Differentiation among American cigarettes relies primarily on the use of proprietary tobacco blends, menthol, tobacco substitutes, paper porosity, paper additives, and filter ventilation. These characteristics substantially alter per cigarette yields of tar and nicotine in standardized protocols promulgated by government agencies. However, due to compensatory alterations in smoking behavior to sustain a preferred nicotine dose (e.g., by increasing puff frequency, inhaling more deeply, smoking more cigarettes per day, or blocking filter ventilation holes), smokers actually inhale similar amounts of tar and nicotine regardless of any cigarette variable, supporting epidemiological evidence that all brands have comparable disease risk. Consequently, itwould be advantageous to develop assays that realistically compare cigarette smoke (CS)-induced genotoxicity regardless of differences in cigarette construction or smoking behavior. One significant indicator of potentially carcinogenicDNA damage is double strand breaks (DSBs), which can be monitored by measuring Ser 139 phosphorylation on histone H2AX. Previouslywe showed that phosphorylation of H2AX (defined as γH2AX) in exposed lung cells is proportional to CS dose. Thus, we proposed that γH2AX may be a viable biomarker for evaluating genotoxic risk of cigarettes in relation to actual nicotine/tar delivery. Here we tested this hypothesis by measuring γH2AX levels in A549 human lung cells exposed to CS from a range of commercial cigarettes using various smoking regimens. Results show that γH2AX induction, a critical event of the mammalian DNA damage response, provides an assessment of CS-induced DNA damage independent of smoking topography or cigarette type. We conclude that γH2AX induction shows promise as a genotoxic bioassay offering specific advantages over the traditional assays for the evaluation of conventional and nonconventional tobacco products.
Tobacco smoke; H2AX; Double strand breaks; DNA damage
The ongoing DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species generated during oxidative metabolism is considered a key factor contributing to cell aging as well as preconditioning cells to neoplastic transformation. We postulated before that a significant fraction of constitutive histone H2AX phosphorylation (CHP) and constitutive activation of ATM (CAA) seen in untreated normal and tumor cells occurs in response to such DNA damage. In the present study, we provide further evidence in support of this postulate. The level of ATM activation and H2AX phosphorylation, detected immunocytochemically, has been monitored in WI-38, A549, and TK6 cells treated with H2O2 as well as growing under conditions known or suspected to affect the level of endogenous oxidants. Thirty- to 60-min exposure of cells to 100 or 200 μM H2O2 led to an increase in the level of H2AX phosphorylation and ATM activation, particularly pronounced (nearly fivefold) in S-phase cells. Cell growth for 24–48 h under hypoxic conditions (3% O2) distinctly lowered the level of CHP and CAA while it had minor effect on cell cycle progression. Treatment (4 h) with 0.1 or 0.3 mM 3-bromopyruvate, an inhibitor of glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, reduced the level of CHP (up to fourfold) and also decreased the level of CAA. Growth of WI-38 cells in 2% serum concentration for 48 h led to a 25 and 30% reduction in CHP and CHA, respectively, compared with cells growing in 10% serum. The antioxidant vitamin C (2 mM) reduced CHP and CAA by 20–30% after 24 h of treatment, while the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib (5 μM) had a minor effect on CHP and CAA, though it decreased the level of H2O2-induced H2AX phosphorylation and ATM activation. In contrast, dichloroacetate known to shift metabolism from anaerobic to oxidative glycolysis through its effect on pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase enhanced the level of CHP and CAA. Our present data and earlier observations strongly support the postulate that a large fraction of CHP and CAA occurs in response to DNA damage caused by metabolically generated oxidants. Cytometric analysis of CHP and CAA provides the means to measure the effectiveness of exogenous factors, which either through lowering aerobic metabolism or neutralizing radicals may protect DNA from such damage.
H2AX phosphorylation; ATM activation; reactive oxygen species; hypoxia; hydrogen peroxide; 3-bromopyruvate; dichloroacetate; celecoxib; aging; caloric restriction; mitochondria
One of the early events of the DNA damage response (DDR), particularly if the damage involves induction of DNA double-strand breaks, is remodeling of chromatin structure characterized by its relaxation (decondensation). The relaxation increases accessibility of the damaged DNA sites to the repair machinery. We present here a simple cytometric approach to detect chromatin relaxation based on the analysis of the proclivity of DNA in situ to undergo denaturation after treatment with acid. DNA denaturation is probed by the metachromatic fluorochrome acridine orange (AO) which differentially stains single-stranded (denatured) DNA by fluorescing red and the double-stranded DNA by emitting green fluorescence. DNA damage was induced in both human leukemic TK6 cells and mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes by exposure to UV light or by treatment with H2O2. Chromatin relaxation was revealed by diminished susceptibility of DNA to denaturation, likely reflecting decreased DNA torsional stress, seen as soon as 10 min after subjecting cells to UV or H2O2. While cells in all phases of the cell cycle showed a comparable extent of chromatin relaxation upon UV or H2O2 exposure, H2AX was phosphorylated on Ser139 predominantly in S-phase cells. The data are consistent with the notion that chromatin relaxation is global, affects all cells with damaged DNA, and is a prerequisite to the subsequent steps of DDR that can be selective to cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle. The method offers a rapid and simple means of detecting genotoxic insult on cells.
UV light; oxidative DNA damage; H2AX phosphorylation; cell cycle; DNA denaturation; acridine orange; metachromasia; ssDNA; lymphocytes
This review covers the topic of cytometric assessment of activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase and histone H2AX phosphorylation on Ser139 in response to DNA damage, particularly the damage that involves formation of DNA double-strand breaks. Briefly described are molecular mechanisms associated with activation of ATM and the downstream events that lead to recruitment of DNA repair machinery, engagement of cell cycle checkpoints, and activation of apoptotic pathway. Examples of multiparameter analysis of ATM activation and H2AX phosphorylation vis-a-vis cell cycle phase position and induction of apoptosis that employ flow- and laser scanning-cytometry are provided. They include cells treated with a variety of exogenous genotoxic agents, such as ionizing and UV radiation, DNA topoisomerase I (topotecan) and II (mitoxantrone, etoposide) inhibitors, nitric oxide-releasing aspirin, DNA replication inhibitors (aphidicolin, hydroxyurea, thymidine), and complex environmental carcinogens such as present in tobacco smoke. Also presented is an approach to identify DNA replicating (BrdU incorporating) cells based on selective photolysis of DNA that triggers H2AX phosphorylation. Listed are strategies to distinguish ATM activation and H2AX phosphorylation induced by primary DNA damage by genotoxic agents from those effects triggered by DNA fragmentation that takes place during apoptosis. While we review most published data, recent new findings also are included. Examples of multivariate analysis of ATM activation and H2AX phosphorylation presented in this review illustrate the advantages of cytometric flow- and image-analysis of these events in terms of offering a sensitive and valuable tool in studies of factors that induce DNA damage and/or affect DNA repair and allow one to explore the linkage between DNA damage, cell cycle checkpoints and initiation of apoptosis.
ionizing radiation; DNA topoisomerase inhibitors; DNA double-strand breaks; carcinogens; tobacco smoke; replication stress; genotoxins; DNA photolysis
Reviewed are the phosphorylation events reporting activation of protein kinases and the key substrates critical for the DNA damage signaling (DDS). These DDS events are detected immunocytochemically using phospho-specific Abs; flow cytometry or image-assisted cytometry provide the means to quantitatively assess them on a cell by cell basis. The multiparameter analysis of the data is used to correlate these events with each other and relate to the cell cycle phase, DNA replication and induction of apoptosis. Expression of γH2AX as a possible marker of induction of DNA double strand breaks is the most widely studied event of DDS. Reviewed are applications of this multiparameter approach to investigate constitutive DDS reporting DNA damage by endogenous oxidants byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation. Also reviewed are its applications to detect and explore mechanisms of DDS induced by variety of exogenous agents targeting DNA such as exogenous oxidants, ionizing radiation, radiomimetic drugs, UV light, DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitors, DNA crosslinking drugs and variety of environmental genotoxins. Analysis of DDS induced by these agents provides often a wealth of information about mechanism of induction and the type of DNA damage (lesion) and is reviewed in the context of cell cycle phase specificity, DNA replication, and induction of apoptosis or cell senescence. Critically assessed is interpretation of the data as to whether the observed DDS events report induction of a particular type of DNA lesion.
ATM; γH2AX; Chk2; DNA double stand breaks; chromatin relaxation; DNA replication; DNA topoisomerase inhibitors; UV; cytometry; confocal microscopy
Abiotic stress is a major environmental factor that limits cotton growth and yield, moreover, this problem has become more and more serious recently, as multiple stresses often occur simultaneously due to the global climate change and environmental pollution. In this study, we sought to identify genes involved in diverse stresses including abscisic acid (ABA), cold, drought, salinity and alkalinity by comparative microarray analysis. Our result showed that 5790, 3067, 5608, 778 and 6148 transcripts, were differentially expressed in cotton seedlings under treatment of ABA (1μM ABA), cold (4°C), drought (200mM mannitol), salinity (200mM NaCl) and alkalinity (pH=11) respectively. Among the induced or suppressed genes, 126 transcripts were shared by all of the five kinds of abiotic stresses, with 64 up-regulated and 62 down-regulated. These common members are grouped as stress signal transduction, transcription factors (TFs), stress response/defense proteins, metabolism, transport facilitation, as well as cell wall/structure, according to the function annotation. We also noticed that large proportion of significant differentially expressed genes specifically regulated in response to different stress. Nine of the common transcripts of multiple stresses were selected for further validation with quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Furthermore, several well characterized TF families, for example, WRKY, MYB, NAC, AP2/ERF and zinc finger were shown to be involved in different stresses. As an original report using comparative microarray to analyze transcriptome of cotton under five abiotic stresses, valuable information about functional genes and related pathways of anti-stress, and/or stress tolerance in cotton seedlings was unveiled in our result. Besides this, some important common factors were focused for detailed identification and characterization. According to our analysis, it suggested that there was crosstalk of responsive genes or pathways to multiple abiotic or even biotic stresses, in cotton. These candidate genes will be worthy of functional study under diverse stresses.
The widely used pseudorabies virus (PRV) Bartha-K61 vaccine has played a key role in the eradication of PRV. Since late 2011, however, a disease characterized by neurologic symptoms and a high number of deaths among newborn piglets has occurred among Bartha-K61–vaccinated pigs on many farms in China. Clinical samples from pigs on 15 farms in 6 provinces were examined. The PRV gE gene was detectable by PCR in all samples, and sequence analysis of the gE gene showed that all isolates belonged to a relatively independent cluster and contained 2 amino acid insertions. A PRV (named HeN1) was isolated and caused transitional fever in pigs. In protection assays, Bartha-K61 vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal challenge with SC (a classical PRV) but only 50% protection against 4 challenges with strain HeN1. The findings suggest that Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide effective protection against PRV HeN1 infection.
pseudorabies virus; virus variant; virulent; immune evasion; viruses; pigs; Bartha-K61 vaccine strain; China
Connexin 26 (Cx26, GJB2) mutations can induce congenital deafness and are responsible for ~50 % of nonsyndromic hearing loss in children. Mouse models show that Cx26 deficiency induces cochlear development disorder, hair cell loss, and spiral ganglion (SG) neuron degeneration. Hair cell loss and cell degeneration have been considered as a primary causer responsible for Cx26 deficiency associated hearing loss. In this study, by coincidental examination of cochlear postnatal development with recording of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and hair cell function, we found that occurrence of hearing loss in Cx26 knockout (KO) mice was ahead of hair cell loss and cochlear cell degeneration. ABR was absent at any frequencies (8 – 40 kHz) after birth. However, cochlear cells including SG neurons had no significant degeneration throughout postnatal development. Severe cochlear hair cell loss and SG neuron degeneration were only visible in middle and basal turns, i.e., in middle and high frequency regions, in the adult Cx26 KO mouse cochlea. Functional tests show that hair cells in Cx26 KO mice functioned normally; outer hair cells retained electromotility. These data suggest that cell degeneration is not a primary causer of Cx26 deficiency associated hearing loss. Some mechanisms other than cell degeneration, such as cochlear development disorders, may play an essential role in this common hereditary deafness.
GJB2; gap junction; connexin; hair cell loss; deafness; inner ear
ATP is an important extracellular signaling molecule and can activate both ionotropic (P2X) and metabotropic purinergic (P2Y) receptors to influence cellular function in many aspects. Gap junction is an intercellular channel and plays a critical role in hearing. Here, we report that stimulation of ATP reduced gap junctional coupling between cochlear supporting cells. This uncoupling effect could be evoked by nanomolar physiological levels of ATP. A P2X receptor agonist benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (BzATP) but not a P2Y receptor agonist UTP stimulated this uncoupling effect. Application of P2X receptor antagonists pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2′,4′-disulfonic acid (PPADS, 50 μM) or oxidized ATP (oATP, 0.1 mM) eliminated this uncoupling effect. We further found that ATP activated P2X receptors in the cochlear supporting cells allowing Ca++ influxing, thereby increasing intracellular Ca++ concentration to mediate gap junctions. These data suggest that ATP can mediate cochlear gap junctions at the physiological level by the activation of P2X receptors rather than P2Y receptors. This P2X receptor-mediated purinergic control on the cochlear gap junctions may play an important role in the regulation of K+-recycling for ionic homeostasis in the cochlea and the reduction of hearing sensitivity under noise stress for protection.
ATP; gap junction; purinergic receptor; potassium; inner ear
Burkitt lymphoma (BL) can often be cured by intensive chemotherapy, but the toxicity of such therapy precludes its use in the elderly and in patients with endemic BL in developing countries, necessitating new strategies. We used high throughput RNA sequencing and RNA interference screening to discover essential regulatory pathways that cooperate with MYC, the defining oncogene of this cancer. In 38% of sporadic BL (sBL) cases, oncogenic CCND3 mutations produced highly stable cyclin D3 isoforms that drive cell cycle progression. In 70% of sBL cases, mutations affecting the transcription factor TCF3 (E2A) or its negative regulator ID3 fostered TCF3 dependency. TCF3 activated the pro-survival PI(3) kinase pathway in BL, in part by augmenting constitutive B cell receptor signaling. These findings suggest opportunities to improve therapy for patients with BL.
454 pyrosequencing, a massively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology, is often used to study HIV genetic variation. However, the substantial mismatch error rate of the PCR required to prepare HIV-containing samples for pyrosequencing has limited the detection of rare variants within viral populations to those present above ~1%. To improve detection of rare variants, we varied PCR enzymes and conditions to identify those that combined high sensitivity with a low error rate. Substitution errors were found to vary up to 3-fold between the different enzymes tested. The sensitivity of each enzyme, which impacts the number of templates amplified for pyrosequencing, was shown to vary, although not consistently across genes and different samples. We also describe an amplicon-based method to improve the consistency of read coverage over stretches of the HIV-1 genome. Twenty-two primers were designed to amplify 11 overlapping amplicons in the HIV-1 clade B gag-pol and env gp120 coding regions to encompass 4.7 kb of the viral genome per sample at sensitivities as low as 0.01-0.2%.
DNA methylation disturbance is associated with defective human sperm. However, oligozoospermia (OZ) and asthenozoospermia (AZ) usually present together, and the relationship between the single-phenotype defects in human sperm and DNA methylation is poorly understood. In this study, 20 infertile OZ patients and 20 infertile AZ patients were compared with 20 fertile normozoospermic men. Bisulfate-specific PCR was used to analyze DNA methylation of the H19-DMR and the DAZL promoter in these subjects. A similar DNA methylation pattern of the H19-DMR was detected in AZ and NZ(control), with only complete methylation and mild hypomethylation(<50% unmethylated CpGs) identified, and there was no significant difference in the occurrence of these two methylation patterns between AZ and NZ (P>0.05). However, the methylation pattern of severe hypomethylation (>50% unmethylated CpGs ) and complete unmethylation was only detected in 5 OZ patients, and the occurrence of these two methylation patterns was 8.54±10.86% and 9±6.06%, respectively. Loss of DNA methylation of the H19-DMR in the OZ patients was found to mainly occur in CTCF-binding site 6, with occurrence of 18.15±14.71%, which was much higher than that in patients with NZ (0.84±2.05%) and AZ (0.58±1.77%) (P<0.001).Additional, our data indicated the occurrence of >20% methylated clones in the DAZL promoter only in infertile patients, there was no significant difference between the AZ and OZ patients in the proportion of moderately-to-severely hypermethylated clones (p>0.05). In all cases, global sperm genome methylation analyses, using LINE1 transposon as the indicator, showed that dysregulation of DNA methylation is specifically associated with the H19-DMR and DAZL promoter. Therefore, abnormal DNA methylation status of H19-DMR, especially at the CTCF-binding site 6, is closely associated with OZ. Abnormal DNA methylation of the DAZL promoter might represent an epigenetic marker of male infertility.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is inversely related to prognosis in many cancers, however, no studies regarding the predictive value of CRP in small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) are available. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative CRP in patients with SCCE.
From January 2001 to December 2010, a retrospective analysis of 43 consecutive patients with SCCE was conducted. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic parameters.
In our study, elevated CRP levels (>10 mg/L) were found in 16 patients (37.2%). CRP levels were significantly higher in patients with deeply invasive tumors (P = 0.018) and those associated with nodal metastasis (P = 0.018). Patients with CRP ≤10 mg/L had a significantly better overall survival than patients with CRP >10 mg/L (25.9% vs 6.3%, P = 0.004). Multivariate analyses showed that CRP was a significant predictor for overall survival. CRP >10 mg/L had a hazard ratio of 2.756 (95% confidence interval: 1.115–6.813, P = 0.028) for overall survival.
Preoperative CRP is an independent predictive factor for long-term survival in patients with SCCE.
C-reactive protein; esophageal cancer; small cell carcinoma; survival
Mutations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes which activate mTOR through several downstream signaling pathways are common to cancer. Activation of mTOR when combined with inhibition of cell cycle progression or DNA replication stress has previously been shown to promote cell senescence. In the present study, we examined the conditions under which human non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells can undergo senescence when treated with the DNA alkylating agent mitomycin C (MMC). While exposure of A549 cells to 0.1 or 0.5 µg/ml of MMC led to their arrest in S phase of the cell cycle and subsequent apoptosis, exposure to 0.01 or 0.02 µg/ml for 6 d resulted in induction of cell senescence and near total (0.01 µg/ml) or total (0.02 µg/ml) elimination of their reproductive potential. During exposure to these low concentrations of MMC, the cells demonstrated evidence of DNA replication stress manifested by expression of γH2AX, p21WAF1 and a very low level of EdU incorporation into DNA. The data are consistent with the notion that enduring DNA replication stress in cells known to have activated oncogenes leads to their senescence. It is reasonable to expect that tumors having constitutive activation of oncogenes triggering mTOR signaling may be particularly predisposed to undergoing senescence following prolonged treatment with low doses of DNA damaging drugs.
cell cycle; human non-small cell lung carcinoma; mTOR; metronomic chemotherapy; oncogenes; personalized cancer treatment; senescence; γH2AX
Hepatitis B reactivation is a well-described complication in patients with inactive chronic hepatitis B receiving chemotherapy. Screening for HBV and preemptive therapy are recommended. However, the rates of HBV screening, prophylaxis and reactivation during rituximab-containing chemotherapy are unknown.
Patients and methods
We performed a retrospective study of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) who received rituximab between August 1997 and September 2009. We evaluated patients for hepatitis B serologies, antiviral prophylaxis and hepatitis B reactivation during or up to 6 months after chemotherapy.
One thousand four hundred twenty nine patients underwent rituximab-containing chemotherapy for NHL. Hepatitis B serologies were documented in 524 (36.6%) patients. Of these, 20 (3.8 %) were HBsAg positive and 10 (50%) experienced HBV reactivation. Only half (5/10) had HBV serology documented prior to reactivation. Only 3/8 (37.5%) of patients with newly documented HBsAg positivity received antiviral prophylaxis. Virologic breakthrough occurred in 2 of the patients on chronic therapy, in one of three inactive carriers on prophylaxis and in 2 of 5 patients not receiving prophylaxis. Reactivation developed in another 5 patients not previously screened for hepatitis B. One patient developed ALF and died. Reactivation did not occur in 25 patients with isolated positive core antibody.
At tertiary care institutions hepatitis B serologies are infrequently assessed prior to rituximab-based chemotherapy and prophylaxis is uncommon. Greater adherence to recommendations for screening and prophylaxis is necessary. This suboptimal screening rate could be even lower in community hospitals and could result in significant harm to unscreened and unprophylaxed patients.
Chemotherapy; HBV Reactivation; Hepatitis B; HBV prophylaxis; Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; Rituximab
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are members of the neutral proteinase family. They were previously thought to be anti-fibrotic because of their ability to degrade and remodel of extracellular matrix. However, recent studies have shown that MMPs are implicated in initiation and progression of kidney fibrosis through tubular cell epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as activation of resident fibroblasts, endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) and pericyte-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Interstitial macrophage infiltration has also been shown to correlate with the severity of kidney fibrosis in various chronic kidney diseases. MMPs secreted by macrophages, especially MMP-9, has been shown by us to be profibrotic by induction of tubular cells EMT. EMT is mainly induced by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). However, MMP-9 was found by us and others to be up-regulated by TGF-β1 in kidney tubular epithelial cells and secreted by activated macrophages, resulting in EMT and ultimately kidney fibrosis. Therefore, MMP-9 may serve as a potential therapeutic target to prevent kidney fibrosis in chronic kidney disease. This review, by a particular focus on EMT, seeks to provide a comprehensive understanding of MMPs, especially MMP-9, in kidney fibrosis.
Matrix metalloproteinase; Chronic kidney disease; Kidney fibrosis; Epithelial–mesenchymal transition Transforming growth factor-β
Human DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) is involved in various DNA damage responses in addition to its central role in DNA replication. The Pol δ4 holoenzyme consists of four subunits, p125, p50, p68 and p12. It has been established that the p12 subunit is rapidly degraded in response to DNA damage by UV leading to the in vivo conversion of Pol δ4 to Pol δ3, a trimeric form lacking the p12 subunit. We provide the first analysis of the time-dependent recruitment of the individual Pol δ subunits to sites of DNA damage produced by UV irradiation through 5 μm polycarbonate filters by immunofluorescence microscopy and laser scanning cytometry (LSC). Quantitative analysis demonstrates that the recruitments of the three large subunits was near complete by 2 h and did not change significantly up to 4 h after UV exposure. However, the recruitment of p12 was incomplete even at 4 h, with about 70% of the Pol δ lacking the p12 subunit. ChIP analysis of Pol δ after global UV irradiation further demonstrates that only p125, p50 and p68 were present. Thus, Pol δ3 is the predominant form of Pol δ at sites of UV damage as a result of p12 degradation. Using LSC, we have further confirmed that Pol δ was recruited to CPD damage sites in all phases of the cell cycle. Collectively, our results show that Pol δ at the DNA damage site is the Pol δ trimer lacking p12 regardless of the cell cycle phase.
DNA damage foci; DNA replication; POLD1; POLD4; UV damage; cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer; polymerase δ
Berberine (BRB), a natural alkaloid, has a long history of medicinal use in both Ayurvedic and old Chinese medicine. Recently, available as a dietary supplement, Berberine is reported to have application in treatment of variety diseases. Previously we observed that BRB inhibited mTOR/S6 signaling concurrently with reduction of the level of endogenous oxidants and constitutive DNA damage response. We currently tested whether Berberine can affect premature, stress-induced cellular senescence caused by mitoxantrone. The depth of senescence was quantitatively measured by morphometric parameters, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, induction of p21WAF1, replication stress (γH2AX expression), and mTOR signaling; the latter revealed by ribosomal S6 protein (rpS6) phosphorylation. All these markers of senescence were distinctly diminished, in a concentration-dependent manner, by Berberine. In view of the evidence that BRB localizes in mitochondria, inhibits respiratory electron chain and activates AMPK, the observed attenuation of the replication stress-induced cellular senescence most likely is mediated by AMPK that leads to inhibition of mTOR signaling. In support of this mechanism is the observation that rhodamine123, the cationic probe targeting mitochondrial electron chain, also suppressed rpS6 phosphorylation. The present findings reveal that: (a) in cells induced to senescence BRB exhibits gero-suppressive properties by means of mTOR/S6 inhibition; (b) in parallel, BRB reduces the level of constitutive DNA damage response, previously shown to report oxidative DNA damage by endogenous ROS; (c) there appears to a causal linkage between the (a) and (b) activities; (d) the in vitro model of premature stress-induced senescence can be used to assess effectiveness of potential gero-suppressive agents targeting mTOR/S6 and ROS signaling; (e) since most of the reported beneficial effects of BRB are in age-relate diseases, it is likely that gero-suppression is the primary activity of this traditional medicine.
Berberine; Cellular senescence; H2AX phosphorylation; ROS; ribosomal protein S6; calorie restriction; metformin; rapamycin; 2-deoxyglucose; replication stress; cell cycle
The acute effects of grape polyphenols on endothelial function in adults are inconsistent. Here, we performed meta-analyses to determine these acute effects as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD).
Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. The protocol details of our meta-analysis have been submitted to the PROSPERO register and our registration number is CRD42013004157.
Nine studies were included in the present meta-analyses. The results showed that the FMD level was significantly increased in the initial 120 min after intake of grape polyphenols as compared with controls. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed and showed that a health status was the main effect modifier of the significant heterogeneity. Subgroups indicated that intake of grape polyphenols could significantly increase FMD in healthy subjects, and the increased FMD appeared to be more obviously in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, the peak effect of grape polyphenols on FMD in healthy subjects was found 30 min after ingestion, which was different from the effect in subjects with high cardiovascular risk factors, in whom the peak effect was found 60 min after ingestion.
Endothelial function can be significantly improved in healthy adults in the initial 2 h after intake of grape polyphenols. The acute effect of grape polyphenols on endothelial function may be more significant but the peak effect is delayed in subjects with a smoking history or coronary heart disease as compared with the healthy subjects.
Women with breast cancer treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may experience musculoskeletal symptoms that lead to discontinuation of effective therapy. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the clinical and genetic predictors for AIs-related musculoskeletal adverse events(MS-AEs).
Methodology and Principal Findings
We recruited 436 postmenopausal Chinese Han women receiving adjuvant AIs therapy for early-stage hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Patients completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms that started or worsened after initiating AIs. 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ESR1, ESR2 and PGR were analyzed by Sequenom MassARRAY assays and /or PCR-based TaqMan assays.Of the 436 enrolled women, 206 cases experienced musculoskeletal symptoms.Patients who received taxane chemotherapy were more than two times more likely than other patients to have AIs-related MS-AEs. Genetic assay had showed that only two ESR1 SNPs, rs2234693 and rs9340799 were associated with AIs-related MS-AEs.TT genotype and the T allele in rs2234693 was statistically significantly lower in AIs-Related MS-AEs group than controls (P = 0.001; P = 9.49E-7). The frequency of AA genotype and the A allele in rs9340799 was higher (P = 2.20E-5; P = 3.09E-4).
Conclusions and Significance
Our results suggested that prior taxane-based chemotherapy was the clinical predictor, while rs2234693 and rs9340799 were the genetic predictors for AIs-related MS-AEs.
Isoascorbic acid is a stereoisomer of L-ascorbic acid, and widely used as a food antioxidant. However, its highly hydrophilic behavior prevents its application in cosmetics or fats and oils-based foods. To overcome this problem, D-isoascorbyl palmitate was synthesized in the present study for improving the isoascorbic acid’s oil solubility with an immobilized lipase in organic media. The structural information of synthesized product was clarified using LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR analysis, and process parameters for high yield of D-isoascorbyl palmitate were optimized by using One–factor-at-a-time experiments and response surface methodology (RSM).
The synthesized product had the purity of 95% and its structural characteristics were confirmed as isoascorbyl palmitate by LC-ESI-MS, FT-IR, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis. Results from “one–factor-at-a-time” experiments indicated that the enzyme load, reaction temperature and D-isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio had a significant effect on the D-isoascorbyl palmitate conversion rate. 95.32% of conversion rate was obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) under the the optimized condition: enzyme load of 20% (w/w), reaction temperature of 53°C and D- isoascorbic-to-palmitic acid molar ratio of 1:4 when the reaction parameters were set as: acetone 20 mL, 40 g/L of molecular sieves content, 200 rpm speed for 24-h reaction time.
The findings of this study can become a reference for developing industrial processes for the preparation of isoascorbic acid ester, which might be used in food additives, cosmetic formulations and for the synthesis of other isoascorbic acid derivatives.
Isoascorbyl palmitate; Enzymatic synthesis; Structural characteristic; Response surface methodology; Optimization
Licochalcone A (LCA), a licorice chalconoid, is considered to be a bioactive agent with chemopreventive potential. This study investigated the mechanisms involved in LCA-induced apoptosis in human bladder cancer T24 cells. LCA significantly inhibited cells proliferation, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and caused T24 cells apoptosis. Moreover, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activation, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, which displayed features of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic signals. Besides, exposure of T24 cells to LCA triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; as indicated by the enhancement in 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153/C/EBP homology protein (GADD153/CHOP) expression, ER stress-dependent apoptosis is caused by the activation of ER-specific caspase-12. All the findings from our study suggest that LCA initiates mitochondrial ROS generation and induces oxidative stress that consequently causes T24 cell apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent and the ER stress-triggered signaling pathways.
Mammalian hearing relies upon active cochlear mechanics, which arises from outer hair
cell (OHC) electromotility and hair bundle movement, to amplify acoustic stimulations increasing
hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity. Here we describe the novel finding that gap junctions
between cochlear supporting cells also have a critical role in active cochlear amplification
in vivo. We find that targeted-deletion of connexin26 (Cx26) in Deiters cells (DCs)
and outer pillar cells (OPCs), which constrain OHCs standing on the basilar membrane, causes a
leftward shift in OHC electromotility towards hyperpolarization, and reduces active cochlear
amplification with hearing loss. Coincident with large reduction in distortion product otoacoustic
emission (DPOAE) and severe hearing loss at high frequencies, the shift is larger in shorter OHCs.
Our study demonstrates that active cochlear amplification in vivo is dependent on
supporting cell gap junctions. These new findings also show that Cx26 deficiency can reduce active
cochlear amplification to induce hearing loss.
gap junction; connexin26; outer hair cell electromotility; hearing; cochlea; deafness
Objective: Computed tomography (CT) scan has been an increasingly essential diagnostic tool for emergency physicians (EPs) to triage emergency patients. Canadian computed tomography Head Rule (CCHR) had been established and widely used to spare patients with mild head injury from unnecessary radiation. However, the awareness of CCHR and its actual utilization among Chinese EPs were unknown. This survey was to investigate the awareness and use of CCHR and their associated characteristics among Chinese EPs.
Methods: Questionnaire was randomly sent to EPs from different Chinese hospitals. Surveyed EPs were asked how well they know about the CCHR and how often they use the CCHR to guide head CT use. Association between the awareness and utilization of CCHR and the physicians’ characteristics were analyzed using repeated-measures logistic regression.
Results: About 41.7% of the total 247 responders noted they “very familiar” or “somewhat familiar” with CCHR while the utilization rate was 24.7%. With respect to the most important underlying barriers for the use of CCHR, approximate half (48.5%) cited “fear of malpractice” as the leading cause. “Received specific training regarding radiation dose of CT” was the significant predicting factor both for the awareness (OR 5.87; 95% CI, 3.08-11.21) and the use (OR 6.10, 95% CI, 2.91-12.80) of CCHR.
Conclusions: Fear of malpractice and lack of radiation risk knowledge were two main barriers to apply CCHR in the request of CT for patients with mild head injury. Furthermore, EPs with specific training about radiation risk of CT were more likely to know and use of CCHR.
Guideline; Mild head injury; Computed tomography; Emergency department
AIM: To assess endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) and endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy (EST) for common bile duct (CBD) stone removal using a meta-analysis.
METHODS: Randomized controlled trials published from 1990 to 2012 comparing EPBD with EST for CBD stone removal were evaluated. This meta-analysis was performed to estimate short-term and long-term complications of these two treatments. The fixed random effect model or random effect model was established to analysis the data. Results were obtained by analyzing the relative risk, odds ratio, and 95%CI for a given comparison using RevMan 5.1. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Risk of bias was evaluated using a funnel plot.
RESULTS: Of the 1975 patients analyzed, 980 of them were treated with EPBD and 995 were treated with EST. Of the patient population, patients in the EPBD group were younger (OR = -1.16, 95%CI: -1.49 to 0.84, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in gender proportion, average size of stones, number of gallstones, previous cholecystectomy, the incidence of duodenal diverticulum, CBD diameter or the total follow-up time between EST and EPBD groups. Compared with EST, the total stone clearance in the EPBD group decreased (OR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.42 to 0.96, P = 0.03), the use of stone extraction baskets significantly increased (OR = 1.91, 95%CI: 1.41 to 2.59, P < 0.01), and the incidence of pancreatitis significantly increased (OR = 2.79, 95%CI: 1.74 to 4.45, P < 0.0001). The incidence of bleeding (OR = 0.12, 95%CI: 0.04 to 0.34, P < 0.01) and cholecystitis (OR = 0.41, 95%CI: 0.20 to 0.84, P = 0.02) significantly decreased. The stone recurrence rate also was significantly reduced in EPBD (OR = 0.48, 95%CI: 0.26 to 0.90, P = 0.02). There were no significant differences between the two groups with the incidence of stone removal at first attempt, hours of operation, total short-term complications and infection, perforation, or acute cholangitis.
CONCLUSION: Although the incidence of pancreatitis was higher, the overall stone clearance rate and risk of bleeding was lower with EPBD compared to EST.
Common bile duct stone; Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation; Endoscopic sphincteropapillotomy; Meta-analysis