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author:("Zoller, gutta")
1.  Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance 
Background
The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments.
Methods
Barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, L. var. Steffi) were grown in the dark for 5 and 6 days under static magnetic and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields matching the ICR conditions of Ca2+. Control cultures were grown under normal geomagnetic conditions, not matching this ICR. Morphology, pigmentation and long-term development of the adult plants were subsequently investigated.
Results
The shoots of plants exposed to Ca2+-ICR exposed grew 15–20% shorter compared to the controls, the plant weight was 10–12% lower, and they had longer coleoptiles that were adhering stronger to the primary leaf tissue. The total pigment contents of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) and carotenoids were significantly decreased. The rate of PChlide regeneration after light irradiation was reduced for the Ca2+-ICR exposed plants, also the Shibata shift was slightly delayed. Even a longer subsequent natural growing phase without any additional fields could only partially eliminate these effects: the plants initially exposed to Ca2+-ICR were still significantly shorter and had a lower chlorophyll (a+b) content compared to the controls. A continued cultivation and observation of the adult plants under natural conditions without any artificial electromagnetic fields showed a retardation of the originally Ca2+-ICR exposed plants compared to control cultures lasting several weeks, with an increased tendency for dehydration.
Conclusion
A direct influence of the applied MF and EMF is discussed affecting Ca2+ levels via the ICR mechanism. It influences the available Ca2+ and thereby regulatory processes. Theoretical considerations on molecular level focus on ionic interactions with water related to models using quantum electrodynamics.
doi:10.1186/1477-044X-4-1
PMCID: PMC1403775  PMID: 16457719
2.  Full-thickness chest wall resection for locally recurrent breast cancer 
Aim: In spite of available recommendations, therapeutic procedures of locally recurrent breast cancer are very different. In a retrospective study, the possibilities and results of complete, full-thickness chest wall resection are presented.
Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 51 women underwent complete, full-thickness chest wall resection with primary coverage. Primary surgical therapy of breast cancer had been mastectomy in 88%. Median age of patients undergoing surgery for a local recurrence was 57 (29 - 81) years. The median interval between surgery of the primary tumour and of the local recurrence was 70.3 (10.7 - 327.2) months; median follow-up was 29.4 (1.8 - 230.9) months. 40 (78.4%) patients required rib resections, 15 (29.4%) of them in combination with partial sternal resection. In 4 (7.8%) patients complete and in 7 (13.7%) patients partial sternal resection without additional rib resection were performed.
Coverage was mainly realized using latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps (n=44; 86.3%). Survival rates were calculated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method, the relative risk using univariate and multivariate Cox-regression analysis.
Results: In the total collective, cumulative 5-, 10- and 15-year survival (YS) rates were 39%, 31% and 23%, respectively, median survival 46.4 months. R0 resection was associated with a 5-YS of 42%. Prognostic factors were age at the time of primary surgery, disease-free interval and tumour invasion of bony structures. Mortality was 2%, morbidity 35%.
Conclusion: Full-thickness chest wall resection of locally recurrent breast cancer is possible in almost any patient when performed by a team of thoracic and plastic surgeons. Only radical resection provides good long-term results with low mortality and morbidity.
PMCID: PMC3011309  PMID: 21289920
chest wall resection; breast cancer; local recurrence; compartment resection; thoracic surgery; plastic surgery

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