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1.  Changes in skin surface temperature at an acupuncture point with moxibustion 
Acupuncture in Medicine  2013;31(2):195-201.
This study evaluates the thermographic changes associated with moxa burner moxibustion at the SP6 acupuncture point to establish an appropriate, safe distance of efficacy for moxibustion.
Baseline temperature changes using a moxa burner were obtained for a paper substrate at various distances and times, and the tested with volunteers in a pilot study. A single-group trial was then conducted with 36 healthy women to monitor temperature changes on the body surface at the acupuncture point (SP6).
Based on the temperature changes seen for the paper substrate and in the pilot study, a distance of 3 cm was chosen as the intervention distance. Moxibustion significantly increased the SP6 point skin surface temperature, with a peak increase of 11°C at 4 min (p <0.001). This study also found that during moxibustion the temperature of the moxa burner's rubber layer and moxa cautery were 56.9±0.9°C and 65.8±1.2°C, as compared to baseline values of 35.1°C and 43.8°C (p<0.001).
We determined 3 cm was a safe distance between the moxa burner and acupuncture point. Moxibustion can increase the skin surface temperature at the SP6 point. This data will aid traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners in gauging safer treatment distances when using moxibustion treatments.
PMCID: PMC3686262  PMID: 23598824
2.  Rosiglitazone protects against severe hemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage in rats 
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) followed by resuscitation can induce the production of several inflammatory mediators and lead to multiple organ dysfunction. The molecular mechanism of biologic responses to rosiglitazone has an anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of rosiglitazone on physiopathology and inflammatory mediators after HS in rats.
HS was induced in rats by withdrawing 60% of the total blood volume from a femoral artery catheter, immediately followed by intravenous injection of 0.3 mg/kg rosiglitazone. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously for 12 h. Levels of biochemical parameters, including GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, and lactate were measured at 30 min before induction of HS and 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after HS, while an equal volume of normal saline was replaced as fluid resuscitation. Inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), were measured in serum at 1 and 12 h after HS. The kidneys, liver, lungs, and small intestine were removed for histological assessment by hematoxylin and eosin stained at 48 h after HS.
HS significantly increased blood GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, lactate, glucose, TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1 levels, induced tachycardia, and decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) in rats. Treatment with rosiglitazone improved survival rate, decreased the markers of organ injury, and suppressed the release of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 after HS in rats.
Treatment with rosiglitazone suppresses the release of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1, and ameliorates HS-induced organ damage in rats.
PMCID: PMC3539481  PMID: 21959602
hemorrhagic shock; rosiglitazone; cytokine; chemokine; rats
3.  A New Microsphere-Based Immunoassay for Measuring the Activity of Transcription Factors 
There are several traditional and well-developed methods for analyzing the activity of transcription factors, such as EMSA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reporter gene activity assays. All of these methods have their own distinct disadvantages, but none can analyze the changes in transcription factors in the few cells that are cultured in the wells of 96-well titer plates. Thus, a new microsphere-based immunoassay to measure the activity of transcription factors (MIA-TF) was developed. In MIA-TF, NeutrAvidin-labeled microspheres were used as the solid phase to capture biotin-labeled double-strand DNA fragments which contain certain transcription factor binding elements. The activity of transcription factors was detected by immunoassay using a transcription factor-specific antibody to monitor the binding with the DNA probe. Next, analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The targets hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were applied and detected in this MIA-TF method; the results that we obtained demonstrated that this method could be used to monitor the changes of NF-κB or HIF within 50 or 100 ng of nuclear extract. Furthermore, MIA-TF could detect the changes in NF-κB or HIF in cells that were cultured in wells of a 96-well plate without purification of the nuclear protein, an important consideration for applying this method to high-throughput assays in the future. The development of MIA-TF would support further progress in clinical analysis and drug screening systems. Overall, MIA-TF is a method with high potential to detect the activity of transcription factors.
PMCID: PMC3055901  PMID: 21406071
transcription factor; microsphere-based immunoassay; NF-κB; HIF-1

Results 1-3 (3)