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1.  NK cell count as predictor of clinical response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with rituximab 
Purpose
The relationship between antiCD20 therapy with rituximab and the lymphocytes phenotype in patients with rheumatoid arthritis was investigated, with an attempt to establish a relationship between commonly used clinical activity indices and variations in leukocyte count, in particular natural killer (NK) lymphocytes.
Methods
Patients with seropositive (cyclic citrullinated peptides and rheumatoid factor positive) rheumatoid arthritis (according to the American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria) refractory to conventional and antitumor necrosis factor-alpha agents who were subsequently treated with rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, were enrolled between January 2009 and September 2009. All subjects were treated with rituximab standard rheumatologic dose of 1.0 g on days 1 and 15 every 6 months for at least 2 years. A clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and subsequently every 3 months thereafter. At each assessment activated NK (CD56+/CD16+/CD54bright) cell count was collected and disease activity was assessed using Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints and the Simplified Disease Activity Index (SDAI).
Results
Thirty-four patients were enrolled (mean age ± standard deviation: 54.8 ± 12.8 years). Basal SDAI was 21.75 ± 5.4 and NK cell count mean value was 157.6 ± 90. After 24 months, SDAI was 14 ± 1.2 and NK cell count mean value was 301.7 ± 21 (P < 0.05). An inverted correlation between SDAI and NK count was observed at 3 months (r = −0.36, P < 0.05), 6 months (r = −0.48, P < 0.45), 9 months (r = −0.47, P < 0.05), 12 months (r = −0.41, P < 0.01), 15 months (r = −0.58, P < 0.05), 18 months (r = −0.53, P < 0.05), 21 months (r = −0.68, P < 0.05), and 24 months (r = −0.61, P < 0.05). A linear regression model between all variables collected and SDAI/Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints at 6 months and 12 months confirmed a significant relationship between SDAI/Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints and NK cell count.
Conclusion
The data confirm the clinical efficacy of rituximab and suggests the use of NK cells as a predictor of clinical response in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
doi:10.2147/BTT.S29079
PMCID: PMC3333820  PMID: 22532776
NK cells; rituximab; predictor; response; rheumatoid arthritis
2.  Successful Treatment of a Patient with Giant Cell Vasculitis (Horton Arteritis) with Tocilizumab a Humanized Anti-Interleukin-6 Receptor Antibody 
Case Reports in Rheumatology  2012;2012:639612.
Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of systemic vasculitis in adults, affecting preferentially medium-large size arteries. Here we report a case of a female with a diagnosis of GCA based on temporal artery biopsy, successfully treated with tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody.
doi:10.1155/2012/639612
PMCID: PMC3420619  PMID: 22937454
3.  Safety of etanercept in elderly subjects with rheumatoid arthritis 
Objective:
To report side effects seen in a clinical cohort of patients aged >65 years with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with the tumor necrosis factor-α TNF-α blocker etanercept and to compare the side effects rate with patients aged ≤65 years.
Methods:
All patients with RA that started etanercept and who were referred to our rheumatology unit from November 2005 to March 2009 were included in this study and prospectively followed to collect side effects related to therapy.
Results:
One hundred three patients were enrolled: 41 (37 females, 4 males) aged >65 years and 62 (40 females, 22 males) aged <65 years. In the patients aged >65 years, the safety profile (defined as rate of side effects) of etanercept was similar to that in patients aged ≤65 years (P > 0.05) and the survival curves between the groups were similar (P > 0.05).
Conclusions:
In our three-year experience, the anti-TNFα agent etanercept has been well tolerated and safe in elderly patients. The risk of side effects in these patients was no greater than in subjects aged ≤65 years. However, such inhibitors are associated with various and numerous side effects and elderly patients with RA should be carefully monitored to limit the risk of side effects during anti-TNFα therapy as much as possible.
PMCID: PMC2819897  PMID: 20161980
anti-TNF therapy; rheumatoid arthritis; elderly

Results 1-3 (3)