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author:("abadi, Ali")
1.  Microsatellite typing of Aspergillus flavus from clinical and environmental avian isolates 
Journal of Medical Microbiology  2013;62(Pt 1):121-125.
Aspergillosis is one of the most common causes of death in captive birds. Aspergillus fumigatus accounts for approximately 95 % of aspergillosis cases and Aspergillus flavus is the second most frequent organism associated with avian infections. In the present study, the fungi were grown from avian clinical samples (post-mortem lung material) and environmental samples (eggs, food and litter). Microsatellite markers were used to type seven clinical avian isolates and 22 environmental isolates of A. flavus. A. flavus was the only species (28 % prevalence) detected in the avian clinical isolates, whereas this species ranked third (19 %) after members of the genera Penicillium (39 %) and Cladosporium (21 %) in the environmental samples. Upon microsatellite analysis, five to eight distinct alleles were detected for each marker. The marker with the highest discriminatory power had eight alleles and a 0.852 D value. The combination of all six markers yielded a 0.991 D value with 25 distinct genotypes. One clinical avian isolate (lung biopsy) and one environmental isolate (egg) shared the same genotype. Microsatellite typing of A. flavus grown from avian and environmental samples displayed an excellent discriminatory power and 100 % reproducibility. This study showed a clustering of clinical and environmental isolates, which were clearly separated. Based upon these results, aspergillosis in birds may be induced by a great diversity of isolates.
doi:10.1099/jmm.0.047803-0
PMCID: PMC3541757  PMID: 22977077
2.  Interactions between copy number and expression level of genes involved in fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata 
Objectives: This study aimed to elucidate the relative involvement of drug resistance gene copy number and overexpression in fluconazole resistance in clinical C. glabrata isolates using a population-based approach.
Methods: Fluconazole resistance levels were quantified using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) via Etest method. Both gene expression levels and gene copy number of CgCDR1, CgPDH1, CgERG11, and CgSNQ2 were assessed via quantitative real-time PCR. The influence of the main effects and first-level interactions of both the expression level and copy number of these genes on fluconazole resistance levels were analyzed using a multivariate statistical model.
Results: Forty-three C. glabrata isolates were collected from 30 patients during in a hospital survey. In the multivariate analysis, C. glabrata fluconazole MICs were independently increased by CgSNQ2 overexpression (p < 10−4) and the interaction between CgPDH1 gene copy number and CgPDH1 expression level (p = 0.038). In contrast, both CgPDH1 overexpression (p = 0.049) and the interaction between CgSNQ2 and CgERG11 expression (p = 0.003) led to a significant decrease in fluconazole MICs.
Conclusion: Fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata involves complex interactions between drug resistance gene expression and/or copy number. The population-based multivariate analysis highlighted the involvement of the CgSNQ2 gene in fluconazole resistance and the complex effect of the other genes such as PDH1 for which overexpression was associated with reduced fluconazole resistance levels, while the interaction between PDH1 overexpression and copy number was associated with increased resistance levels.
doi:10.3389/fcimb.2013.00074
PMCID: PMC3822285  PMID: 24273749
Candida glabrata; fluconazole; resistance mechanisms; gene expression; gene copy number; quantitative real-time PCR; human infection
3.  Simple and Highly Discriminatory VNTR-Based Multiplex PCR for Tracing Sources of Aspergillus flavus Isolates 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(9):e44204.
Aspergillus flavus is second only to A. fumigatus in causing invasive aspergillosis and it is the major agent responsible for fungal sinusitis, keratitis and endophthalmitis in many countries in the Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. Despite the growing challenge due to A. flavus, data on the molecular epidemiology of this fungus remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to develop a new typing method based on the detection of VNTR (Variable number tandem repeat) markers. Eight VNTR markers located on 6 different chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8) of A. flavus were selected, combined by pairs for multiplex amplifications and tested on 30 unrelated isolates and six reference strains. The Simpson index for individual markers ranged from 0.398 to 0.818. A combined loci index calculated with all the markers yielded an index of 0.998. The MLVA (Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis) technique proved to be specific and reproducible. In a second time, a total of 55 isolates from Chinese avian farms and from a Tunisian hospital have been evaluated. One major cluster of genotypes could be defined by using the graphing algorithm termed Minimum Spanning Tree. This cluster comprised most of the isolates collected in an avian farm in southern China. The MLVA technique should be considered as an excellent and cost-effective typing method that could be used in many laboratories without the need for sophisticated equipment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044204
PMCID: PMC3444452  PMID: 23028503
4.  A rapid and easy method for the DNA extraction from Cryptococcus neoformans 
DNA isolation from C. neoformans is difficult due to a thick and resistant capsule. We have optimized a new and rapid DNA isolation method for Cryptococcus using a short urea treatment followed by a rapid method using a chelex resin suspension. This procedure is simpler than previously reported methods.
doi:10.1186/1480-9222-13-5
PMCID: PMC3156736  PMID: 21777412
5.  Microsatellite Typing To Trace Aspergillus flavus Infections in a Hematology Unit ▿  
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2010;48(7):2396-2401.
Assessing the relatedness of strains isolated from patients and their environment is instrumental in documenting the source of preventable health care-associated life-threatening Aspergillus flavus human infection clusters. The present study aimed at identifying and selecting suitable microsatellite markers for A. flavus typing. This typing scheme was then applied to investigate the A. flavus epidemiology within a hematology unit in Sfax, Tunisia. Use of a combination of five markers made it possible to discern clusters of isolates and to substantiate the genetic diversity of A. flavus within clusters. Isolates from Tunisia and Marseille, France, displayed distinct haplotypes, indicating a highly significant geographical structuring of A. flavus. The typing of clinical and environmental A. flavus isolates in a hematology unit provided insights into its hospital epidemiology. From a heterogeneous genetic background, a cluster indicative of a clonal propagation episode within the unit could be identified. In two patients with invasive aspergillosis, the same genotype was found in clinical and environmental isolates, indicating hospital-acquired colonization and infection. In further studies, this novel microsatellite typing scheme might be instrumental in illuminating important epidemiological issues about A. flavus population genetics or epidemiology, including tracing the sources and routes of transmission.
doi:10.1128/JCM.01269-09
PMCID: PMC2897480  PMID: 20410353
6.  Trailing or Paradoxical Growth of Candida albicans When Exposed to Caspofungin Is Not Associated with Microsatellite Genotypes ▿  
Multilocus microsatellite polymorphisms in 27 clinical Candida albicans isolates were found to be clearly unrelated to in vitro paradoxical growth or trailing effect with caspofungin. These findings suggest that such in vitro phenotypes are either gained or lost too rapidly to be predicted by more stable genomic markers.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00530-09
PMCID: PMC2825996  PMID: 20065050

Results 1-6 (6)