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author:("Chen, dejian")
1.  Magnetic Targeted Delivery of Dexamethasone Acetate across the Round Window Membrane in Guinea Pigs 
Magnetically susceptible PLGA nanoparticles will effectively target the round window membrane (RWM) for delivery of dexamethasone-acetate (Dex-Ac) to the scala tympani.
Targeted delivery of therapeutics to specific tissues can be accomplished using different targeting mechanisms. One technology includes iron oxide nanoparticles, susceptible to external magnetic fields. If a nanocomposite composed of biocompatible polymer (PLGA), magnetite, and Dex-Ac can be pulled into and across the mammalian RWM, drug delivery can be enhanced.
In vitro targeting and release kinetics of PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac nanoparticles first were measured using a RWM model. Next, these optimized nanocomposites were targeted to the RWM by filling the niche in anesthetized guinea pigs. A permanent magnet was placed opposite the RWM for 1 hour. Cochlear soft tissues, perilymph, and RWM were harvested after euthanasia and steroid levels were measured using HPLC.
Membrane transport, in vitro, proved optimal targeting using a lower particle magnetite concentration (1 versus 5 or 10 mg/ml). In vivo targeted PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac particles had an average size of 482.8 ± 158 nm (DLS) and an average zeta potential −19.9 ± 3.3 mV. In 1 hour, there was significantly increased cochlear targeted delivery of Dex or Dex-Ac, compared with diffusion alone.
Superparamagnetic PLGA-magnetite-Dex-Ac nanoparticles under an external magnetic field (0.26 mT) for 1 hour significantly increased Dex-Ac delivery to the inner ear. The RWM was not completely permeated and also became loaded with nanocomposites, indicating that delivery to the cochlea would continue for weeks by PLGA degradation and passive diffusion.
PMCID: PMC3522431  PMID: 23187928
Dexamethasone acetate; Magnetic targeting; Poly(lactide-co-glycolide); Round window membrane; Sensorineural hearing loss
2.  Reduced Formation of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Migration of Mononuclear Phagocytes in the Cochleae of Chinchilla after Antioxidant Treatment in Acute Acoustic Trauma 
Objective. Inhibition of inflammation and free radical formation in the cochlea may be involved in antioxidant treatment in acute acoustic trauma. Procedure. Chinchilla were exposed to 105 dB sound pressure level octave band noise for 6 hours. One group of chinchilla was treated with antioxidants after noise exposure. Auditory brainstem responses, outer hair cell counts, and immunohistochemical analyses of biomarkers in the cochlea were conducted. Results. The antioxidant treatment significantly reduced hearing threshold shifts, outer hair cell loss, numbers of CD45+ cells, as well as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and nitrotyrosine formation in the cochlea. Conclusion. Antioxidant treatment may provide protection to sensory cells by inhibiting formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen products and migration of mononuclear phagocytes in the cochlea. The present study provides further evidence of effectiveness of antioxidant treatment in reducing permanent hearing loss.
PMCID: PMC3179894  PMID: 21961007
3.  Comparison of γ-aminobutyrate receptors in the medial vestibular nucleus of control and Scn8a mutant mice 
Brain research  2007;1186:188-193.
The Purkinje cells of the cerebellum provide inhibitory input to vestibular nucleus neurons, with γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) as neurotransmitter. Using extracellular recordings and bath application of agonists and antagonists, we compared GABA receptors in the medial vestibular nucleus of brain slices from Scn8a mutant mice of medJ type, in which there is greatly reduced spontaneous and evoked activity of Purkinje cells, to those in slices from control mice. Muscimol, an agonist at GABAA receptors, produced a larger reduction of firing rate in neurons of mutant mice than in neurons of control mice, whereas there was no difference for baclofen, an agonist at GABAB receptors. In most cases tested, the effects of muscimol and baclofen remained similar when synaptic transmission was blocked, suggesting that the effects were predominantly directly upon GABA receptors of the neurons being recorded from. The upregulation of GABAA receptors was similar in magnitude to that previously found for rats with bilateral transection of the inferior cerebellar peduncle. It may relate in both cases to reduced Purkinje cell input to medial vestibular nucleus neurons. The lack of effect on GABAB receptors suggests that the changes found with peduncle transection may have resulted from something more than reduced Purkinje cell activity, such as reduced concentrations of GABA, or that reduction of Purkinje cell activity in Scn8a mutant mice was insufficient to affect GABAB receptors. Other possible explanations of the results cannot be excluded since the Scn8a mutation affects other neuron types besides Purkinje cells.
PMCID: PMC2198901  PMID: 17999925
Muscimol; baclofen; bicuculline; saclofen; Purkinje cells; cerebello-vestibular
4.  Magnetic characterization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles pulled through model membranes 
To quantitatively compare in-vitro and in vivo membrane transport studies of targeted delivery, one needs characterization of the magnetically-induced mobility of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). Flux densities, gradients, and nanoparticle properties were measured in order to quantify the magnetic force on the SPION in both an artificial cochlear round window membrane (RWM) model and the guinea pig RWM.
Three-dimensional maps were created for flux density and magnetic gradient produced by a 24-well casing of 4.1 kilo-Gauss neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) disc magnets. The casing was used to pull SPION through a three-layer cell culture RWM model. Similar maps were created for a 4 inch (10.16 cm) cube 48 MGOe NdFeB magnet used to pull polymeric-nanoparticles through the RWM of anesthetized guinea pigs. Other parameters needed to compute magnetic force were nanoparticle and polymer properties, including average radius, density, magnetic susceptibility, and volume fraction of magnetite.
A minimum force of 5.04 × 10-16 N was determined to adequately pull nanoparticles through the in-vitro model. For the guinea pig RWM, the magnetic force on the polymeric nanoparticles was 9.69 × 10-20 N. Electron microscopy confirmed the movement of the particles through both RWM models.
As prospective carriers of therapeutic substances, polymers containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were succesfully pulled through the live RWM. The force required to achieve in vivo transport was significantly lower than that required to pull nanoparticles through the in-vitro RWM model. Indeed very little force was required to accomplish measurable delivery of polymeric-SPION composite nanoparticles across the RWM, suggesting that therapeutic delivery to the inner ear by SPION is feasible.
PMCID: PMC1785374  PMID: 17204157

Results 1-4 (4)