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1.  Differential Hypothalamic Secretion of Neurocrines in Male Common Marmosets: Parental Experience Effects? 
Journal of Neuroendocrinology  2012;24(3):413-421.
Pregnancy and lactation produce a plethora of hormonal changes in females that promote maternal care of offspring. Males in the biparental marmoset species, (Callithrix jacchus), demonstrate high levels of parenting behaviour and express enhanced circulating reproductive hormones. Furthermore, these hormonal changes are influenced by paternal experience. In order to determine if the paternally experienced male marmoset has altered neurocrine hypothalamic release, as the maternal females does, we examined the release of several reproductive neurocrines, dopamine (DA), oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) and prolactin (PRL), in cultured explants of the hypothalamus of paternally experienced male marmosets compared with naïve, paternally inexperienced males. DA levels secreted from the isolated hypothalamus were significantly lower in the experienced males while OT and PRL levels were significantly higher than levels found in inexperienced males. PRL levels decreased rapidly in the hypothalamic media suggesting PRL production occurs elsewhere. AVP levels did not change. Stimulation of the cultured explants with oestradiol significantly decreased DA levels in the inexperienced males but did not alter the other neurocrines suggesting a direct effect of oestradiol on DA suppression in the hypothalamus. While other factors such as age and rearing experience with siblings may play a role in hypothalamic neurocrine levels, these results demonstrate that paternal experience may impact the secretion of neurocrines in a male biparental primate.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2826.2011.02252.x
PMCID: PMC3288632  PMID: 22070606
paternal experience; prolactin; OT; oestradiol; dopamine; vasopressin; hypothalamus
2.  Prolactin's Mediative Role in Male Parenting in Parentally Experienced Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) 
Hormones and behavior  2009;56(4):436-443.
Prolactin has been implicated in promoting paternal care behaviors but little evidence of causality has been found to date except for birds and fish. This study was designed to examine the possible causal relationships between prolactin and male parenting behaviors, reproductive hormones, and physical changes in cooperatively breeding common marmosets, Callithrix jacchus. Fifteen parentally experienced fathers were studied over three consecutive infant care periods during two weeks prior and three weeks following their mates' parturition under three treatment conditions: normal control pregnancy, decreased prolactin and elevated prolactin. The treatments significantly altered the serum prolactin levels in the fathers. Using three methods of determining a father's level of parental care: infant carrying, family effort and responsiveness to infant stimulus tests, we found that only the male response to infant stimuli was altered by the hormone treatments. Lowering prolactin significantly reduced male responsiveness to infant stimuli but elevating prolactin showed the same effect. Hormonal sampling indicated that testosterone levels showed an inverse relationship to prolactin levels during a normal peripartum period and prolactin treatment reduced this relationship. Prepartum estradiol levels were significantly elevated during the lowered prolactin treatment and estradiol was significantly lowered postpartum with the elevated prolactin treatment. Father's weight decreased significantly by the third week of infant care during the normal treatment. Males in the elevated prolactin treatment lost little or no weight from prepartum while in the lowered prolactin treatment showed the most weight loss. The present findings did not distinguish a direct causal relationship of prolactin on behavior in experienced fathers but did find an interaction with other hormones and weight gain.
doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2009.07.012
PMCID: PMC2761515  PMID: 19664636
prolactin; paternal care; infant responsiveness; testosterone; estradiol; common marmoset; weight gain
3.  Exposure to infant scent lowers serum testosterone in father common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) 
Biology Letters  2008;4(6):603-605.
Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) males are bi-parental non-human primates that show extensive paternal behaviour. Fathers are in direct sensory contact with their infants during the natal period. We found that fathers exposed to isolated scents of their infant displayed a significant drop in serum testosterone levels within 20 min after exposure, whereas parentally naive males did not. These data suggest that infant's scent may have a causal role in regulating paternal testosterone in their fathers. This is the first study to demonstrate that olfactory cues have an acute effect on paternal care.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0358
PMCID: PMC2614150  PMID: 18755659
paternal care; testosterone; infant scent; parenting; olfactory
4.  Pregnancy weight gain: marmoset and tamarin dads show it too 
Biology letters  2006;2(2):181-183.
Paternal behaviour is critical for the survival of offspring in many monogamous species. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) fathers spend as much or more time caring for infants than mothers. Expectant males of both species showed significant increases in weight across the pregnancy whereas control males did not (five consecutive months for marmoset males and six months for cotton-top tamarin males). Expectant fathers might be preparing for the energetic cost of fatherhood by gaining weight during their mate’s pregnancy.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0426
PMCID: PMC1483903  PMID: 16810338
weight gain; paternal care; couvades; primates
5.  Pregnancy weight gain: marmoset and tamarin dads show it too 
Biology Letters  2006;2(2):181-183.
Paternal behaviour is critical for the survival of offspring in many monogamous species. Common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) fathers spend as much or more time caring for infants than mothers. Expectant males of both species showed significant increases in weight across the pregnancy whereas control males did not (five consecutive months for marmoset males and six months for cotton-top tamarin males). Expectant fathers might be preparing for the energetic cost of fatherhood by gaining weight during their mate's pregnancy.
doi:10.1098/rsbl.2005.0426
PMCID: PMC1483903  PMID: 16810338
weight gain; paternal care; couvade; primates

Results 1-5 (5)