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1.  Impact of an Exercise Intervention on DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle From First-Degree Relatives of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes  2012;61(12):3322-3332.
To identify epigenetic patterns, which may predispose to type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to a family history (FH) of the disease, we analyzed DNA methylation genome-wide in skeletal muscle from individuals with (FH+) or without (FH−) an FH of T2D. We found differential DNA methylation of genes in biological pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), insulin, and calcium signaling (P ≤ 0.007) and of individual genes with known function in muscle, including MAPK1, MYO18B, HOXC6, and the AMP-activated protein kinase subunit PRKAB1 in skeletal muscle of FH+ compared with FH− men. We further validated our findings from FH+ men in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for T2D, and 40% of 65 analyzed genes exhibited differential DNA methylation in muscle of both FH+ men and diabetic twins. We further examined if a 6-month exercise intervention modifies the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in skeletal muscle of the FH+ and FH− individuals. DNA methylation of genes in retinol metabolism and calcium signaling pathways (P < 3 × 10−6) and with known functions in muscle and T2D including MEF2A, RUNX1, NDUFC2, and THADA decreased after exercise. Methylation of these human promoter regions suppressed reporter gene expression in vitro. In addition, both expression and methylation of several genes, i.e., ADIPOR1, BDKRB2, and TRIB1, changed after exercise. These findings provide new insights into how genetic background and environment can alter the human epigenome.
doi:10.2337/db11-1653
PMCID: PMC3501844  PMID: 23028138
2.  A Method to Study the Epigenetic Chromatin States of Rare Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells; MiniChIP–Chip 
Dynamic chromatin structure is a fundamental property of gene transcriptional regulation, and has emerged as a critical modulator of physiological processes during cellular differentiation and development. Analysis of chromatin structure using molecular biology and biochemical assays in rare somatic stem and progenitor cells is key for understanding these processes but poses a great challenge because of their reliance on millions of cells. Through the development of a miniaturized genome-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation method (miniChIP–chip), we have documented the genome-wide chromatin states of low abundant populations that comprise hematopoietic stem cells and immediate progeny residing in murine bone marrow. In this report, we describe the miniChIP methodology that can be used for increasing an understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms underlying hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function. Application of this method will reveal the contribution of dynamic chromatin structure in regulating the function of other somatic stem cell populations, and how this process becomes perturbed in pathological conditions.
doi:10.1007/s12575-010-9031-y
PMCID: PMC3396287  PMID: 21406121
Miniaturized chromatin immunoprecipitation assays; Microarray technology; Histone modifications; Stem and progenitor cells; Epigenetic regulation; Lineage commitment

Results 1-2 (2)