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Biology Letters (1)
European Journal of Human Genetics (1)
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences (1)
Bates, Timothy C (2)
Bates, Timothy C. (1)
Digney, Alison L (1)
Lewis, Gary J. (1)
Lind, Penelope A (1)
Luciano, Michelle (1)
Martin, Nicholas G (1)
McEwan, Sally R (1)
Montgomery, Grant W (1)
Rae, Caroline (1)
Wright, Margaret J (1)
Year of Publication
A common heritable factor influences prosocial obligations across multiple domains
Lewis, Gary J.
Although it has been shown that prosocial behaviour is heritable, it has not yet been established whether narrower aspects of prosociality are heritable, nor whether a common mechanism influences prosociality across its multiple domains. Here, we examine civic duty, work-place commitment and concern for the welfare of others with a study of prosocial obligations in 958 adult twin-pairs. Multivariate modelling indicated the existence of genetic factors underlying general prosocial obligations in females, with familial effects (genetic and shared-environment effects were indistinguishable) influencing this general mechanism in males. At the domain-specific level, modest genetic effects were observed in females for civic and work obligations, with shared-environment effects influencing welfare obligations. In males, genetic influences were observed for welfare obligation, with unique environments affecting work and civic duty.
behaviour genetics; prosociality; obligations; civic duty; twins; welfare
Dyslexia and DCDC2: normal variation in reading and spelling is associated with DCDC2 polymorphisms in an Australian population sample
Lind, Penelope A
Wright, Margaret J
Montgomery, Grant W
Martin, Nicholas G
European Journal of Human Genetics
The 6p21-p22 chromosomal region has been identified as a developmental dyslexia locus both in linkage and association studies, the latter generating evidence for the doublecortin domain containing 2 (DCDC2) as a candidate gene at this locus (and also for KIAA0319). Here, we report an association between DCDC2 and reading and spelling ability in 522 families of adolescent twins unselected for reading impairment. Family-based association was conducted on 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DCDC2 using quantitative measures of lexical processing (irregular-word reading), phonological decoding (non-word reading) and spelling-based measures of dyslexia derived from the Components of Reading Examination test. Significant support for association was found for rs1419228 with regular-word reading and spelling (P=0.002) as well as irregular-word reading (P=0.004), whereas rs1091047 was significantly associated (P=0.003) with irregular-word reading (a measure of lexical storage). Four additional SNPs (rs9467075, rs9467076, rs7765678 and rs6922023) were nominally associated with reading and spelling. This study provides support for DCDC2 as a risk gene for reading disorder, and suggests that this risk factor acts on normally varying reading skill in the general population.
dyslexia; DCDC2; reading ability; spelling ability
Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.
Digney, Alison L
McEwan, Sally R
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Creatine supplementation is in widespread use to enhance sports-fitness performance, and has been trialled successfully in the treatment of neurological, neuromuscular and atherosclerotic disease. Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, being a temporal and spatial buffer for cytosolic and mitochondrial pools of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate and its regulator, adenosine diphosphate. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that oral creatine supplementation (5 g d(-1) for six weeks) would enhance intelligence test scores and working memory performance in 45 young adult, vegetarian subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance.
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