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author:("moseley, Jim")
1.  Novel mouse mammary cell lines for in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of bone metastasis 
Background
Tumor cell lines that can be tracked in vivo during tumorigenesis and metastasis provide vital tools for studying the specific cellular mechanisms that mediate these processes as well as investigating therapeutic targets to inhibit them. The goal of this study was to engineer imageable mouse mammary tumor cell lines with discrete propensities to metastasize to bone in vivo. Two novel luciferase expressing cell lines were developed and characterized for use in the study of breast cancer metastasis to bone in a syngeneic mouse model.
Results
The 4 T1.2 luc3 and 66c14 luc2 cell lines were shown to have high levels of bioluminescence intensity in vitro and in vivo after orthotopic injection into mouse mammary fat pads. The 4 T1.2 luc3 cell line was found to closely model the sites of metastases seen in human patients including lung, liver, and bone. Specifically, 4 T1.2 luc3 cells demonstrated a high incidence of metastasis to spine, with an ex-vivo BLI intensity three orders of magnitude above the commercially available 4 T1 luc2 cells. 66c14 luc2 cells also demonstrated metastasis to spine, which was lower than that of 4 T1.2 luc3 cells but higher than 4 T1 luc2 cells, in addition to previously unreported metastases in the liver. High osteolytic activity of the 4 T1.2 luc3 cells in vivo in the bone microenvironment was also detected.
Conclusions
The engineered 4 T1.2 luc3 and 66c14 luc2 cell lines described in this study are valuable tools for studying the cellular events moderating the metastasis of breast tumor cells to bone.
doi:10.1186/1480-9222-14-6
PMCID: PMC3473320  PMID: 22510147
Breast cancer; Mammary cancer; Bone metastasis; in vivo imaging; 4 T1 cells; 4 T1.2 cells; Osteolysis; Syngeneic Balb/c model
2.  Oncostatin M Promotes Mammary Tumor Metastasis to Bone and Osteolytic Bone Degradation 
Genes & Cancer  2012;3(2):117-130.
Oncostatin M (OSM) is an interleukin-6 (IL-6) family cytokine that has been implicated in a number of biological processes including inflammation, hematopoiesis, immune responses, development, and bone homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that OSM may promote breast tumor invasion and metastasis. We investigated the role of OSM in the formation of bone metastases in vivo using the 4T1.2 mouse mammary tumor model in which OSM expression was knocked down using shRNA (4T1.2-OSM). 4T1.2-OSM cells were injected orthotopically into Balb/c mice, resulting in a greater than 97% decrease in spontaneous metastasis to bone compared to control cells. Intratibial injection of these same 4T1.2-OSM cells also dramatically reduced the osteolytic destruction of trabecular bone volume compared to control cells. Furthermore, in a tumor resection model, mice bearing 4T1.2-OSM tumors showed an increase in survival by a median of 10 days. To investigate the specific cellular mechanisms important for OSM-induced osteolytic metastasis to bone, an in vitro model was developed using the RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cell line co-cultured with 4T1.2 mouse mammary tumor cells. Treatment of co-cultures with OSM resulted in a 3-fold induction of osteoclastogenesis using the TRAP assay. We identified several tumor cell–induced factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, IL-6, and a previously uncharacterized OSM-regulated bone metastasis factor, amphiregulin (AREG), which increased osteoclast differentiation by 4.5-fold. In addition, pretreatment of co-cultures with an anti-AREG neutralizing antibody completely reversed OSM-induced osteoclastogenesis. Our results suggest that one mechanism for OSM-induced osteoclast differentiation is via an AREG autocrine loop, resulting in decreased osteoprotegerin secretion by the 4T1.2 cells. These data provide evidence that OSM might be an important therapeutic target for the prevention of breast cancer metastasis to bone.
doi:10.1177/1947601912458284
PMCID: PMC3463924  PMID: 23050044
oncostatin M; OSM; bone metastasis; breast cancer; osteolysis; osteoclastogenesis
3.  Characterization of complexation of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) thermoresponsive cationic nanogels with salmon sperm DNA 
Thermoresponsive cationic nanogel (TCNG) networks based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM), 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and quaternary alkyl ammonium halide salts of DMAEMA (DMAEMAQ) were synthesized by dispersion polymerization technique. The thermoresponsive properties of TCNGs and TCNG-salmon sperm DNA (sasDNA) polyplexes were characterized in aqueous media of various pH and ionic strength. P[NIPAM] and P[NIPAM/DMAEMA] TCNGs exhibited sharp volume phase transition (VPT) in water at critical temperatures (Tc) of 32 °C and 36 °C, respectively. Quaternized P[NIPAM/DMAEMAQ] TCNGs did not undergo sharp VPT up to 50 °C. The VPT of uncomplexed TCNGs were sensitive to the ionic composition and ionic strength of salts in solution, but were insensitive to pH in the range 5.0 to 7.4. The VPT of P[NIPAM/DMAEMAQ]/sasDNA diminished in magnitude with increasing Wp/Wd suggesting greater compaction of the polyplexes. The distinct phase-transition properties of P[NIPAM/DMAEMA]/sasDNA and P[NIPAM/DMAEMAQ]/sasDNA polyplexes were attributed to the condensing capability of polycations and to differences in the spatial distribution of structural charges in quaternized and nonquaternized networks. The findings demonstrate that stable TCNGs can be prepared with controllable responsive properties determined by the nature of the cationic charge incorporated and may have potential as vehicles for DNA delivery.
PMCID: PMC2747350  PMID: 19774114
poly(N-isopropyl acryamide); poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate; polyplex; thermoresponsive cationic nanogels
4.  Evaluation of copolymers of N-isopropylacrylamide and 2-dimethyl(aminoethyl)methacrylate in non-viral and adenoviral vectors for gene delivery to nasopharyngeal carcinoma 
Copolymers of 2-dimethyl(aminoethyl) methacrylate (PDMAEM) with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) were evaluated for their potential to enhance transgene expression of plasmid DNA (pDNA) and gene delivery by adenovirus vectors. The polymers of varying compositions and molecular weights (MW) were synthesized by free-radical polymerization. Polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were prepared with different charge (N:P) ratios of PNIPAM/ DMAEM to pDNA. Polymer-modified viral vectors based on non-replicating adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), (ΔE1/oriP/luc) or (ΔE1/CMV/luc) transcriptor/promoter/reporter were constructed by electrostatically coupling PNIPAM/DMAEM (Type I) or PECs (oriP/luc, 6.6 kb) (Type II) to the viral capsid. The N:P value at complete condensation was lower for PECs with higher DMAEM content and MW. pDNA binding was enhanced by high MW PNIPAM/DMAEM. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed changes to the secondary structure of pDNA and adenovirus capsid proteins in the presence of PNIPAM/DMAEM. The toxicity of PNIPAM/DMAEM to CNE-1 nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) cells diminished with decreasing DMAEM content and increasing MW. The transfection efficiency of C666-1 NPC cells by PECs increased with DMAEM content and MW. The transduction efficiency of CNE-1 NPC cells by Type I Ad5 vectors improved with DMAEM content, but was independent of MW. The transduction efficiency of Type II Ad5 in C666-1 cells approximated the sum of expression levels of the PECs and Ad5 vectors individually. PDMAEM and PNIPAM/DMAEM demonstrate both transfection and transduction enhancement activity of modified vectors in nasopharyngeal cancer cells in culture.
PMCID: PMC2676666  PMID: 18019844
polymers of 2-dimethyl(aminoethyl) methacrylate and N-isopropylacrylamide; polymer-DNA complex; polymer-modified adenovirus; cytotoxicity; transduction efficiency

Results 1-4 (4)