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1.  Severe Hypoxemia in a Healthy Donor for Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation after Only the First Administration of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor 
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in healthy donors. A few reports have shown that some healthy donors developed acute respiratory distress syndrome or capillary leak syndrome after more than several rounds of G-CSF administration or leukapheresis.
Case Report
We report the case of a healthy donor for allogeneic stem cell transplantation who developed severe hypoxemia 1 h after only the first administration of G-CSF. The donor was administered 10 μg/kg G-CSF (lenograstim) subcutaneously for PBSC mobilization. 1 h after the first administration of G-CSF, the donor suddenly presented with dry cough and dyspnea. The oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2) in the room air was 88%. An electrocardiogram and chest radiography revealed no abnormalities. We excluded other causes of severe hypoxemia and diagnosed the donor with hypoxemia due to G-CSF administration, which was subsequently terminated. The donor was administered 2 l/min oxygen via a nasal cannula and 100 mg hydrocortisone intravenously. He subsequently recovered, and SpO2 in the room air returned to 98% 10 h after hypoxemia.
These respiratory symptoms might be related to anaphylactoid or hypersensitivity reaction. The donors should be observed for at least 1 h after the first administration of G-CSF.
PMCID: PMC5159728  PMID: 27994532
Severe hypoxemia; Healthy donor; Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; Allo-HSCT; Peripheral blood stem cells; PBSCs; Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor; G-CSF
2.  Clinical utility of high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy for acute respiratory failure in patients with hematological disease 
SpringerPlus  2016;5:512.
A high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a newly developed device that enables high-flow oxygen therapy for patients with serious cardiopulmonary problems, but there are few data regarding its use in patients with hematological disease. The efficacy and tolerability of HFNCs for patients who developed ARF during the treatment of various hematological diseases was evaluated. Fifty-six patients underwent HFNC therapy during the last 2 years, and the causes of ARF were mainly pneumonia (n = 37) or acute congestive heart failure (n = 7). Only 11 patients (20 %) showed a good response to HFNC therapy, and remaining 45 patients (80 %) failed to respond to the initial HFNC therapy and, therefore, underwent second-line therapy including endotracheal intubation with mechanical ventilation (n = 15), non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (n = 1), or narcotic palliation alone (n = 29). Thus, HFNC appear not to be a viable treatment option in 4 out of 5 patients in this cohort of patients with hematological disease, but it was well tolerated in most patients (96 %); no major complications except for nasal soreness (n = 2) were observed. Multivariate analysis showed that the cause of ARF (pneumonia, odds ratio 11.2, 95 % CI 1.76–71.5, p = 0.01) was the only risk factor for treatment failure.
PMCID: PMC4842204  PMID: 27186476
High-flow nasal cannula; Hematological disease; Acute respiratory failure
3.  Combination therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir for dialysis patients infected with hepatitis C virus 
The standard antiviral therapy for dialysis patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is (pegylated) interferon monotherapy, but its efficacy is insufficient. Oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have recently been developed for chronic hepatitis C patients. However, some DAAs have contraindications for chronic renal failure (CRF). Daclatasvir and asunaprevir are metabolized largely in the liver and are not contraindicated in CRF. Combination therapy with daclatasvir and asunaprevir was used for 4 dialysis patients infected with genotype 1b HCV. One patient had viral breakthrough, and the 3 others had sustained virological response 12. One patient was admitted for heart failure and percutaneous coronary intervention due to concomitant ischemic disease. Heart failure was unlikely to be caused by the combination therapy, as it was probably due to water overload. The patient continued to receive the combination therapy after the remission of the heart failure. The combination therapy was well tolerated in the other patients.
PMCID: PMC4792170  PMID: 26989674
Hepatitis C; Oral drug; Daclatasvir; Asunaprevir; Dialysis
4.  Identification of Meflin as a Potential Marker for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:22288.
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in culture are derived from BM stromal cells or skeletal stem cells. Whereas MSCs have been exploited in clinical medicine, the identification of MSC-specific markers has been limited. Here, we report that a cell surface and secreted protein, Meflin, is expressed in cultured MSCs, fibroblasts and pericytes, but not other types of cells including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In vivo, Meflin is expressed by immature osteoblasts and chondroblasts. In addition, Meflin is found on stromal cells distributed throughout the BM, and on pericytes and perivascular cells in multiple organs. Meflin maintains the undifferentiated state of cultured MSCs and is downregulated upon their differentiation, consistent with the observation that Meflin-deficient mice exhibit increased number of osteoblasts and accelerated bone development. In the bone and BM, Meflin is more highly expressed in primitive stromal cells that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and Sca-1 than the Sca-1-negative adipo-osteogenic progenitors, which create a niche for hematopoiesis. Those results are consistent with a decrease in the number of clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts within the BM of Meflin-deficient mice. These preliminary data suggest that Meflin is a potential marker for cultured MSCs and their source cells in vivo.
PMCID: PMC4770287  PMID: 26924503
5.  Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis 
PLoS Pathogens  2016;12(2):e1005455.
Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs) are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics.
Author Summary
Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs) are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses that have various host species, including reptiles, birds, and mammals. Recently, several NBV strains have been isolated from patients with acute respiratory tract infections. Isolation of these pathogenic reoviruses raises concerns about the potential emerging infections of bat-borne orthoreoviruses in humans. The development of an entirely plasmid-based reverse genetics system for double-stranded RNA viruses has trailed other systems of major animal RNA virus groups because of the technical complexities involved in the manipulation of genomes composed of 10 or more segments. In this study, we developed a plasmid-based reverse genetics system for a pathogenic NBV strain. We used this system to generate viruses incapable of expressing the cell attachment protein σC and to rescue a replication-competent virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. Our studies using σC-deficient viruses suggest that NBVs may engage multiple independent viral ligands and cellular receptors for efficient cell attachment and viral pathogenesis, thus providing new insight into the biology of orthoreoviruses. The reverse genetics approach described in this study can be exploited for fusogenic orthoreovirus biology and used to develop vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics.
PMCID: PMC4762779  PMID: 26901882
6.  Rapid whole genome sequencing of Miyazaki-Bali/2007 Pteropine orthoreovirus by modified rolling circular amplification with adaptor ligation – next generation sequencing 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:16517.
The emergence of orthoreoviruses as the causative agent of human respiratory illness over the past few years has led to a demand to determine their viral genome sequences. The whole genome sequencing of such RNA viruses using traditional methods, such as Sanger dideoxy sequencing following rapid amplification of cDNA ends presents a laborious challenge due to the numerous preparatory steps required before sequencing can commence. We developed a practical, time-efficient novel combination method capable of reducing the total time required from months to less than a week in the determination of whole genome sequence of Pteropine orthoreoviruses (PRV); through a combination of viral RNA purification and enrichment, adaptor ligation, reverse transcription, cDNA circularization and amplification, and next generation sequencing. We propose to call the method “modified rolling circular amplification with adaptor ligation – next generation sequencing (mRCA-NGS)”. Here, we describe the technological focus and advantage of mRCA-NGS and its expansive application, exemplified through the phylogenetic understanding of the Miyazaki-Bali/2007 PRV.
PMCID: PMC4642344  PMID: 26558341
7.  Oscillating high-aspect-ratio monolithic silicon nanoneedle array enables efficient delivery of functional bio-macromolecules into living cells 
Scientific Reports  2015;5:15325.
Delivery of biomolecules with use of nanostructures has been previously reported. However, both efficient and high-throughput intracellular delivery has proved difficult to achieve. Here, we report a novel material and device for the delivery of biomacromolecules into live cells. We attribute the successful results to the unique features of the system, which include high-aspect-ratio, uniform nanoneedles laid across a 2D array, combined with an oscillatory feature, which together allow rapid, forcible and efficient insertion and protein release into thousands of cells simultaneously.
PMCID: PMC4607922  PMID: 26471006
8.  Bidirectional role of IL-6 signal in pathogenesis of lung fibrosis 
Respiratory Research  2015;16(1):99.
Various signals are known to participate in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. Our aim was to determine which signal is predominantly mobilized in the early inflammatory phase and thereafter modulates the development of lung fibrosis.
Mice received a single dose of 3 mg/kg body weight of bleomycin (BLM) and were sacrificed at designated days post-instillation (dpi). Lung homogenates and sections from mice in the early inflammatory phase were subjected to phospho-protein array analysis and immunofluorescence studies, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from mice was subjected to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) for interleukin (IL)-6 and evaluation of infiltrated cell populations. The effects of endogenous and exogenous IL-6 on the BLM-induced apoptotic signal in A549 cells and type 2 pneumocytes were elucidated. In addition, the effect of IL-6-neutralizing antibody on BLM-induced lung injury was evaluated.
Phospho-protein array revealed that BLM induced phosphorylation of molecules downstream of the IL-6 receptor such as Stat3 and Akt in the lung at 3 dpi. At 3 dpi, immunofluorescence studies showed that signals of phospho-Stat3 and -Akt were localized in type 2 pneumocytes, and that BLM-induced IL-6-like immunoreactivity was predominantly observed in type 2 pneumocytes. Activation of caspases in BLM-treated A549 cells and type 2 pneumocytes was augmented by application of IL-6-neutralizing antibody, a PI3K inhibitor or a Stat3 inhibitor. EIA revealed that BLM-induced IL-6 in BALF was biphasic, with the first increase from 0.5 to 3 dpi followed by the second increase from 8 to 10 dpi. Blockade of the first increase of IL-6 by IL-6-neutralizing antibody enhanced apoptosis of type 2 pneumocytes and neutrophilic infiltration and markedly accelerated fibrosis in the lung. In contrast, blockade of the second increase of IL-6 by IL-6-neutralizing antibody ameliorated lung fibrosis.
The present study demonstrated that IL-6 could play a bidirectional role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. In particular, upregulation of IL-6 at the early inflammatory stage of BLM-injured lung has antifibrotic activity through regulating the cell fate of type 2 pneumocytes in an autocrine/paracrine manner.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12931-015-0261-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4546032  PMID: 26289430
9.  Long-term complete remission in a patient with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with central nervous system involvement 
OncoTargets and therapy  2014;7:2133-2136.
This report describes a patient with intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) with central nervous system involvement at the time of diagnosis who achieved complete remission for over 5 years in response to therapy. The patient, a 71 year-old woman, was previously healthy with the exception of taking verapamil for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. She had presented with pyrexia and gradually progressive anemia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an infarct-like lesion in the pons, although no paralysis was observed. She was diagnosed with IVLBCL on the basis of random skin biopsy. After eight cycles of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy, abnormal laboratory data had normalized, and no pontine lesion was evident on magnetic resonance imaging without receiving any intrathecal chemotherapy. IVLBCL is associated with poor prognosis, particularly in patients with central nervous system involvement. Early initiation of rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy and drug interactions between anticancer agents and verapamil as a p-glycoprotein inhibitor were considered the possible reasons for favorable outcome in the present case.
PMCID: PMC4242899  PMID: 25429230
intravascular large B-cell lymphoma; random skin biopsy; CNS involvement; rituximab; verapamil; blood–brain barrier
10.  Necrotizing Keratitis Caused by Acyclovir-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus 
Case Reports in Ophthalmology  2014;5(3):325-328.
We report a case of necrotizing keratitis caused by acyclovir (ACV)-resistant herpes simplex virus (HSV) with a clinical appearance similar to a previous fungal keratitis infection.
Observational case report.
Penetrating keratoplasty was performed in the left eye with a history of herpetic keratitis that resolved with periodic treatment with ACV ointment and a topical steroid. The left eye was painful and red with an abscess and corneal erosion in the peripheral donor cornea. Examination of the scraped corneal epithelium by light microscopy and culturing identified Candida albicans; polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative for human herpes viruses. After antifungal treatment, the ocular pain gradually decreased and the lesions slowly improved but recurred with a similar clinical appearance. A second light microscopy examination and cultures were negative for pathogens including C. albicans. PCR was positive for HSV-1 DNA; treatment with 3% topical ACV ointment was unsuccessful. A third examination showed only HSV-1 DNA. Despite antiviral ACV ointment, no clinical improvement occurred based on the HSV DNA copy numbers, which were the same before and after treatment, indicating a possible ACV-resistant strain. When topical trifluorothymidine was substituted for ACV, clinical improvement occurred and the HSV DNA copy numbers decreased.
Necrotizing keratitis induced by ACV-resistant HSV occurred independently after fungal keratitis, with a similar clinical appearance in this case, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. Monitoring the HSV DNA load by real-time PCR could be useful for refractory cases even with atypical clinical appearances.
PMCID: PMC4241636  PMID: 25473399
Herpes simplex virus; Acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus; Necrotizing keratitis; Fungal infection; Real-time polymerase chain reaction
11.  Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 in spinal cord dorsal horn is involved in neuropathic pain in nerve root constriction rats 
Molecular Pain  2014;10:58.
Lumbar radicular pain is categorized as a type of neuropathic pain, but its pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. The substantia gelatinosa (SG) in the spinal cord dorsal horn receives primary afferent inputs and is considered to be a therapeutic target for treating neuropathic pain. In vivo patch-clamp recording is a useful procedure for analyzing the functional properties of synaptic transmission in SG neurons. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) has been widely identified in the central and peripheral nervous systems, such as in the peripheral nociceptor, dorsal root ganglion, and spinal cord dorsal horn and is involved in synaptic transmission of pain. However, its functional role and mechanism of pain transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to use in vivo patch-clamp analysis to examine changes in the excitatory synaptic transmission of SG neurons treated with TRPA1 antagonist and to clarify the potential role of TRPA1 in the rat spinal cord dorsal horn.
The rats with root constriction (RC) showed mechanical hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, and thermal hyperalgesia. In addition, pin pricks elicited pain-related behavior even in the sham and naïve rats. These pain-related behaviors were significantly attenuated by intrathecal injection of a TRPA1 antagonist. The degrees of intrathecal injection efficacy were equivalent among the 3 groups (RC, sham, and naïve groups). In an electrophysiological study, the frequencies and amplitudes of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were significantly increased in the RC rats compared with those in the sham and naïve rats. Spontaneous EPSCs and evoked-EPSCs by non-noxious and noxious stimuli were significantly decreased by TRPA1 antagonist. As in the behavioral study, there were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups.
These data showed that the TRPA1 antagonist had an inhibitory effect on mechanical hypersensitivity and hyperalgesia as well as on physiological pain transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn. This suggests that TRPA1 is consistently involved in excitatory synaptic transmission even in the physiological state and has a role in coordinating pain transmission.
PMCID: PMC4163170  PMID: 25192906
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1); Neuropathic pain; Root constriction; Spinal cord; Substantia gelatinosa neuron; In vivo patch-clamp
12.  Evaluation of side effects of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia with magnetite on the blood vessel walls of tumor metastatic lesion surrounding the abdominal large vessels: an agar phantom study 
Vascular Cell  2014;6:15.
Magnetite used in an 8-MHz radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating device can increase the temperature of a specific site up to 45°C. When treating a metastatic lesion around large abdominal vessels via hyperthermia with magnetite, heating-induced adverse effects on these vessels need to be considered. Therefore, this study examined hyperthermia-induced damage to blood vessel walls in vitro.
A large agar phantom with a circulatory system consisting of a swine artery and vein connected to a peristaltic pump was prepared. The blood vessels were placed on the magnetite-containing agar piece. Heating was continued for 30 min at 45°C. After heating, a histological study for injury to the blood vessels was performed.
The inner membrane temperature did not reach 45°C due to the cooling effect of the blood flow. In the heated vessels, vascular wall collagen degenerated and smooth muscle cells were narrowed; however, no serious changes were noted in the vascular endothelial cells or vascular wall elastic fibers. The heated vessel wall was not severely damaged; this was attributed to cooling by the blood flow.
Our findings indicate that RF capacitive heating therapy with magnetite may be used for metastatic lesions without injuring the surrounding large abdominal vessels.
PMCID: PMC4128615  PMID: 25114787
Magnetic cationic liposome; Interstitial hyperthermia injury; Large vessels; Vascular cell damage; Agar phantom study
13.  Nonstructural Protein σ1s Mediates Reovirus-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(23):12967-12979.
Reovirus nonstructural protein σ1s is implicated in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M boundary and induction of apoptosis. However, the contribution of σ1s to these effects in an otherwise isogenic viral background has not been defined. To evaluate the role of σ1s in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, we used reverse genetics to generate a σ1s-null reovirus. Following infection with wild-type virus, we observed an increase in the percentage of cells in G2/M, whereas the proportion of cells in G2/M following infection with the σ1s-null mutant was unaffected. Similarly, we found that the wild-type virus induced substantially greater levels of apoptosis than the σ1s-null mutant. These data indicate that σ1s is required for both reovirus-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. To define sequences in σ1s that mediate these effects, we engineered viruses encoding C-terminal σ1s truncations by introducing stop codons in the σ1s open reading frame. We also generated viruses in which charged residues near the σ1s amino terminus were replaced individually or as a cluster with nonpolar residues. Analysis of these mutants revealed that amino acids 1 to 59 and the amino-terminal basic cluster are required for induction of both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Remarkably, viruses that fail to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis also are attenuated in vivo. Thus, identical sequences in σ1s are required for reovirus-induced cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and pathogenesis. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that the σ1s-mediated properties are genetically linked and suggest that these effects are mechanistically related.
PMCID: PMC3838159  PMID: 24067959
14.  Various pAQU plasmids possibly contribute to disseminate tetracycline resistance gene tet(M) among marine bacterial community 
Emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the aquaculture environment is a significant problem for disease control of cultured fish as well as in human public health. Conjugative mobile genetic elements (MGEs) are involved in dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) among marine bacteria. In the present study, we first designed a PCR targeting traI gene encoding essential relaxase for conjugation. By this new PCR, we demonstrated that five of 83 strains isolated from a coastal aquaculture site had traI-positive MGEs. While one of the five strains that belonged to Shewanella sp. was shown to have an integrative conjugative element of the SXT/R391 family (ICEVchMex-like), the MGEs of the other four strains of Vibrio spp. were shown to have the backbone structure similar to that of previously described in pAQU1. The backbone structure shared by the pAQU1-like plasmids in the four strains corresponded to a ~100-kbp highly conserved region required for replication, partition and conjugative transfer, suggesting that these plasmids constituted “pAQU group.” The pAQU group plasmids were shown to be capable of conjugative transfer of tet(M) and other ARGs from the Vibrio strains to E. coli. The pAQU group plasmid in one of the examined strains was designated as pAQU2, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined and compared with that of pAQU1. The results revealed that pAQU2 contained fewer ARGs than pAQU1 did, and most of the ARGs in both of these plasmids were located in the similar region where multiple transposases were found, suggesting that the ARGs were introduced by several events of DNA transposition into an ancestral plasmid followed by drug selection in the aquaculture site. The results of the present study indicate that the “pAQU group” plasmids may play an important role in dissemination of ARGs in the marine environment.
PMCID: PMC4026752  PMID: 24860553
pAQU group; pAQU2; transferable plasmid; tet(M); antimicrobial resistance genes; SXT/R391 ICEs; aquaculture; traI
15.  Imported Case of Acute Respiratory Tract Infection Associated with a Member of Species Nelson Bay Orthoreovirus 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e92777.
A Japanese man suffered from acute respiratory tract infection after returning to Japan from Bali, Indonesia in 2007. Miyazaki-Bali/2007, a strain of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus, was isolated from the patient's throat swab using Vero cells, in which syncytium formation was observed. This is the sixth report describing a patient with respiratory tract infection caused by an orthoreovirus classified to the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus. Given the possibility that all of the patients were infected in Malaysia and Indonesia, prospective surveillance on orthoreovirus infections should be carried out in Southeast Asia. Furthermore, contact surveillance study suggests that the risk of human-to-human infection of the species of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus would seem to be low.
PMCID: PMC3965453  PMID: 24667794
16.  Hyaluromycin, a New Hyaluronidase Inhibitor of Polyketide Origin from Marine Streptomyces sp. 
Marine Drugs  2014;12(1):491-507.
Hyaluromycin (1), a new member of the rubromycin family of antibiotics, was isolated from the culture extract of a marine-derived Streptomyces sp. as a HAase inhibitor on the basis of HAase activity screening. The structure of 1 was elucidated through the interpretation of NMR data for the compound and its 3″-O-methyl derivative in combination with an incorporation experiment with [1,2-13C2]acetate. The compound’s absolute configuration was determined by the comparison of its circular dichroism (CD) spectrum with those of other rubromycins. Hyaluromycin (1) consists of a γ-rubromycin core structure possessing a 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone (C5N) unit as an amide substituent of the carboxyl function; both structural units have been reported only from actinomycetes. Hyaluromycin (1) displayed approximately 25-fold more potent hyaluronidase inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase than did glycyrrhizin, a known inhibitor of plant origin.
PMCID: PMC3917283  PMID: 24451191
rubromycin; hyaluronidase inhibitor; marine actinomycetes; Streptomyces; 2-amino-3-hydroxycyclopent-2-enone
17.  Construction and Characterization of an Infectious Molecular Clone of Koala Retrovirus 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(9):5081-5088.
Koala retrovirus (KoRV) is a gammaretrovirus that is currently endogenizing into koalas. Studies on KoRV infection have been hampered by the lack of a replication-competent molecular clone. In this study, we constructed an infectious molecular clone, termed plasmid pKoRV522, of a KoRV isolate (strain Aki) from a koala reared in a Japanese zoo. The virus KoRV522, derived from pKoRV522, grew efficiently in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) cells, attaining 106 focus-forming units/ml. Several mutations in the Gag (L domain) and Env regions reported to be involved in reduction in viral infection/production in vitro are found in pKoRV522, yet KoRV522 replicated well, suggesting that any effects of these mutations are limited. Indeed, a reporter virus pseudotyped with pKoRV522 Env was found to infect human, feline, and mink cell lines efficiently. Analyses of KoRV L-domain mutants showed that an additional PPXY sequence, PPPY, in Gag plays a critical role in KoRV budding. Altogether, our results demonstrate the construction and characterization of the first infectious molecular clone of KoRV. The infectious clone reported here will be useful for elucidating the mechanism of endogenization of the virus in koalas and screening for antiretroviral drugs for KoRV-infected koalas.
PMCID: PMC3624308  PMID: 23427161
18.  Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1: Potential Prognostic Markers for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Based on Bioinformatics Analyses 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e78250.
The diagnosis and treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) has been particularly difficult, because STSs are a group of highly heterogeneous tumors in terms of histopathology, histological grade, and primary site. Recent advances in genome technologies have provided an excellent opportunity to determine the complete biological characteristics of neoplastic tissues, resulting in improved diagnosis, treatment selection, and investigation of therapeutic targets. We had previously developed a novel bioinformatics method for marker gene selection and applied this method to gene expression data from STS patients. This previous analysis revealed that the extracted gene combination of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is an effective diagnostic marker to discriminate between subtypes of STSs with highly different outcomes. In the present study, we hypothesize that the combination of MIF and SCD1 is also a prognostic marker for the overall outcome of STSs. To prove this hypothesis, we first analyzed microarray data from 88 STS patients and their outcomes. Our results show that the survival rates for MIF- and SCD1-positive groups were lower than those for negative groups, and the p values of the log-rank test are 0.0146 and 0.00606, respectively. In addition, survival rates are more significantly different (p = 0.000116) between groups that are double-positive and double-negative for MIF and SCD1. Furthermore, in vitro cell growth inhibition experiments by MIF and SCD1 inhibitors support the hypothesis. These results suggest that the gene set is useful as a prognostic marker associated with tumor progression.
PMCID: PMC3805525  PMID: 24167613
19.  Transileocolic Vein Obliteration for Bleeding Rectal Varices with Portal Thrombus 
We report a case of rectal varices treated successfully with transileocolic vein obliteration (TIO). A 70-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of fresh bloody stools in January 2011. Emergent colonoscopy revealed fresh blood in the rectum and tortuous rectal varices. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used as a non-invasive method for the identification of rectal varices and thrombus in the extrahepatic portal vein. Angiography demonstrated that rectal varices were supplied with backward blood flow by the inferior mesenteric vein. Transileocolic variceal obliteration was performed using coils and 5% ethanolamine oleate with iopamidol. Complete hemostasis was achieved without complications. We conclude that TIO is a safe and effective hemostatic measure for ruptured rectal varices with portal thrombus.
PMCID: PMC3617969  PMID: 23626507
Transileocolic vein obliteration; Rectal varices; Portal thrombus
20.  Melanoma-Targeted Chemothermotherapy and In Situ Peptide Immunotherapy through HSP Production by Using Melanogenesis Substrate, NPrCAP, and Magnetite Nanoparticles 
Journal of Skin Cancer  2013;2013:742925.
Exploitation of biological properties unique to cancer cells may provide a novel approach to overcome difficult challenges to the treatment of advanced melanoma. In order to develop melanoma-targeted chemothermoimmunotherapy, a melanogenesis substrate, N-propionyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol (NPrCAP), sulfur-amine analogue of tyrosine, was conjugated with magnetite nanoparticles. NPrCAP was exploited from melanogenesis substrates, which are expected to be selectively incorporated into melanoma cells and produce highly reactive free radicals through reacting with tyrosinase, resulting in chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic effects by oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death. Magnetite nanoparticles were conjugated with NPrCAP to introduce thermotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic effects through nonapoptotic cell death and generation of heat shock protein (HSP) upon exposure to alternating magnetic field (AMF). During these therapeutic processes, NPrCAP was also expected to provide melanoma-targeted drug delivery system.
PMCID: PMC3595688  PMID: 23533767
21.  Meta-Analyses of Microarrays of Arabidopsis asymmetric leaves1 (as1), as2 and Their Modifying Mutants Reveal a Critical Role for the ETT Pathway in Stabilization of Adaxial–Abaxial Patterning and Cell Division During Leaf Development 
Plant and Cell Physiology  2013;54(3):418-431.
It is necessary to use algorithms to analyze gene expression data from DNA microarrays, such as in clustering and machine learning. Previously, we developed the knowledge-based fuzzy adaptive resonance theory (KB-FuzzyART), a clustering algorithm suitable for analyzing gene expression data, to find clues for identifying gene networks. Leaf primordia form around the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which consists of indeterminate stem cells. Upon initiation of leaf development, adaxial–abaxial patterning is crucial for lateral expansion, via cellular proliferation, and the formation of flat symmetric leaves. Many regulatory genes that specify such patterning have been identified. Analysis by the KB-FuzzyART and subsequent molecular and genetic analyses previously showed that ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) and AS2 repress the expression of some abaxial-determinant genes, such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ARF3)/ETTIN (ETT) and ARF4, which are responsible for defects in leaf adaxial–abaxial polarity in as1 and as2. In the present study, genetic analysis revealed that ARF3/ETT and ARF4 were regulated by modifier genes, BOBBER1 (BOB1) and ELONGATA3 (ELO3), together with AS1–AS2. We analyzed expression arrays with as2 elo3 and as2 bob1, and extracted genes downstream of ARF3/ETT by using KB-FuzzyART and molecular analyses. The results showed that expression of Kip-related protein (KRP) (for inhibitors of cyclin-dependent protein kinases) and Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) (for biosynthesis of cytokinin) genes were controlled by AS1–AS2 through ARF3/ETT and ARF4 functions, which suggests that the AS1–AS2–ETT pathway plays a critical role in controlling the cell division cycle and the biosynthesis of cytokinin around SAM to stabilize leaf development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
PMCID: PMC3589830  PMID: 23396601
ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2); AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3/ETTIN; CDK inhibitors; Cytokinin; Shoot apical meristem
22.  Use of 5-Cyano-2,3-Ditolyl-Tetrazolium Chloride Staining as an Indicator of Biocidal Activity in a Rapid Assay for Anti-Acanthamoeba Agents 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2012;50(5):1606-1612.
The usefulness of 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl-tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining to determine the respiratory activity of Acanthamoeba was evaluated in this study. Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts have a red fluorescence after staining with CTC. To determine the effectiveness of CTC staining as a CTC biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba, the trophozoites and cysts of Acanthamoeba castellanii (ATCC 5037) were treated with serial concentrations of disinfectant solutions, namely, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and commercial soft contact lens (SCL) disinfectant solutions. The treated Acanthamoeba organisms were stained with CTC, and their respiratory activity was determined by the intensity of fluorescence in a fluorescence microplate reader. The survival rates of the same samples were determined by a culture-dependent biocidal assay using the Spearman-Karber method. Our results showed that the respiratory activities determined by the CTC biocidal assay and the survival rates determined by the culture-dependent biocidal assay for Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts decreased in a dose-dependent way after PHMB treatments, and the results were significantly correlated (r = 0.83 and P < 0.01 for trophozoites; r = 0.60 and P < 0.01 for cysts; Spearman rank correlation test). The respiratory activities in the trophozoites and cysts treated with SCL disinfectant solutions were significantly correlated with the survival rate (r = 0.70 and P < 0.01 for trophozoites; r = 0.64 and P < 0.01 for cysts; Spearman rank correlation test). The significant correlation of the results indicated that the CTC biocidal assay can be used as an alternative method to a culture-dependent biocidal assay. The CTC biocidal assay is a rapid and simple method to test the effectiveness of disinfectant solutions against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts.
PMCID: PMC3347101  PMID: 22337974
23.  Reverse Genetics for Mammalian Reovirus 
Methods (San Diego, Calif.)  2011;55(2):109-113.
Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are highly tractable models for studies of viral replication and pathogenesis. The versatility of reovirus as an experimental model has been enhanced by development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system. Infectious reovirus can be recovered from cells transfected with plasmids encoding cDNAs of each reovirus gene segment using a strategy that does not require helper virus and is independent of selection. In this system, transcription of each gene segment is driven by bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase, which can be supplied transiently by recombinant vaccinia virus (rDIs-T7pol) or by cells that constitutively express the enzyme. Reverse genetics systems have been developed for two prototype reovirus strains, type 1 Lang (T1L) and type 3 Dearing (T3D). Each reovirus cDNA was encoded on an independent plasmid for the first-generation rescue system. The efficiency of virus recovery was enhanced in a second-generation system by combining the cDNAs for multiple reovirus gene segments onto single plasmids to reduce the number of plasmids from 10 to 4. The reduction in plasmid number and the use of baby hamster kidney cells that express T7 RNA polymerase increased the efficiency of viral rescue, reduced the incubation time required to recover infectious virus, and eliminated potential biosafety concerns associated with the use of recombinant vaccinia virus. Reovirus reverse genetics has been used to introduce mutations into viral capsid and nonstructural components to study viral protein-structure activity relationships and can be exploited to engineer recombinant reoviruses for vaccine and oncolytic applications.
PMCID: PMC3208765  PMID: 21798351
reovirus; reverse genetics; dsRNA; T7 RNA polymerase; reassortment
24.  Does Norepinephrine Influence Pain Behavior Mediated by Dorsal Root Ganglia?: A Pilot Study 
Postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system reportedly are involved in lumbar radicular pain and release norepinephrine (NE), a neurotransmitter. Increased numbers of sympathetic nerve fibers have been found in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in a root constriction model. Whether this is a reasonable model for pain, however, is unclear
We asked whether: (1) painful behaviors occurred in the root constriction model; (2) NE enhanced the excitability of DRG neurons in the root constriction model; and (3) which adrenoceptors were related to the mediation of the NE effects.
The L5 root was sutured proximal to the DRG as the root constriction model. Behavioral tests were performed until 28 days after surgery. At 10 to 14 days after the root constriction, DRG neurons were quickly excised and digested with collagenase for electrophysiologic studies. Action potentials were recorded from single DRG neurons using a whole-cell patch clamp technique. NE (10 μmol/L) was directly applied to the DRG neurons. The adrenergic sensitivity was examined in combination with antagonists.
The rats with root constriction exhibited painful behavior. NE increased the excitability of DRG neurons in the root constriction model. The effects of NE were inhibited by pretreatment with an α-antagonist and α2-antagonist but not an α1-antagonist.
Our observations suggest NE plays an important role in generating lumbar radicular pain mainly via α2-adrenoceptors.
Clinical Relevance
An α2-antagonist may be an appropriate agent for trials to treat lumbar radicular pain.
PMCID: PMC3148377  PMID: 21312078
25.  The Reovirus σ1s Protein Is a Determinant of Hematogenous but Not Neural Virus Dissemination in Mice ▿ 
Journal of Virology  2011;85(22):11781-11790.
Nonstructural protein σ1s is a critical determinant of hematogenous dissemination by type 1 reoviruses, which reach the central nervous system (CNS) by a strictly blood-borne route. However, it is not known whether σ1s contributes to neuropathogenesis of type 3 reoviruses, which disseminate by both vascular and neural pathways. Using isogenic type 3 viruses that vary only in σ1s expression, we observed that mice survived at a higher frequency following hind-limb inoculation with σ1s-null virus than when inoculated with wild-type virus. This finding suggests that σ1s is essential for reovirus virulence when inoculated at a site that requires systemic spread to cause disease. Wild-type and σ1s-null viruses produced comparable titers in the spinal cord, suggesting that σ1s is dispensable for invasion of the CNS. Although the two viruses ultimately achieved similar peak titers in the brain, loads of wild-type virus were substantially greater than those of the σ1s-null mutant at early times after inoculation. In contrast, wild-type virus produced substantially higher titers than the σ1s-null virus in peripheral organs to which reovirus spreads via the blood, including the heart, intestine, liver, and spleen. Concordantly, viral titers in the blood were higher following infection with wild-type virus than following infection with the σ1s-null mutant. These results suggest that differences in viral brain titers at early time points postinfection are due to limited virus delivery to the brain by hematogenous pathways. Transection of the sciatic nerve prior to hind-limb inoculation diminished viral spread to the spinal cord. However, wild-type virus retained the capacity to disseminate to the brain following sciatic nerve transection, indicating that wild-type reovirus can spread to the brain by the blood. Together, these results indicate that σ1s is not required for reovirus spread by neural mechanisms. Instead, σ1s mediates hematogenous dissemination within the infected host, which is required for full reovirus neurovirulence.
PMCID: PMC3209282  PMID: 21917967

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