Inflammatory mediators orchestrate the host immune and metabolic response to acute bacterial infections and mediate the events leading to septic shock. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has long been identified as one of the proximal mediators of endotoxin action. Recent studies have implicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) as a potential target to modulate regulation of the immune response. Since PPARα activators, which are hypolipidemic drugs, are being prescribed for a significant population of older patients, it is important to determine the impact of these drugs on the host response to acute inflammation. Therefore, we examined the role of PPARα activators on the regulation of TNF expression in a mouse model of endotoxemia. CD-1 mice treated with dietary fenofibrate or Wy-14,643 had fivefold-higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF plasma levels than LPS-treated control-fed animals. Higher LPS-induced TNF levels in drug-fed animals were reflected physiologically in significantly lower glucose levels in plasma and a significantly lower 50% lethal dose than those in LPS-treated control-fed animals. Utilizing PPARα wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, we showed that the effect of fenofibrate on LPS-induced TNF expression was indeed mediated by PPARα. PPARα WT mice fed fenofibrate also had a fivefold increase in LPS-induced TNF levels in plasma compared to control-fed animals. However, LPS-induced TNF levels were significantly decreased and glucose levels in plasma were significantly increased in PPARα KO mice fed fenofibrate compared to those in control-fed animals. Data from peritoneal macrophage studies indicate that Wy-14,643 modestly decreased TNF expression in vitro. Similarly, overexpression of PPARα in 293T cells decreased activity of a human TNF promoter-luciferase construct. The results from these studies suggest that any anti-inflammatory activity of PPARα in vivo can be masked by other systemic effects of PPARα activators.
Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are a promising cell source for vascular-based approaches to clinical therapeutics, as they have been shown to give rise to both endothelial and perivascular cells. While it is well known that ASCs can present a heterogeneous phenotypic profile, spontaneous interactions among these subpopulations that result in the formation of complex tissue structures have not been rigorously demonstrated. Our study reports the novel finding that ASCs grown in monolayers in the presence of angiogenic cues are capable of self-assembling into complex, three-dimensional vascular structures. This phenomenon is only apparent when the ASCs are seeded at a high density (20,000 cells/cm2) and occur through orchestrated interactions among three distinct subpopulations: CD31-positive cells (CD31+), α-smooth muscle actin-positive cells (αSMA+), and cells that are unstained for both these markers (CD31−/αSMA−). Investigations into the kinetics of the process revealed that endothelial vessel-like structures initially arose from individual CD31+ cells through proliferation and their interactions with CD31−/αSMA− cells. During this period, αSMA+ cells proliferated and appeared to migrate toward the vessel structures, eventually engaging in cell-cell contact with them after 1 week. By 2 weeks, the lumen-containing CD31+ vessels grew greater than a millimeter in length, were lined with vascular basement membrane proteins, and were encased within a dense, three-dimensional cluster of αSMA+ and CD31−/αSMA− cells. The recruitment of αSMA+ cells was largely due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling, as the inhibition of PDGF receptors substantially reduced αSMA+ cell growth and vessel coverage. Additionally, we found that while hypoxia increased endothelial gene expression and vessel width, it also inhibited the growth of the αSMA+ population. Together, these findings underscore the potential use of ASCs in forming mature vessels in vitro as well as the need for a further understanding of the heterotypic interactions among ASC subpopulations.
Obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing cancer and co-morbidities that are part of the metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue is recognized as an endocrine organ, as it affects a number of physiological functions, and contains adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs can differentiate into cells of multiple lineages, and as such are applicable to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Yet the question of whether ASC functionality is affected by the donor’s body mass index (BMI) still exists.
ASCs were isolated from patients having different BMIs (BMI-ASCs), within the ranges of 18.5-32.8. It was hypothesized that overweight BMI-ASCs would be more compromised in early adipogenic and osteogenic potential, and ability to form colonies in vitro. BMI was inversely correlated with ASC proliferation and colony forming potential as assessed by CyQUANT proliferation assay (fluorescence- based measurement of cellular DNA content), and colony forming assays. BMI was positively correlated with early time point (day 7) but not later time point (day 15) intracytoplasmic lipid accumulation as assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Alizarin red staining and RT-PCR for alkaline phosphatase demonstrated that elevated BMI resulted in compromised ASC mineralization of extracellular matrix and decreased alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression.
These data demonstrate that elevated BMI resulted in reduced ASC proliferation, and potentially compromised osteogenic capacity in vitro; thus BMI is an important criterion to consider in selecting ASC donors for clinical applications.
Adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs); Body mass index (BMI); Osteogenesis; Proliferation; Colony formation; Cell size
Silk fibroin is a potent alternative to other biodegradable biopolymers for bone tissue engineering (TE), because of its tunable architecture and mechanical properties, and demonstrated ability to support bone formation, in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated a range of silk scaffolds for bone TE using human adipose-derived stem cells (hASC), an attractive cell source for engineering autologous bone grafts. Our goal was to understand the effects of scaffold architecture and biomechanics and use this information to optimize silk scaffolds for bone TE applications. Silk scaffolds were fabricated using different solvents (aqueous vs. hexafluoro-2-propanol - HFIP), pore sizes (250–500μm vs. 500–1000μm) and structures (lamellar vs. spherical pores). Four types of silk scaffolds combining the properties of interest were systematically compared with respect to bone tissue outcomes with decellularized trabecular bone (DCB) included as a “gold standard”. The scaffolds were seeded with hASC and cultured for 7 weeks in osteogenic media. Bone formation was evaluated by cell proliferation and differentiation, matrix production, calcification and mechanical properties. We observed that 400–600μm porous HFIP-derived silk fibroin scaffold demonstrated the best bone tissue formation outcomes as evidenced by increased bone protein production (osteopontin, collagen type I, bone sialoprotein), enhanced calcium deposition and total bone volume. On a direct comparison basis, alkaline phosphatase activity (AP) at week 2, and new calcium deposition at week 7 were comparable to the cells cultured in DCB. Yet, among the aqueous-based structures, the lamellar architecture induced increased AP activity and demonstrated higher equilibrium modulus than the spherical-pore scaffolds. Based on the collected data, we propose a conceptual model describing the effects of silk scaffold design on bone tissue formation.
Bone; Tissue engineering; Silk; Scaffold; Adipose stem cells
Until recently, the complexity of adipose tissue and its physiological role was not well appreciated. This changed with the discovery of adipokines such as leptin. The cellular composition of adipose tissue is heterogeneous and changes as a function of diabetes and disease states such as diabetes. Tissue engineers view adipose tissue as a rich source of adult stromal/stem cells isolated by collagenase digestion. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented that adipose stromal/stem cells are multipotent, with the ability to differentiate along the adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast and other lineage pathways. The adipose stromal/stem cells secrete a wide range of cytokines and growth factors with potential paracrine actions. Furthermore, adipose stromal/stem cells exert immunomodulatory functions when added to mixed lymphocyte reactions, suggesting that they can be transplanted allogeneically. This review article focuses on these mechanisms of adipose stromal/stem cell action and their potential utility as cellular therapeutics.
Adipokine, Adipose Stromal/stem Cells; Experimental Autoimmune Encephalitis; Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell; Mesenchymal Stem Cell or Multipotent Stromal Cell; Progressive Osseous Heteroplasia
Plant extracts continue to represent an untapped source of renewable therapeutic compounds for the treatment and prevention of illnesses including chronic metabolic disorders. With the increase in worldwide obesity and its related morbidities, the need for identifying safe and effective treatments is also rising. As such, use of primary human adipose-derived stem cells represents a physiologically relevant cell system to screen for bioactive agents in the prevention and treatment of obesity and its related complications. By using these cells in a primary screen, the risk and cost of identifying artifacts due to interspecies variation and immortalized cell lines is eliminated. We demonstrate that these cells can be formatted into 384-well high throughput screens to rapidly identify botanical extracts that affect lipogenesis and lipolysis. Additionally, counterscreening with human primary stem cells from distinct adipose depots can be routinely performed to identify tissue specific responses. In our study, over 500 botanical extracts were screened and 16 (2.7%) were found to affect lipogenesis and 4 (0.7%) affected lipolysis.
Adipogenesis; Adipose-derived Stem Cells; Botanical Extracts; Lipogenesis; Lipolysis; Subcutaneous; Visceral
The immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them attractive therapeutic agents for a wide range of diseases. However, the highly demanding cell doses used in MSC clinical trials (up to millions of cells/kg patient) currently require labor intensive methods and incur high reagent costs. Moreover, the use of xenogenic (xeno) serum-containing media represents a risk of contamination and raises safety concerns. Bioreactor systems in combination with novel xeno-free medium formulations represent a viable alternative to reproducibly achieve a safe and reliable MSC doses relevant for cell therapy. The main goal of the present study was to develop a complete xeno-free microcarrier-based culture system for the efficient expansion of human MSC from two different sources, human bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue. After 14 days of culture in spinner flasks, BM MSC reached a maximum cell density of (2.0±0.2)×105 cells·mL−1 (18±1-fold increase), whereas adipose tissue-derived stem cells expanded to (1.4±0.5)×105 cells·mL−1 (14±7-fold increase). After the expansion, MSC expressed the characteristic markers CD73, CD90, and CD105, whereas negative for CD80 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Expanded cells maintained the ability to differentiate robustly into osteoblast, adipocyte, and chondroblast lineages upon directed differentiation. These results demonstrated the feasibility of expanding human MSC in a scalable microcarrier-based stirred culture system under xeno-free conditions and represent an important step forward for the implementation of a Good Manufacturing Practices–compliant large-scale production system of MSC for cellular therapy.
Krabbe disease, also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy, is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by the genetic deficiency of galactocerebrosidase (GALC), a lysosomal enzyme responsible for the degradation of several glycosphingolipids like psychosine and galactosylceramide. In order to investigate whether GALC deficiency in Krabbe disease affects adipose-derived stromal/stem cell (ASC) properties and if the ASCs could be used as a source of autologous stem cell therapy for patients with Krabbe disease, ASCs isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue of Twitcher mice (a murine model of Krabbe disease) and their normal wild type littermates were cultured, expanded, and characterized for their cell morphology, surface antigen expression, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, colony forming units, growth kinetics, and immune regulatory capacities in vitro.
ASCs from Twitcher mice (TwiASCs), when compared to ASCs from normal mice (WtASCs), have a reduced osteogenic differentiation potential, have less self-replicating and proliferative capacity, although they have the same fibroblast morphologies and cell sizes. However, surprisingly, the TwiASCs demonstrated similar immune-suppressive capacities as their counterparts WtASCs did when they were transwell co-cultured with macrophages in vitro.
This study reveals that Twitcher ASCs exhibit differences in the biologic potential when compared to their counterparts from normal mice. The changes in Twitcher ASCs may be influenced by the GALC deficiency in Twitcher mice. Nevertheless, none of the changes preclude the use of the TwiASCs for autologous applications.
Adipose stem cells; ASCs; Krabbe disease; Twitcher mice; Autologous transplantation
The objective of this study was to determine the tissue density, in vitro expansion and differentiation of canine adipose tissue-derived (ASC) and bone marrow-derived (BMSC) stromal cells. Primary (P0) and cell passages 1–6 (P1–6) cell doubling numbers (CD) and doubling times (DT) were determined in fresh cells. The P0, P3, and P6 adipogenic (CFU-Ad), osteogenic (CFU-Ob), and fibroblastic (CFU-F) colony forming unit frequencies, lineage specific mRNA levels in differentiated P3 cells and composition of P3 and P6 chondrogenic pellets were assessed in cryogenically preserved cells.
Cell yields from bone marrow were significantly higher than adipose tissue. Overall ASC and BMSC CDs and DTs and P3 and P6 CFU-F, CFU-Ad, and CFU-Ob were comparable. The P0 BMSC CFU-Ob was significantly higher than ASC. Lineage specific mRNA levels were higher in differentiated versus control cells, but similar between cell types. Protein was significantly greater in P3 versus P6 ASC chondrogenic pellets. Based on these findings, fresh and revitalized canine ASCs are viable alternatives to BMSCs for stromal cell applications.
Canine; Multipotent stromal cells; Bone; Adipose tissue; Cryopreservation
Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a member of the lymphocyte-activated protein 6 family and has served as a marker for the identification of stem cells in various tissues, including fat depots. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest the possible involvement of Sca-1 in adipogenic differentiation and link Sca-1 antigenicity with adipocyte progenitors. Previously, we showed that Sca-1-enriched populations of ear mesenchymal stem cells possess enhanced capacity to differentiate into adipocytes. Additionally, we determined the natural frequency and localization of Sca-1-positive progenitor/stem cells in brown and white fat in situ. The present study addressed the question whether Sca-1 deficiency alters the white adipose tissue response to a high-saturated-fat diet. Our results show that Sca-1 null mice (Sca-1–/–) fed high-fat diet developed obesity equally well as wild-type mice, suggesting either an indirect in vivo effect of Sca-1 or a compensatory response to Sca-1 deficiency. However, contrary to wild-type mice, high fat diet-fed Sca-1–/– mice showed no alterations in serum adipocytokines. The data lead to the conclusion that Sca-1 is either redundant or a nonessential marker of adipose progenitor/stem cells. Nevertheless, since Sca-1-deficient mice displayed elevated blood glucose at fasting and exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, Sca-1 has subtle effects on adipose function. Thus, the Sca-1-deficient mice may provide a useful model for metabolic studies.
The pace of discovery involving adipose-derived cells continues to accelerate at both the preclinical and clinical translational levels. Adipose tissue is a source of freshly isolated, heterogeneous stromal vascular fraction cells and culture-expanded, adherent and relatively homogeneous adipose stromal/stem cells. Both populations display regenerative capacity in soft and hard tissue repair, ischemic insults and autoimmune diseases. While their major mechanism of action has been attributed to both direct lineage differentiation and/or paracrine factor release, current evidence favors a paracrine mechanism. Over 40 clinical trials using adipose-derived cells conducted in 15 countries have been registered with the NIH, the majority of which are Phase I or Phase I/II safety studies. This review focuses on the literature of the past 2 years in order to assess the status of clinical and preclinical studies on adipose-derived cell therapies for regenerative medicine.
adipose; adipose stromal/stem cell; autoimmune; bone repair; clinical translation; cosmetic surgery; ischemic injury; myocardial infarction; stromal vascular fraction
Human adipose-derived stem cells have shown chondrogenic differentiation potential in cartilage tissue engineering in combination with natural and synthetic biomaterials. In the present study, we hypothesized that porous aqueous-derived silk protein scaffolds would be suitable for chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Human adipose-derived stem cells were cultured up to 6 weeks, and cell proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were investigated and compared with those in conventional micromass culture. Cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen levels in aqueous-derived silk scaffolds were significantly higher than in micromass culture. Transcript levels of SOX9 and type II collagen were also upregulated in the cell–silk constructs at 6 weeks. Histological examination revealed that the pores of the silk scaffolds were filled with cells uniformly distributed. In addition, chondrocyte-specific lacunae formation was evident and distributed in the both groups. The results suggest the biodegradable and biocompatible three-dimensional aqueous-derived silk scaffolds provided an improved environment for chondrogenic differentiation compared to micromass culture.
cartilage; adipose-derived stem cells; silk scaffolds; chondrogenic differentiation
Current treatment modalities for soft tissue defects caused by various pathologies and trauma include autologous grafting and commercially available fillers. However, these treatment methods present a number of challenges and limitations, such as donor-site morbidity and volume loss over time. As such, improved therapeutic modalities need to be developed. Tissue engineering techniques offer novel solutions to these problems through development of bioactive tissue constructs that can regenerate adipose tissue in both structure and function. Recently, a number of studies have been designed to explore various methods to engineer human adipose tissue. This review will focus on these developments in the area of adipose tissue engineering for soft tissue replacement. The physiology of adipose tissue and current surgical therapies used to replace lost tissue volume, specifically in breast tissue, are introduced, and current biomaterials, cell sources, and tissue culture strategies are discussed. We discuss future areas of study in adipose tissue engineering.
Liposarcoma remains the most common mesenchymal cancer, with a mortality rate of 60% among patients with this disease. To address the present lack of therapeutic options, we embarked upon a study of microRNA (miRNA) expression alterations associated with liposarcomagenesis with the goal of exploiting differentially expressed miRNAs and the gene products they regulate as potential therapeutic targets. MicroRNA expression was profiled in samples of normal adipose tissue, well-differentiated liposarcoma, and dedifferentiated liposarcoma by both deep sequencing of small RNA libraries and hybridization-based Agilent microarrays. The expression profiles discriminated liposarcoma from normal adipose tissue and well-differentiated from dedifferentiated disease. We defined over 40 miRNAs that were dysregulated in dedifferentiated liposarcomas in both the sequencing and the microarray analysis. The upregulated miRNAs included two cancer-associated species (miR-21, miR-26a), and the downregulated miRNAs included two species that were highly abundant in adipose tissue (miR-143, miR-145). Restoring miR-143 expression in dedifferentiated liposarcoma cells inhibited proliferation, induced apoptosis, and decreased expression of BCL2, TOP2A, PRC1, and PLK1. The downregulation of PRC1 and its docking partner PLK1 suggests that miR-143 inhibits cytokinesis in these cells. In support of this idea, treatment with a PLK1 inhibitor potently induced G2/M growth arrest and apoptosis in liposarcoma cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-143 re-expression vectors or selective agents directed at miR-143 or its targets may have therapeutic value in dedifferentiated liposarcoma.
Established cell transfection via nucleofection relies on nucleofection buffers with unknown and proprietary makeup due to trade secrecy, inhibiting the possibility of using this otherwise effective method for developing cell therapy. We devised a three-step method for discovering an optimal formulation for the nucleofection of any cell-line. These steps include the selection of the best nucleofection program and known buffer type, selection of the best polymer for boosting the transfection efficiency of the best buffer, and the comparison with the optimal buffer from an established commercial vendor (Amaxa). Using this 3-step selection system, competitive nucleofection formulations were discovered for multiple cell lines, which are equal to or surpass the efficiency of the Amaxa nucleofector solution in a variety of cells and cell lines, including primary adipose stem cells, muscle cells, tumor cells, and immune cells. Through the use of scanning electron microscopy, we have revealed morphological changes, which predispose for the ability of these buffers to assist in transferring plasmid DNA into the nuclear space. Our formulation may greatly reduce the cost of electroporation study in laboratory and boosts the potential of application of electroporation-based cell therapies in clinical trials.
electroporation; cell transfection; cell therapy; adipose stem cells; formulation
It is well established that bone maintenance and healing is compromised in alcoholics. Adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in bone marrow (BMSCs) and adipose tissue (ASCs) likely contribute to bone homeostasis and formation. Direct and indirect alcohol exposure inhibits osteoprogenitor cell function through a variety of proposed mechanisms. The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on the native number and in vitro growth characteristics and multipotentiality of adult BMSCs and ASCs in a rat model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received a liquid diet containing 36% ethanol (EtOH) or an isocaloric substitution of dextramaltose (control). After 4, 8, or 12 weeks of the diet, ASCs were harvested from epididymal adipose tissue and BMSCs from femoral and tibial bone marrow. Cell doublings per day (CDs) and doubling times (DT) were determined for primary cells (P0) and cell passages 1 through 6 (P1-6). Fibroblastic, (CFU-F), adipogenic (CFU-Ad) and osteogenic (CFU-Ob) colony forming unit frequencies were assessed for P0, P3, and P6. The CDs and DTs were lower and higher, respectively, for ASCs and BMSCs harvested from EtOH versus control rats at all time points. The CFU-F, CFU-Ad and CFU-Ob were significantly higher in ASCs harvested from control versus EtOH rats for P0, P3, and P6 at all times. Both CFU-Ad and CFU-Ob were significantly higher in P0 BMSCs harvested from control versus EtOH rats after 12 weeks of the diet. The CFU-Ob for P3 BMSCs from control rats was significantly higher than those from ETOH rats after 8 and 12 weeks on the diet. All three CFU frequencies in ASCs from EtOH rats tended to decrease with increasing diet duration. The ASC cell and colony morphology was different between control and EtOH cohorts in culture. These results emphasize the significant detrimental effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on the in vitro expansion and multipotentiality of adult MSCs. Maintenance of the effects through multiple cell passages in vitro suggests cells may be permanently compromised.
Adipose; bone marrow; adult stromal cells; alcohol; bone
It is hypothesized that administration of stromal/stem cells isolated from the adipose tissue (ASCs) and umbilical cord (HUCPVCs) can ameliorate the injured central nervous system (CNS). It is still not clear, however, whether they have similar or opposite effects on primary cultures of neuronal populations. The objective of the present work was to determine if ASCs and HUCPVCs preferentially act, or not, on specific cell populations within the CNS.
Primary cultures of hippocampal neurons were exposed to ASCs and HUCPVCs conditioned media (CM) (obtained 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after three days of culture) for one week.
Cell viability experiments (MTS (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2(4-sulfophenyl)-2H tetrazolium) test) revealed that CM obtained from both cell populations at all time points did not cause any deleterious effects on neuronal cells. In fact, it was determined that whenever the ASCs CM were supplemented with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and B27, there was a significant increase in the metabolic viability and neuronal cell density of the cultures. On the other hand, in the absence of CM supplementation, it was the HUCPVCs secretome that had the highest impact on the metabolic viability and cell density. In an attempt to unveil which factors could be involved in the observed effects, a screening for the presence of bFGF, nerve growth factor (NGF), stem cell factor (SCF), hepatocyte growth factors (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the CM was performed. Results revealed the presence of all these factors in ASCs CM, except bFGF; in contrast, in HUCPVCs CM it was only possible to detect robust NGF expression.
Overall, the results confirm important differences on the secretome of ASCs and HUCPVCs, which lead to distinct effects on the metabolic viability and neuronal cell densities in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons; however, the factor(s) that promote the stronger effect of the HUCPVCs CM in neuronal survival is(are) still to be identified.
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) express a nonimmunogenic profile as shown by in vitro studies that demonstrate a lack of T cell proliferation to allogeneic ASCs as well as ASC-mediated suppression of mixed lymphocyte reactions. To determine whether these observations would translate in vivo, immune monitoring studies were carried out in conjunction with a rat spinal fusion study. ASCs derived from Fischer or ACI strain rats were loaded onto scaffolds and implanted in Fischer recipients that had undergone the following treatments: (1) No treatment; (2) Scaffold only; (3) Syngeneic ASCs+Scaffold; or (4) Allogeneic ASCs+Scaffold. Half of each group was sacrificed at 4 weeks postimplantation, and the remaining animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks. As determined in a separate study, allogeneic and syngeneic ASCs were equally efficacious in accelerating spinal fusion compared to No treatment and Scaffold only control groups. To determine whether donor ASCs induced an immune response in recipient rats, lymph nodes were harvested for T cell proliferation studies and serum was collected to assess antibody responses. Although T cell priming was not detected to donor alloantigens in recipients at either time point, significant antibody responses were detected to ACI ASCs in animals implanted with syngeneic or allogeneic ASCs. Antibodies were of the IgG isotype, noncytotoxic in the presence of complement, and reactive to fetal bovine serum. These results support the use of allogeneic ASCs for spinal fusion.
The rising incidence of adipose-related disorders such as obesity has prompted increased interest in the in vitro development of functional human soft tissues to study the disease and treatment options. Further, soft tissues maintained in vitro with a capacity to resemble in vivo tissues in structure and metabolic function would help gain insight into mechanisms involved in adipose tissue development. In the current study, the metabolic potential of adipose/endothelial cocultures on three-dimensional silk fibroin scaffolds was studied. Endothelial contributions to adipose lipogenesis and lipolysis were the focus of the study. Triglyceride accumulation, adipogenic gene transcript expression, and basal lipolysis measurements demonstrated the ability of this coculture system to retain metabolic levels obtained in adipocyte monocultures. Additionally, basal lipolysis was stimulated in mono- and coculture systems to a similar extent at 1.6- and 1.9-fold over controls, respectively. The ability to maintain adipose functions in these cocultures represents a step forward in the development of a tissue-engineered adipose tissue system exhibiting both endothelial lumens and metabolic functions.
The clinical need for both three-dimensional (3D) soft tissue replacements and in vitro adipose tissue models continues to grow. In this study, we evaluated structural and functional characteristics of an in vitro 3D coculture model of vascularized adipose tissue. Tomato red–infected human adipose tissue–derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) and green fluorescence protein–infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells were cocultured on 3D aqueous-derived silk scaffolds for 2 weeks. Confocal microscopy images demonstrated viability of cocultures and organization of both cell types over time. Endothelial cells aligned with time, and further histological analyses revealed continuous endothelial lumen formation in both differentiated and undifferentiated cocultures. Differentiated adipose cocultures secreted significantly higher levels of leptin than undifferentiated cocultures at 1 and 2 weeks. Additionally, lipid accumulation was demonstrated with Oil Red O staining, where positive staining was higher in the differentiated cocultures. A promising in vitro approach for the vascularization of tissue-engineered adipose tissue, and the ability to vascularize a construct containing hASCs was demonstrated. The strategy outlined provides a basis for the formation of other in vitro vascularized tissues as well as a path forward for the sustainable formation of soft tissue due to the use of slowly degrading silk scaffolds.
Adipose stem cells have a strong potential for use in cell-based therapy, but the current nucleofection technique, which relies on unknown buffers, prevents their use.
We developed an optimal nucleofection formulation for human adipose stem cells by using a three-step method that we had developed previously. This method was designed to determine the optimal formulation for nucleofection that was capable of meeting or surpassing the established commercial buffer (Amaxa), in particular for murine adipose stem cells. By using this same buffer, we determined that the same formulation yields optimal transfection efficiency in human mesenchymal stem cells.
Our findings suggest that transfection efficiency in human stem cells can be boosted with proper formulation.
Electroporation; Formulation; Stem cells; Transfection; Cell therapy
Adipose tissue contains a heterogeneous population of mature adipocytes, endothelial cells, immune cells, pericytes, and pre-adipocytic stromal/stem cells. To date, the majority of proteomic analyses have focused on intact adipose tissue or isolated adipose stromal/stem cells in vitro. In this study, human subcutaneous adipose tissue from multiple depots (arm and abdomen) obtained from female donors was separated into populations of stromal vascular fraction cells and mature adipocytes. Out of 960 features detected by 2-D gel electrophoresis, a total of 200 features displayed a 2-fold up- or down-regulation relative to each cell population. The protein identity of 136 features was determined. Immunoblot analyses comparing SVF relative to adipocytes confirmed that carbonic anhydrase II was up-regulated in both adipose depots while catalase was up-regulated in the arm only. Bioinformatic analyses of the dataset determined that cytoskeletal, glycogenic, glycolytic, lipid metabolic, and oxidative stress related pathways were highly represented as differentially regulated between the mature adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction cells. These findings extend previous reports in the literature with respect to the adipose tissue proteome and the consequences of adipogenesis. The proteins identified may have value as biomarkers for monitoring the physiology and pathology of cell populations within subcutaneous adipose depots.
DIGE; Adipose tissue; Stem cells; Adipocytes; Proteomics; LC-MS
Limb-salvage surgery has been well recognized as a standard treatment and alternative to amputation for patients with malignant bone tumors. Various limb-sparing techniques have been developed including tumor prosthesis, allograft, autograft and graft-prosthesis composite. However, each of these methods has short- and long-term disadvantages such as nonunion, mechanical failures and poor limb function. The technique of intracorporeal devitalization of tumor-bearing bone segment in situ by microwave-induced hyperthermia after separating it from surrounding normal tissues with a safe margin is a promising limb-salvage method, which may avoid some shortcomings encountered by the above-mentioned conventional techniques. The purpose of this study is to assess the healing process and revitalization potential of the devitalized bone segment by this method in a dog model. In addition, the immediate effect of microwave on the biomechanical properties of bone tissue was also explored in an in vitro experiment.
We applied the microwave-induced hyperthermia to devitalize the distal femurs of dogs in situ. Using a monopole microwave antenna, we could produce a necrotic bone of nearly 20 mm in length in distal femur. Radiography, bone scintigraphy, microangiography, histology and functional evaluation were performed at 2 weeks and 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months postoperatively to assess the healing process. In a biomechanical study, two kinds of bone specimens, 3 and 6 cm in length, were used for compression and three-point bending test respectively immediately after extracorporeally devitalized by microwave.
An in vivo study showed that intracorporeally and in situ devitalized bone segment by microwave had great revitalization potential. An in vitro study revealed that the initial mechanical strength of the extracorporeally devitalized bone specimen may not be affected by microwave.
Our results suggest that the intracorporeal microwave devitalization of tumor-bearing bone segment in situ may be a promising limb-salvage method.
Bone physiology is increasingly appreciated as an important contributor to metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes. However, progress in understanding the role of bone in determining metabolic health is hampered by the well-described difficulty of obtaining high quality RNA from bone for gene expression analysis using the currently available approaches.
We developed a simple approach to isolate bone RNA that combines pulverizing the bone and the phenol-guanidinium based RNA extraction in a single step while maintaining near-freezing temperatures. This single step method increases the yield of high quality RNA by eight-fold, with RNA integrity numbers ranging from 6.7 to 9.2.
Our streamlined approach substantially increases the yield of high-quality RNA from bone tissue while facilitating safe and efficient processing of multiple samples using readily available platforms. The RNA obtained from this method is suitable for use in gene expression analysis in real-time quantitative PCR, microarray, and next generation sequencing applications.