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1.  Local Expression of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase in Syngeneic Fibroblasts Significantly Prolongs Survival of an Engineered Three-Dimensional Islet Allograft 
Diabetes  2010;59(9):2219-2227.
The requirement of systemic immunosuppression after islet transplantation is of significant concern and a major drawback to clinical islet transplantation. Here, we introduce a novel composite three-dimensional islet graft equipped with a local immunosuppressive system that prevents islet allograft rejection without systemic antirejection agents. In this composite graft, expression of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan-degrading enzyme, in syngeneic fibroblasts provides a low-tryptophan microenvironment within which T-cells cannot proliferate and infiltrate islets.
Composite three-dimensional islet grafts were engineered by embedding allogeneic mouse islets and adenoviral-transduced IDO–expressing syngeneic fibroblasts within collagen gel matrix. These grafts were then transplanted into renal subcapsular space of streptozotocin diabetic immunocompetent mice. The viability, function, and criteria for graft take were then determined in the graft recipient mice.
IDO-expressing grafts survived significantly longer than controls (41.2 ± 1.64 vs. 12.9 ± 0.73 days; P < 0.001) without administration of systemic immunesuppressive agents. Local expression of IDO suppressed effector T-cells at the graft site, induced a Th2 immune response shift, generated an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, delayed alloantibody production, and increased number of regulatory T-cells in draining lymph nodes, which resulted in antigen-specific impairment of T-cell priming.
Local IDO expression prevents cellular and humoral alloimmune responses against islets and significantly prolongs islet allograft survival without systemic antirejection treatments. This promising finding proves the potent local immunosuppressive activity of IDO in islet allografts and sets the stage for development of a long-lasting nonrejectable islet allograft using stable IDO induction in bystander fibroblasts.
PMCID: PMC2927944  PMID: 20522587
2.  Highly Efficient Stable Expression of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase Gene in Primary Fibroblasts 
Biological Procedures Online  2010;12:107-112.
Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is a potent immunomodulatory enzyme that has recently attracted significant attention for its potential application as an inducer of immunotolerance in transplantation. We have previously demonstrated that a collagen matrix populated with IDO-expressing fibroblasts can be applied successfully in suppressing islet allogeneic immune response. Meanwhile, a critical aspect of such immunological intervention relies largely on effective long-term expression of the IDO gene. Moreover, gene manipulation of primary cells is known to be challenging due to unsatisfactory expression of the exogenous gene. In this study, a lentiviral gene delivery system has been employed to transduce primary fibroblasts. We used polybrene to efficiently deliver the IDO gene into primary fibroblasts and showed a significant increase (about tenfold) in the rate of gene transfection. In addition, by the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, a 95% pure population of IDO-expressing fibroblasts was successfully obtained. The efficiency of the IDO expression and the activity of the enzyme have been confirmed by Western blotting, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and Kynurenine assay, respectively. The findings of this study revealed simple and effective strategies through which an efficient and stable expression of IDO can be achieved for primary cells which, in turn, significantly improves its potential as a tool for achieving immunotolerance in different types of transplantation.
PMCID: PMC3055793  PMID: 21406070
Lentiviral vector; Indoleamine 2; 3 dioxygenase; Primary fibroblast; Transplantation; Immunogenicity

Results 1-2 (2)