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test and multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y.
There were significant differences in the percentages of motile sperm, normal morphologic sperm and sperm DNA fragmentation between the infertile men with SCI and the control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). The sperm motility was significantly greater in the PA-PVSA group than in the SCI-PVS group (P < 0.01). The number of round cells per mL of semen obtained from the 18 SCI patients by PVS was between 1 and 8 million. The rate of sperm DNA fragmentation in the SCI-PVS group was higher than that of the PA-PVSA group (P < 0.05). The aneuploidy rates for the SCI patients were 2.4-fold higher for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21 and 2.2-fold higher for chromosomes X and Y than for patients in the control group (P < 0.0001).
The semen quality is poorer, sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm chromosomal aneuploidies are seen at a higher rate for SCI patients compared to healthy, fertile and normospermic men. Whether the difference in yield is due to increased scrotal temperature, genitourinary infection, or other reasons requires further study.
Sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test; FISH; Sperm chromosomal aneuploidy; Anejaculation; Male infertility
The MYO7A encodes a protein classified as an unconventional myosin. Here, we present a family with non-syndromic autosomal dominant hearing impairment that clinically resembles other previously published DFNA11 families. Affected members of the family present with an ascending audiogram affecting low and middle frequencies at young ages and then affecting all frequencies with increasing age. Genome-wide linkage analysis using Illumina Cyto-12 Chip mapped the disease locus to the DFNA11 interval in the family. A c.2003G→A (p.R668H) mutation of the MYO7A, is heterozygous in all affected family members and absent in 100 healthy individuals. Arg668His is located in a region of the myosin VIIA motor domain that is highly conserved among different species. Molecular modeling predicts that the conserved R668 residue plays important structural role in linking different lobes of motor domain together. In the actin-activated ATPase activity assay, the rate of NADH oxidation was higher in the wild-type myosin VIIA, indicating that the ATPase activity in the p.R668H mutant myosin VIIA was significantly destroyed.
In the title molecule, C37H48O4S, the benzene rings in the biphenyl fragment are inclined to each other at 61.1 (1)°. The hydroxy group is involved in a weak intramolecular O—H⋯Osulfonate hydrogen bond. One tert-butyl group is disodered over two orientations in a 0.682 (17):0.318 (17) ratio. In the crystal, weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into columns in direction .
Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vascular beds, is essential for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Luteolin is a common dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of luteolin using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. In vitro studies using rat aortic ring assay showed that luteolin at non-toxic concentrations significantly inhibited microvessel sprouting and proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation of endothelial cells, which are key events in the process of angiogenesis. Luteolin also inhibited ex vivo angiogenesis as revealed by chicken egg chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) and matrigel plug assay. Gelatin zymographic analysis demonstrated the inhibitory effect of luteolin on the activation of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin suppressed VEGF induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2 and their downstream protein kinases AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in HUVECs. Proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α level were significantly reduced by the treatment of luteolin in PC-3 cells. Luteolin (10 mg/kg/d) significantly reduced the volume and the weight of solid tumors in prostate xenograft mouse model, indicating that luteolin inhibited tumorigenesis by targeting angiogenesis. CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemical staining further revealed that the microvessel density could be remarkably suppressed by luteolin. Moreover, luteolin reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, which were correlated with the downregulation of AKT, ERK, mTOR, P70S6K, MMP-2, and MMP-9 expressions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that luteolin inhibits human prostate tumor growth by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-mediated angiogenesis.
Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 catalyzes the stereoinversion of (R)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol (PED) through oxidation and reduction. Its NAD+-linked (R)-carbonyl reductase (RCR) catalyzes the oxidization of (R)-PED to 2-hydroxyacetophenone (HAP), and its NADPH-dependent (S)-carbonyl reductase (SCR) catalyzes the reduction of HAP to (S)-PED. The reactions require NAD+ and NADPH as cofactors. However, even if NAD+ and NADPH are added, the biotransformation of (S)-PED from the (R)-enantiomer by an Escherichia coli strain co-expressing RCR and SCR is slow and gives low yields, probably as a result of insufficient or imbalanced redox cofactors. To prepare (S)-PED from the (R)-enantiomer in one-step efficiently, plus redox cofactor regeneration, we introduced pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenases (PNTs) from E. coli to the metabolic pathway of (S)-PED.
The PNTs were successfully introduced into the E. coli strain RSAB. Most of the PNT activities occurred in the cell membrane of E. coli. The introduction of PNTs increased intracellular NAD+ and NADH concentrations and decreased the NADPH pool without affecting the total nucleotide concentration and cell growth properties. The presence of PNTs increased the NADH/NAD+ ratio slightly and reduced the NADPH/NADP+ ratio about two-fold; the ratio of NADPH/NADP+ to NADH/NAD+ was reduced from 36 to 17. So, the PNTs rebalanced the cofactor pathways: the rate of RCR was increased, while the rate of SCR was decreased. When the ratio of NAD+/NADPH was 3.0 or higher, the RSAB strain produced (S)-PED with the highest optical purity, 97.4%, and a yield of 95.2% at 6 h. The introduction of PNTs stimulated increases of 51.5% and 80.6%, respectively, in optical purity and yield, and simultaneously reduced the reaction time seven-fold.
In this work, PNTs were introduced into E. coli to rebalance the cofactor pools within the engineered (S)-PED pathways. The efficient one-step production of (S)-PED plus NAD+–NADPH in-situ regeneration was realized. This work provided new insights into cofactor rebalancing pathways, using metabolic engineering methods, for efficient chiral alcohol production.
Redox cofactor regeneration; Chiral alcohol; Alcohol dehydrogenases/reductases; Metabolic pathway; One-step stereoinversion
Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins must quickly and reliably localize specific target sites on DNA. This search process has been well characterized for monomeric proteins, but it remains poorly understood for systems that require assembly into dimers or oligomers at the target site. We present a single-molecule study of the target-search mechanism of protelomerase TelK, a recombinase-like protein that is only active as a dimer. We show that TelK undergoes 1D diffusion on non-target DNA as a monomer, and it immobilizes upon dimerization even in the absence of a DNA target site. We further show that dimeric TelK condenses non-target DNA, forming a tightly bound nucleoprotein complex. Together with theoretical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations, we present a novel target-search model for TelK, which may be generalizable to other dimer and oligomer-active proteins.
Dopamine is crucial for habit learning. Activities of midbrain dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the cortical and subcortical signals among which glutamatergic afferents provide excitatory inputs. Cognitive implications of glutamatergic afferents in regulating and engaging dopamine signals during habit learning however remain unclear. Here we show that mice with dopaminergic neuron-specific NMDAR1 deletion are impaired in a variety of habit learning tasks while normal in some other dopamine-modulated functions such as locomotor activities, goal directed learning, and spatial reference memories. In vivo neural recording revealed that DA neurons in these mutant mice could still develop the cue-reward association responses, but their conditioned response robustness was drastically blunted. Our results suggest that integration of glutamatergic inputs to DA neurons by NMDA receptors, likely by regulating associative activity patterns, is a crucial part of the cellular mechanism underpinning habit learning.
Background. The HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 trial demonstrated that early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from HIV-infected adults (index participants) to their HIV-uninfected sexual partners. We analyzed HIV from 38 index-partner pairs and 80 unrelated index participants (controls) to assess the linkage of seroconversion events.
Methods. Linkage was assessed using phylogenetic analysis of HIV pol sequences and Bayesian analysis of genetic distances between pol sequences from index-partner pairs and controls. Selected samples were also analyzed using next-generation sequencing (env region).
Results. In 29 of the 38 (76.3%) cases analyzed, the index was the likely source of the partner’s HIV infection (linked). In 7 cases (18.4%), the partner was most likely infected from a source other than the index participant (unlinked). In 2 cases (5.3%), linkage status could not be definitively established.
Conclusions. Nearly one-fifth of the seroconversion events in HPTN 052 were unlinked. The association of early ART and reduced HIV transmission was stronger when the analysis included only linked events. This underscores the importance of assessing the genetic linkage of HIV seroconversion events in HIV prevention studies involving serodiscordant couples.
The transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) is the most widely used transgenic model for prostate cancer chemoprevention studies. Although two lobe-specific lineages of carcinogenesis have been described, the molecular mechanisms are still poorly defined. Here, we concurrently profiled the proteome of dorsal-lateral (DLP) and ventral (VP) prostate lobes of both TRAMP and littermate wild type C57BL/6 mice of 18 weeks by 2D-LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF with iTRAQ labeling. A total of 483 and 748 proteins were identified at critical false discovery rates of 1% and 5%. In wild-type mice, 84 proteins were found to have different expression levels between DLP and VP. In TRAMP mice, 118 proteins significantly changed in DLP and/or VP during TRAMP carcinogenesis. Among them, 55 and 36 proteins were uniquely changed in DLP or VP lobe, respectively and 27 proteins in both DLP and LP lobe. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was able to segregate proteins changed in two lobes into different pathway networks. In addition to serving as reference for prostate proteomic profiles, our data suggest that different sets of proteins are involved in the carcinogenesis in DLP vs. in VP in the TRAMP model.
iTRAQ; lobe; prostate cancer; proteomics; TRAMP mouse
The Gram-negative bacterium Cronobacter sakazakii is an emerging food-borne pathogen that causes severe invasive infections in neonates. Variation in the O-antigen lipopolysaccharide in the outer membrane provides the basis for Gram-negative bacteria serotyping. The O-antigen serotyping scheme for C. sakazakii, which includes seven serotypes (O1 to O7), has been recently established, and the O-antigen gene clusters and specific primers for three C. sakazakii serotypes (O1, O2, and O3) have been characterized. In this study, the C. sakazakii O4, O5, O6, and O7 O-antigen gene clusters were sequenced, and gene functions were predicted on the basis of homology. C. sakazakii O4 shared a similar O-antigen gene cluster with Escherichia coli O103. The general features and anomalies of all seven C. sakazakii O-antigen gene clusters were evaluated and the relationship between O-antigen structures and their gene clusters were investigated. Serotype-specific genes for O4 to O7 were identified, and a molecular serotyping method for all C. sakazakii O serotypes, a multiplex PCR assay, was developed by screening against 136 strains of C. sakazakii and closely related species. The sensitivity of PCR-based serotyping method was determined to be 0.01 ng of genomic DNA and 103 CFU of each strain/ml. This study completes the elucidation of C. sakazakii O-antigen genetics and provides a molecular method suitable for the identification of C. sakazakii O1 to O7 strains.
Gait analysis is widely used in detecting human walking disorders. Current gait analysis methods like video- or optical-based systems are expensive and cause invasion of human privacy. This article presents a self-developed low-cost body inertial-sensing network, which contains a base station, three wearable inertial measurement nodes, and the affiliated wireless communication protocol, for practical gait discrimination between hemiplegia patients and asymptomatic subjects. Every sensing node contains one three-axis accelerometer, one three-axis magnetometer, and one three-axis gyroscope. Seven hemiplegia patients (all were abnormal on the right side) and 7 asymptomatic subjects were examined. The three measurement nodes were attached on the thigh, the shank, and the dorsum of the foot, respectively (all on the right side of the body). A new method, which does not need to obtain accurate positions of the sensors, was used to calculate angles of knee flexion/extension and foot in the gait cycle. The angle amplitudes of initial contact, toe off, and knee flexion/extension were extracted. The results showed that there were significant differences between the two groups in the three angle amplitudes examined (−0.52±0.98° versus 6.94±2.63°, 28.33±11.66° versus 47.34±7.90°, and 26.85±8.6° versus 50.91±6.60°, respectively). It was concluded that the body inertial-sensing network
platform provided a practical approach for wearable biomotion acquisition and was effective for discriminating gait symptoms between hemiplegia and asymptomatic subjects.
gait analysis; body sensor network; hemiplegia
This paper presents the first characterization and modeling of dynamic propagation channels for human body communication (HBC). In-situ experiments were performed using customized transceivers in an anechoic chamber. Three HBC propagation channels, i.e., from right leg to left leg, from right hand to left hand and from right hand to left leg, were investigated under thirty-three motion scenarios. Snapshots of data (2,800,000) were acquired from five volunteers. Various path gains caused by different locations and movements were quantified and the statistical distributions were estimated. In general, for a given reference threshold è = −10 dB, the maximum average level crossing rate of the HBC was approximately 1.99 Hz, the maximum average fade time was 59.4 ms, and the percentage of bad channel duration time was less than 4.16%. The HBC exhibited a fade depth of −4 dB at 90% complementary cumulative probability. The statistical parameters were observed to be centered for each propagation channel. Subsequently a Fritchman model was implemented to estimate the burst characteristics of the on-body fading. It was concluded that the HBC is motion-insensitive, which is sufficient for reliable communication link during motions, and therefore it has great potential for body sensor/area networks.
human body communication; dynamic channel model; propagation; statistical analysis; motion-insensitive; Fritchman model
High-density genetic linkage maps were constructed for the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A total of 1624 microsatellite markers were polymorphic in the reference family. Linkage analysis using JoinMap 4.0 resulted in the mapping of 1487 markers to 24 linkage groups, a result which was consistent with the 24 chromosomes seen in chromosome spreads. The female map was composed of 1257 markers, covering a total of 1663.8 cM with an average interval 1.35 cM between markers. The male map consisted of 1224 markers, spanning 1726.5 cM, with an average interval of 1.44 cM. The genome length in the Japanese flounder was estimated to be 1730.3 cM for the females and 1798.0 cM for the males, a coverage of 96.2% for the female and 96.0% for the male map. The mean recombination at common intervals throughout the genome revealed a slight difference between sexes, i.e. 1.07 times higher in the male than female. High-density genetic linkage maps are very useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs for economically valuable traits in this species and for further evolutionary studies in flatfish and vertebrate species. Furthermore, four quantiative trait loci (QTL) associated with growth traits were mapped on the genetic map. One QTL was identified for body weight on LG 14 f, which explained 14.85% of the total variation of the body weight. Three QTL were identified for body width on LG14f and LG14m, accounting for 16.75%, 13.62% and 13.65% of the total variation in body width, respectively. The additive effects were evident as negative values. There were four QTL for growth traits clustered on LG14, which should prove to be very useful for improving growth traits using molecular MAS.
IL-1β is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine and its up-regulation is closely associated with various cancers including gastrointestinal tumors. However, it remains unclear how IL-1β may contribute to the initiation and development of these inflammation-associated cancers. Here we investigated the role of IL-1β in colon cancer stem cell (CSC) development.
Using self-renewal assay, soft-agar assay, invasion assay, real-time PCR analysis, immunoblot assay and shRNA knockdown, we determined the effects of IL-1β on cancer stem cell development and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human primary colon cancer cells and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.
We found that IL-1β can increase sphere-forming capability of colon cancer cells in serum-free medium. IL-1β-induced spheres displayed an up-regulation of stemness factor genes (Bmi1 and Nestin) and increased drug resistance, hallmarks of CSCs. Importantly, expression of EMT activator Zeb1 was increased in IL-1β-induced spheres, indicating that there might be a close association between EMT and IL-1β-induced CSC self-renewal. Indeed, IL-1β treatment led to EMT of colon cancer cells with loss of E-cadherin, up-regulation of Zeb1, and gain of the mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated knockdown of Zeb1 in HCT-116 cells reversed IL-1β-induced EMT and stem cell formation.
Our findings indicate that IL-1β may promote colon tumor growth and invasion through activation of CSC self-renewal and EMT, and Zeb1 plays a critical role in these two processes. Thus, IL-1β and Zeb1 might be new therapeutic targets against colon cancer stem cells.
Colon cancer; Tumor microenvironment; Inflammation; Interleukin-1β; Cancer stem cells; Epithelial-mesenchymal transition; Zeb1
Melanoma is the most dangerous skin cancer due to its highly metastatic potential and resistance to chemotherapy. Currently, there is no effective treatment for melanoma once it is progressed to metastatic stage. Therefore, further study to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the metastasis of melanoma cells is urgently required for the improvement of melanoma treatment. In the present study, we found that diphthamide synthesis 3 (Dph3) is involved in the metastasis of B16F10 murine melanoma cells by insertional mutagenesis. We demonstrated that Dph3 disruption impairs the migration of B16F10 murine melanoma cells. The requirement of Dph3 in the migration of melanoma cells was further confirmed by gene silencing with siRNA in vitro. In corresponding to this result, overexpression of Dph3 significantly promoted the migratory ability of B16F10 and B16F0 melanoma cells. Moreover, down regulation of Dph3 expression in B16F10 melanoma cells strikingly inhibits their cellular invasion and metastasis in vivo. Finally, we found that Dph3 promotes melanoma migration and invasion through the AKT signaling pathway. To conclude, our findings suggest a novel mechanism underlying the metastasis of melanoma cells which might serve as a new intervention target for the treatment of melanoma.
It was reported that there is a majority profile for trinucleotide frequencies among genomes. And further study has revealed that two common profiles, rather than one majority profile, exist for genomic trinucleotide frequencies. However, the origins of the common/majority profile remain elusive. Moreover, it is not clear whether the features of common profile may be extended to oligonucleotides other than trinucleotides.
We analyzed 571 prokaryotic genomes (chromosomes) and some selected eukaryotic nuclear genomes as well as other genetic systems to study their compositional features. We found that there are also two common profiles for genomic oligonucleotide frequencies: one is from low-GC content genomes, and the other is from high-GC content genomes. Furthermore, each common profile is highly correlated to the average profile of random sequences with corresponding GC content and generated according to first-order symmetry.
The causes for the existence of two common profiles would mainly be GC content variations and strand symmetry of genomic sequences. Therefore, both GC content and strand symmetry would play important roles in genome evolution.
Genomic sequence; Oligonucleotide; Frequency profile; GC content; Strand symmetry