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1.  Whole animal knockout of smooth muscle alpha-actin does not alter excisional wound healing or the fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transition 
The contractile phenotype and function of myofibroblasts have been proposed to play a critical role in wound closure. It has been hypothesized smooth muscle alpha-actin expressed in myofibroblasts is critical for their formation and function. We have used smooth muscle α-actin-null mice to test this hypothesis. Full-thickness excisional wounds closed at a similar rate in smooth muscle α-actin -null and wild type mice. In addition, fibroblasts in smooth muscle α-actin-null granulation tissue when immunostained with a monoclonal antibody that recognizes all muscle actin isoforms exhibited a myofibroblast-like distribution and a stress fiber-like pattern, demonstrating that these cells acquired the myofibroblast phenotype. Dermal fibroblasts from smooth muscle α-actin-null and wild type mice formed stress fibers and supermature focal adhesions, and generated similar amounts of contractile force in response to transforming growth factor-β1. Smooth muscle γ-actin and skeletal muscle alpha-actin were expressed in smooth muscle α-actin-null myofibroblasts, as demonstrated by immunostaining, real-time PCR, and mass spectrometry. These results demonstrate that smooth muscle α-actin is not necessary for myofibroblast formation and function and for wound closure, and that smooth muscle γ-actin and skeletal muscle α-actin may be able to functionally compensate for the lack of smooth muscle α-actin in myofibroblasts.
doi:10.1111/wrr.12001
PMCID: PMC3540133  PMID: 23253249
wound healing; smooth muscle α-actin; myofibroblast; cytoskeleton; stress fiber; focal adhesion
2.  Myoepithelial Cell Contraction and Milk Ejection Are Impaired in Mammary Glands of Mice Lacking Smooth Muscle Alpha-Actin1 
Biology of Reproduction  2011;85(1):13-21.
Mammary myoepithelial cells are specialized smooth musclelike epithelial cells that express the smooth muscle actin isoform: smooth muscle alpha-actin (ACTA2). These cells contract in response to oxytocin to generate the contractile force required for milk ejection during lactation. It is believed that ACTA2 contributes to myoepithelial contractile force generation; however, this hypothesis has not been directly tested. To evaluate the contribution of ACTA2 to mammary myoepithelial cell contraction, Acta2 null mice were utilized and milk ejection and myoepithelial cell contractile force generation were evaluated. Pups suckling on Acta2 null dams had a significant reduction in weight gain starting immediately postbirth. Cross-fostering demonstrated the lactation defect is with the Acta2 null dams. Carmine alum whole mounts and conventional histology revealed no underlying structural defects in Acta2 null mammary glands that could account for the lactation defect. In addition, myoepithelial cell formation and organization appeared normal in Acta2 null lactating mammary glands as evaluated using an Acta2 promoter-GFP transgene or phalloidin staining to visualize myoepithelial cells. However, mammary myoepithelial cell contraction in response to oxytocin was significantly reduced in isolated Acta2 null lactating mammary glands and in in vivo studies using Acta2 null lactating dams. These results demonstrate that lack of ACTA2 expression impairs mammary myoepithelial cell contraction and milk ejection and suggests that ACTA2 expression in mammary myoepithelial cells has the functional consequence of enhancing contractile force generation required for milk ejection.
Female mice lacking smooth muscle alpha-actin have a lactation defect that results from the inability of myoepithelial cells to generate sufficient contractile force in response to oxytocin to promote milk ejection.
doi:10.1095/biolreprod.110.090639
PMCID: PMC3123380  PMID: 21368298
cytoskeleton; lactation; mammary glands; milk ejection; myoepithelial cell; pregnancy; smooth muscle alpha-actin; transgenic/knockout model
3.  Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors-A and -B are Key Regulators of TGF-β1-Induced Fibroblast to Myofibroblast Differentiation 
Myofibroblasts are contractile, smooth muscle-like cells that are characterized by the de novo expression of smooth muscle α-actin (SMαA) and normally function to assist in wound closure, but have been implicated in pathological contractures. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) helps facilitate the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, but the exact mechanism by which this differentiation occurs, in response to TGF-β1, remains unclear. Myocardin-related transcription factors-A and -B (MRTFs, MRTF-A/B) are transcriptional co-activators that regulate the expression of smooth muscle-specific cytoskeletal proteins, including SMαA, in smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. In this study, we demonstrate that TGF-β1 mediates myofibroblast differentiation and the expression of a contractile gene program through the actions of the MRTFs. Transient transfection of a constitutively-active MRTF-A induced an increase in the expression of SMαA and other smooth muscle-specific cytoskeletal proteins, and an increase in myofibroblast contractility, even in the absence of TGF-β1. MRTF-A/B knockdown, in TGF-β1 differentiated myofibroblasts, resulted in decreased smooth muscle-specific cytoskeletal protein expression levels and reduced contractile force generation, as well as a decrease in focal adhesion size and number. These results provide direct evidence that the MRTFs are mediators of myofibroblast differentiation in response to TGF-β1.
doi:10.1038/jid.2011.219
PMCID: PMC3199034  PMID: 21776010
Myocardin-related transcription factor; Transforming Growth Factor-β1; Myofibroblast; Fibroblast; Contraction; Smooth Muscle α-Actin

Results 1-3 (3)