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Biologics : Targets & Therapy (1)
International Journal of Molecular Sciences (1)
Abba, Mohammed (2)
Allgayer, Heike (2)
Patil, Nitin (2)
Hossain, Mohammed Akhter (1)
Hughes, Richard Anthony (1)
Patil, Nitin A. (1)
Separovic, Frances (1)
Tailhades, Julien (1)
Wade, John D. (1)
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Cellular Disulfide Bond Formation in Bioactive Peptides and Proteins
Hughes, Richard Anthony
Wade, John D.
Hossain, Mohammed Akhter
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Bioactive peptides play important roles in metabolic regulation and modulation and many are used as therapeutics. These peptides often possess disulfide bonds, which are important for their structure, function and stability. A systematic network of enzymes—a disulfide bond generating enzyme, a disulfide bond donor enzyme and a redox cofactor—that function inside the cell dictates the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds. The main pathways that catalyze disulfide bond formation in peptides and proteins in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are remarkably similar and share several mechanistic features. This review summarizes the formation of disulfide bonds in peptides and proteins by cellular and recombinant machinery.
bioactive peptides; disulfide bonds; peptide and protein folding; oxidative folding; recombinant technology
MicroRNAs in the Regulation of MMPs and Metastasis
MicroRNAs are integral molecules in the regulation of numerous physiological cellular processes including cellular differentiation, proliferation, metabolism and apoptosis. Their function transcends normal physiology and extends into several pathological entities including cancer. The matrix metalloproteinases play pivotal roles, not only in tissue remodeling, but also in several physiological and pathological processes, including those supporting cancer progression. Additionally, the contribution of active MMPs in metastatic spread and the establishment of secondary metastasis, via the targeting of several substrates, are also well established. This review focuses on the important miRNAs that have been found to impact cancer progression and metastasis through direct and indirect interactions with the matrix metalloproteinases.
microRNAs; MMPs; cancer; metastasis
Cetuximab and biomarkers in non-small-cell lung carcinoma
Biologics : Targets & Therapy
Cancer progression is a highly complex process that is driven by a constellation of deregulated signaling pathways and key molecular events. In non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as in several other cancer types, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream signaling components represent a key axis that has been found not only to trigger cancer progression but also to support advanced disease leading to metastasis. Two major therapeutic approaches comprising monoclonal antibodies and small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors have so far been used to target this pathway, with a combination of positive, negative, and inconsequential results, as judged by patient survival indices. Since these drugs are expensive and not all patients derive benefits from taking them, it has become both pertinent and paramount to identify biomarkers that can predict not only beneficial response but also resistance. This review focuses on the chimeric monoclonal antibody, cetuximab, its application in the treatment of NSCLC, and the biomarkers that may guide its use in the clinical setting. A special emphasis is placed on the EGFR, including its structural and mechanistic attributes.
NSCLC; cetuximab; biomarker; cancer progression
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