Genes, environment, and the interaction between them are each known to play an important role in the risk for developing complex diseases such as metabolic syndrome. For environmental factors, most studies focused on the measurements observed at the individual level, and therefore can only consider the gene-environment interaction at the same individual scale. Indeed the group-level (called contextual) environmental variables, such as community factors and the degree of local area development, may modify the genetic effect as well. To examine such cross-level interaction between genes and contextual factors, a flexible statistical model quantifying the variability of the genetic effects across different categories of the contextual variable is in need. With a Bayesian generalized linear mixed-effects model with an unconditional likelihood, we investigate whether the individual genetic effect is modified by the group-level residential environment factor in a matched case-control metabolic syndrome study. Such cross-level interaction is evaluated by examining the heterogeneity in allelic effects under various contextual categories, based on posterior samples from Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The Bayesian analysis indicates that the effect of rs1801282 on metabolic syndrome development is modified by the contextual environmental factor. That is, even among individuals with the same genetic component of PPARG_Pro12Ala, living in a residential area with low availability of exercise facilities may result in higher risk. The modification of the group-level environment factors on the individual genetic attributes can be essential, and this Bayesian model is able to provide a quantitative assessment for such cross-level interaction. The Bayesian inference based on the full likelihood is flexible with any phenotype, and easy to implement computationally. This model has a wide applicability and may help unravel the complexity in development of complex diseases.
Alcohol abuse causes widespread changes in gene expression in human brain, some of which contribute to alcohol dependence. Previous microarray studies identified individual genes as candidates for alcohol phenotypes, but efforts to generate an integrated view of molecular and cellular changes underlying alcohol addiction are lacking. Here, we applied a novel systems approach to transcriptome profiling in postmortem human brains and generated a systemic view of brain alterations associated with alcohol abuse. We identified critical cellular components and previously unrecognized epigenetic determinants of gene co-expression relationships and discovered novel markers of chromatin modifications in alcoholic brain. Higher expression levels of endogenous retroviruses and genes with high GC content in alcoholics were associated with DNA hypomethylation and increased histone H3K4 tri-methylation, suggesting a critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol addiction. Analysis of cell type – specific transcriptomes revealed remarkable consistency between molecular profiles and cellular abnormalities in alcoholic brain. Based on evidence from this study and others, we generated a systems hypothesis for the central role of chromatin modifications in alcohol dependence that integrates epigenetic regulation of gene expression with pathophysiological and neuroadaptive changes in alcoholic brain. Our results offer implications for epigenetic therapeutics in alcohol and drug addiction.
Seasonal influenza virus infections may lead to debilitating disease, and account for significant fatalities annually worldwide. Most of these deaths are attributed to the complications of secondary bacterial pneumonia. Evidence is accumulating to support the notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) harbor several antibacterial proteins, and trap and kill bacteria. We have previously demonstrated the induction of NETs that contribute to lung tissue injury in severe influenza pneumonia. However, the role of these NETs in secondary bacterial pneumonia is unclear. In this study, we explored whether NETs induced during pulmonary influenza infection have functional significance against infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacterial and fungal species. Our findings revealed that NETs do not participate in killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae in vivo and in vitro. Dual viral and bacterial infection elevated the bacterial load compared to animals infected with bacteria alone. Concurrently, enhanced lung pathogenesis was observed in dual-infected mice compared to those challenged with influenza virus or bacteria alone. The intensified NETs in dual-infected mice often appeared as clusters that were frequently filled with partially degraded DNA, as evidenced by punctate histone protein staining. The severe pulmonary pathology and excessive NETs generation in dual infection correlated with exaggerated inflammation and damage to the alveolar-capillary barrier. NETs stimulation in vitro did not significantly alter the gene expression of several antimicrobial proteins, and these NETs did not exhibit any bactericidal activity. Fungicidal activity against Candida albicans was observed at similar levels both in presence or absence of NETs. These results substantiate that the NETs released by primary influenza infection do not protect against secondary bacterial infection, but may compromise lung function.
NETs scoring; neutrophils; primary influenza; secondary pneumonia; Streptococcus pneumoniae; mouse models
Recently, the studies on the antiviral activities of marine natural products, especially marine polysaccharides, are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and their lower molecular weight oligosaccharide derivatives have been shown to possess a variety of antiviral activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the antiviral activities and the mechanisms of these polysaccharides obtained from marine organisms. In particular, it will provide an update on the antiviral actions of the sulfated polysaccharides derived from marine algae including carrageenans, alginates, and fucans, relating to their structure features and the structure–activity relationships. In addition, the recent findings on the different mechanisms of antiviral actions of marine polysaccharides and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail.
marine polysaccharides; antiviral activities; mechanisms of action; heparinoidspolysaccharide; structure–activity relationship
To assess the secular trends in the etiology and comorbidity of patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure (CHF).
Data of 7,319 patients (mean age 59.6 years, 62.1% male) with a primary discharge diagnosis of CHF, hospitalized from January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2007 at the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital were extracted and analyzed. These patients were divided into three groups according to hospitalization period: 1993–1997 (n = 1623), 1998–2002 (n = 2444), and 2003–2007 (n = 3252). The etiological characteristics and comorbidities were assessed.
Over the study period, the proportion of patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) increased from 37.2% during the period 1993–1997 to 46.8% during the period 2003–2007, while that with valvular heart disease (VHD) decreased from 35.2% during the period 1993–1997 to 16.6% during the period 2003–2007 (both P < 0.05). Atrial fibrillation (AF) was the most common comorbidity of heart failure (23.2%, 23.0% and 20.6%, respectively, in the three periods). Compared to that of the period of 1993–1997 with that of, the proportion of patients with myocardial infarction, pneumonia, renal function impairment and hepatic cirrhosis of the period of 2003–2007 increased significantly (P < 0.05) and the proportion of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and atrial fibrillation decreased significantly (P < 0.05).
This study implies that IHD has became a more common etiology of CHF, while VHD has deceased as an etiology of CHF in Chinese patients during the last two decades.
Atrial fibrillation; Congestive heart failure; Comorbidity; Etiology; Hospitalization
Scallops are an economically important aquaculture species in Asian countries, and growth-rate improvement is one of the main focuses of scallop breeding. Investigating the genetic regulation of scallop growth could benefit scallop breeding, as such research is currently limited. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling through type I and type II receptors, plays critical roles in regulating cell proliferation and growth, and is thus a plausible candidate growth regulator in scallops.
We cloned and characterized the TGF-β type I receptor (Tgfbr1) gene from Zhikong scallops (Chlamys farreri). The deduced amino acid sequence contains characteristic residues and exhibits the conserved structure of Tgfbr1 proteins. A high expression level of scallop Tgfbr1 was detected during early embryonic stages, whereas Tgfbr1 expression was enriched in the gonad and striated muscle in adults. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, c. 1815C>T) in the 3′ UTR was identified. Scallops with genotype TT had higher growth traits values than those with genotype CC or CT in a full-sib family, and significant differences were found between genotypes CC and TT for shell length, shell height, and striated muscle weight. An expression analysis detected significantly more Tgfbr1 transcripts in the striated muscle of scallops with genotype CC compared to those with genotype TT or CT. Further evaluation in a population also revealed higher striated muscle weight in scallops with genotype TT than those with the other two genotypes. The inverse correlation between striated muscle mass and Tgfbr1 expression is consistent with TGF-β signaling having a negative effect on cell growth.
The scallop Tgfbr1 gene was cloned and characterized, and an SNP potentially associated with both scallop growth and Tgfbr1 expression was identified. Our results suggest the negative regulation of Tgfbr1 in scallop growth and provide a candidate marker for Zhikong scallop breeding.
Strontium carbonate nanoparticles (SCNs), a novel biodegradable nanosystem for the pH-sensitive release of anticancer drugs, were developed via a facile mixed solvent method aimed at creating smart drug delivery in acidic conditions, particularly in tumor environments. Structural characterization of SCNs revealed that the engineered nanocarriers were uniform in size and presented a dumbbell-shaped morphology with a dense mass of a scale-like spine coating, which could serve as the storage structure for hydrophobic drugs. Chosen as a model anticancer agent, etoposide was effectively loaded into SCNs based on a simultaneous process that allowed for the formation of the nanocarriers and for drug storage to be accomplished in a single step. The etoposide-loaded SCNs (ESCNs) possess both a high loading capacity and efficient encapsulation. It was found that the cumulative release of etoposide from ESCNs is acid-dependent, and that the release rate is slow at a pH of 7.4; this rate increases significantly at low pH levels (5.8, 3.0). Meanwhile, it was also found that the blank SCNs were almost nontoxic to normal cells, and ESCN systems were evidently more potent in antitumor activity compared with free etoposide, as confirmed by a cytotoxicity test using an MTT assay and an apoptosis test with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. These findings suggest that SCNs hold tremendous promise in the areas of controlled drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy.
strontium carbonate; nanoparticles; pH-sensitive drug delivery; etoposide; anticancer activity
The mitochondrion is essential for energy metabolism and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In intact cells, respiratory mitochondria exhibit spontaneous “superoxide flashes”, the quantal ROS-producing events consequential to transient mitochondrial permeability transition (tMPT). Here we perform the first in vivo imaging of mitochondrial superoxide flashes and tMPT activity in living mice expressing the superoxide biosensor mt-cpYFP, and demonstrate their coupling to whole-body glucose metabolism. Robust tMPT/superoxide flash activity occurred in skeletal muscle and sciatic nerve of anesthetized transgenic mice. In skeletal muscle, imaging tMPT/superoxide flashes revealed labyrinthine three-dimensional networks of mitochondria that operate synchronously. The tMPT/superoxide flash activity surged in response to systemic glucose challenge or insulin stimulation, in an apparently frequency-modulated manner and involving also a shift in the gating mode of tMPT. Thus, in vivo imaging of tMPT-dependent mitochondrial ROS signals and the discovery of the metabolism-tMPT-superoxide flash coupling mark important technological and conceptual advances for the study of mitochondrial function and ROS signaling in health and disease.
reactive oxygen species; mitochondrial permeability transition; energy metabolism; in vivo molecular imaging
Human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) represent an attractive cell source and a potential technology for neurorestoration and improvement of functional outcomes following stroke. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) and were intravenously administered hUTC (N = 11) or vehicle (N = 10) 48 hrs after stroke. White matter and vascular reorganization was monitored over a 12-week period using MRI and histopathology. MRI results were correlated with neurological functional and histology outcomes to demonstrate that MRI can be a useful tool to measure structural recovery after stroke. MRI revealed a significant reduction in the ventricular volume expansion and improvement in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the hUTC treated group compared to vehicle treated group. Treatment with hUTC resulted in histological and functional improvements as evidenced by enhanced expression of vWF and synaptophysin, and improved outcomes on behavioral tests. Significant correlations were detected between MRI ventricular volumes and histological lesion volume as well as number of apoptotic cells. A positive correlation was also observed between MRI CBF or cerebral blood volume (CBV) and histological synaptic density. Neurological functional tests were also significantly correlated with MRI ventricular volume and CBV. Our data demonstrated that MRI measurements can detect the effect of hUTC therapy on the brain reorganization and exhibited positive correlation with histological measurements of brain structural changes and functional behavioral tests after stroke. MRI ventricular volumes provided the most sensitive index in monitoring brain remodeling and treatment effects and highly correlated with histological and functional measurements.
Murine typhus; Rickettsia typhi; outbreak; China–Myanmar border; People’s Republic of China; typhus; Rickettsia; vector-borne infections
Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1) and Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are two major intracellular antioxidant enzymes. This study was to elucidate biochemical mechanisms for the 40% loss of hepatic GPX1 activity in SOD1−/− mice. Compared with the wild-type (WT), the SOD1−/− mice showed no change in the total amount of GPX1 protein. However, their total enzyme protein exhibited a 31 and 38% decrease (P < 0.05) in the apparent kcat for hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl peroxide (at 2 mM GSH), respectively. Most striking, mass spectrometry revealed two chemical forms of the 47th residue of GPX1: the projected native selenocysteine (Sec) and the Se-lost dehydroalanine (DHA). The hepatic GPX1 protein of the SOD1−/− mice contained 38% less Sec and 77% more DHA than that of WT, respectively, and showed aggravated dissociation of the tetramer structure. In conclusion, knockout of SOD1 elevated the conversion of Sec to DHA in the active site of hepatic GPX1, leading to proportional decreases in the apparent kcat and activity of the enzyme protein as a whole. Our data reveal a structural and kinetic mechanism for the in vivo functional dependence of GPX1 on SOD1 in mammals, and provide a novel mass spectrometric method for the assay of oxidative modification of the GPX1 protein.
Dehydroalanine; glutathione peroxidase; liver; mass spectrometry; mouse; selenocysteine; superoxide dismutase
The aim of this study was to improve the drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and sustained-release properties of supercritical CO2-based drug-loaded polymer carriers via a process of suspension-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SpEDS), which is an advanced version of solution-enhanced dispersion by supercritical CO2 (SEDS).
Methotrexate nanoparticles were successfully microencapsulated into poly (L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) (PLLA-PEG-PLLA) by SpEDS. Methotrexate nanoparticles were first prepared by SEDS, then suspended in PLLA-PEG-PLLA solution, and finally microencapsulated into PLLA-PEG-PLLA via SpEDS, where an “injector” was utilized in the suspension delivery system.
After microencapsulation, the composite methotrexate (MTX)-PLLA-PEG-PLLA microspheres obtained had a mean particle size of 545 nm, drug loading of 13.7%, and an encapsulation efficiency of 39.2%. After an initial burst release, with around 65% of the total methotrexate being released in the first 3 hours, the MTX-PLLA-PEG-PLLA microspheres released methotrexate in a sustained manner, with 85% of the total methotrexate dose released within 23 hours and nearly 100% within 144 hours.
Compared with a parallel study of the coprecipitation process, microencapsulation using SpEDS offered greater potential to manufacture drug-loaded polymer microspheres for a drug delivery system.
drug loading; encapsulation efficiency; methotrexate; nanoparticles; poly(L-lactide); supercritical CO2 sustained release
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant type of genetic variation in eukaryotic genomes and have recently become the marker of choice in a wide variety of ecological and evolutionary studies. The advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has made it possible to efficiently genotype a large number of SNPs in the non-model organisms with no or limited genomic resources. Most NGS-based genotyping methods require a reference genome to perform accurate SNP calling. Little effort, however, has yet been devoted to developing or improving algorithms for accurate SNP calling in the absence of a reference genome.
Here we describe an improved maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm called iML, which can achieve high genotyping accuracy for SNP calling in the non-model organisms without a reference genome. The iML algorithm incorporates the mixed Poisson/normal model to detect composite read clusters and can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions. Through analysis of simulation and real sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that in comparison with ML or a threshold approach, iML can remarkably improve the accuracy of de novo SNP genotyping and is especially powerful for the reference-free genotyping in diploid genomes with high repeat contents.
The iML algorithm can efficiently prevent incorrect SNP calls resulting from repetitive genomic regions, and thus outperforms the original ML algorithm by achieving much higher genotyping accuracy. Our algorithm is therefore very useful for accurate de novo SNP genotyping in the non-model organisms without a reference genome.
This article was reviewed by Dr. Richard Durbin, Dr. Liliana Florea (nominated by Dr. Steven Salzberg) and Dr. Arcady Mushegian.
Next-generation sequencing; single nucleotide polymorphism; genotyping; maximum likelihood; mixed Poisson/normal model
To compare the distribution of KCNJ11 polymorphisms between elderly Chinese population with and without hypertension.
We examined the mutation of KCNJ11 gene by directly sequencing. Data for the present study were obtained from 250 hypertensive subjects (60 to 83 years old) as well as 250 normotensive subjects (60 to 86 years old).
We found nine different mutations in KCNJ11, including six novel mutations (I131M, L147I, L147V, L147L, Q235H, G245C). None of the novel mutations were found in the normotensive subjects, and all the residues were conserved in other species. These sequence variants in Chinese population indicate the diversity of the human library and the complexity of hypertension.
The consistent finding of our present study provided a basis for the development of new strategies to diagnosis and treat hypertension in the elderly.
Essential hypertension; Phenotype; Genotype; Mutation; The elderly
The title compound, C17H12N2O·H2O, was synthesized by the reaction of 4,5-diazafluoren-9-one with a Grignard reagent in ether (the reaction mixture being hydrolysed with saturated NH4Cl solution), and crystallizes with two organic molecules and two water molecules in the asymmetric unit. The 4,5-diazafluorene fragment is approximately planar, with r.m.s. deviations of 0.0448 and 0.0198 Å in the two molecules. The dihedral angles between the 4,5-diazafluorene planes and the phenyl ring are 80.49 (6) and 76.57 (7)°. The crystal packing features O—H⋯N and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the bridging solvent water molecules, which link the molecules into a three-dimensional network.
Oysters, as a major group of marine bivalves, can tolerate a wide range of natural and anthropogenic stressors including heat stress. Recent studies have shown that oysters pretreated with heat shock can result in induced heat tolerance. A systematic study of cellular recovery from heat shock may provide insights into the mechanism of acquired thermal tolerance. In this study, we performed the first network analysis of oyster transcriptome by reanalyzing microarray data from a previous study. Network analysis revealed a cascade of cellular responses during oyster recovery after heat shock and identified responsive gene modules and key genes. Our study demonstrates the power of network analysis in a non-model organism with poor gene annotations, which can lead to new discoveries that go beyond the focus on individual genes.
In the cation of the title compound, C18H19N2O+·PF6
−, the morpholine ring adopts the usual chair conformation and the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 67.55 (11)°. The F atoms of the anion are disordered over two orientations with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.65 (2):0.35 (2). In the crystal, intermolecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the cations into chains parallel to the c axis. The crystal packing is further enforced by interionic C—H⋯F hydrogen bonds.
Cell therapy promotes brain remodeling and improves functional recovery after various central nervous system disorders, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). We tested the hypothesis that treatment of TBI with intravenous administration of human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) provides therapeutic benefit in modifying hemodynamic and structural abnormalities, which are detectable by in vivo MRI. hMSCs were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles. Male Wistar rats (300–350 g, n=18) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 mL of saline (n=9) or hMSCs in suspension (n=9, approximately 3×106 SPIO-labeled hMSCs) 5 days post-TBI. In vivo MRI measurements consisting of cerebral blood flow (CBF), T2-weighted imaging, and 3D gradient echo imaging were performed for all animals 2 days post-TBI and weekly for 6 weeks. Functional outcome was evaluated with modified neurological severity score and Morris water maze test. Cell engraftment was detected in vivo by 3D MRI and confirmed by double staining. Ventricle and lesion volumetric alterations were measured using T2 maps, and hemodynamic abnormality was tracked by MRI CBF measurements. Our data demonstrate that treatment with hMSCs following TBI diminishes hemodynamic abnormalities by early restoration and preservation of CBF in the brain regions adjacent to and remote from the impact site, and reduces generalized cerebral atrophy, all of which may contribute to the observed improvement of functional outcome.
cerebral atrophy; cerebral blood flow; marrow stromal cells; MRI; ventricular expansion
Sea cucumbers are a special group of marine invertebrates. They occupy a taxonomic position that is believed to be important for understanding the origin and evolution of deuterostomes. Some of them such as Apostichopus japonicus represent commercially important aquaculture species in Asian countries. Many efforts have been devoted to increasing the number of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for A. japonicus, but a comprehensive characterization of its transcriptome remains lacking. Here, we performed the large-scale transcriptome profiling and characterization by pyrosequencing diverse cDNA libraries from A. japonicus.
In total, 1,061,078 reads were obtained by 454 sequencing of eight cDNA libraries representing different developmental stages and adult tissues in A. japonicus. These reads were assembled into 29,666 isotigs, which were further clustered into 21,071 isogroups. Nearly 40% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analyses recovered diverse biological functions and processes. Candidate genes that were potentially involved in aestivation were identified. Transcriptome comparison with the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus revealed similar patterns of GO term representation. In addition, 4,882 putative orthologous genes were identified, of which 202 were not present in the non-echinoderm organisms. More than 700 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 54,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the A. japonicus transcriptome.
Pyrosequencing was proven to be efficient in rapidly identifying a large set of genes for the sea cucumber A. japonicus. Through the large-scale transcriptome sequencing as well as public EST data integration, we performed a comprehensive characterization of the A. japonicus transcriptome and identified candidate aestivation-related genes. A large number of potential genetic markers were also identified from the A. japonicus transcriptome. This transcriptome resource would lay an important foundation for future genetic or genomic studies on this species.
In the title compound, C10H12O5, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring is almost coplanar with the attached C(O)—O—C group [dihedral angle = 0.32 (15)°]. In the crystal, two intermolecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds make R
4(26) ring mofits.
Gene therapy and viral therapy are used for cancer therapy for many years, but the results are less than satisfactory. Our aim was to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which is more efficient to kill hepatocarcinoma cells but more safe to normal cells.
By using the Cancer Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy strategy, Apoptin, a promising cancer therapeutic gene was inserted into the double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus AD55 in which E1A gene was driven by alpha fetoprotein promoter along with a 55 kDa deletion in E1B gene to form AD55-Apoptin. The anti-tumor effects and safety were examined by western blotting, virus yield assay, real time polymerase chain reaction, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342 staining, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, xenograft tumor model, Immunohistochemical assay, liver function analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay.
The recombinant virus AD55-Apoptin has more significant antitumor effect for hepatocelluar carcinoma cell lines (in vitro) than that of AD55 and even ONYX-015 but no or little impair on normal cell lines. Furthermore, it also shows an obvious in vivo antitumor effect on the Huh-7 liver carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with bigger beginning tumor volume till about 425 mm3 but has no any damage on the function of liver. The induction of apoptosis is involved in AD55-Apoptin induced antitumor effects.
The AD55-Apoptin can be a potential anti-hepatoma agent with remarkable antitumor efficacy as well as higher safety in cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy system.
AD55-Apoptin; apoptosis; antitumor effect; hepatocelluar carcinoma; Cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy
There has been a rising incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) in critically ill patients, even in the absence of an apparent predisposing immunodeficiency. The diagnosis of IA is difficult because clinical signs are not sensitive and specific, and serum galactomannan has relatively low sensitivity in this group of patients. Therefore, more prompt and accurate disease markers for early diagnosis are needed. To establish disease markers demands a thorough knowledge of fungal antigens which may be detected in the serum or other body fluids of patients. Herein we report novel immunodominant antigens identified from extracellular proteins of Aspergillus fumigatus.
Extracellular proteins of A. fumigatus were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and probed with the sera from critically ill patients with proven IA. The immunoreactive protein spots were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF -MS). Forty spots from 2DE gels were detected and 17 different proteins were identified as immunogenic in humans. Function annotation revealed that most of these proteins were metabolic enzymes involved in carbohydrate, fatty acid, amino acid, and energy metabolism. One of the proteins, thioredoxin reductase GliT (TR), which showed the best immunoactivity, was analyzed further for secretory signals, protein localization, and homology. The results indicated that TR is a secretory protein with a signal sequence exhibiting a high probability for secretion. Furthermore, TR did not match any human proteins, and had low homology with most other fungi. The recombinant TR was recognized by the sera of all proven IA patients with different underlying diseases in this study.
The immunoreactive proteins identified in this study may be helpful for the diagnosis of IA in critically ill patients. Our results indicate that TR and other immunodominant antigens have potential as biomarkers for the serologic diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis.
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) is an extracellular matrix associated broad-spectrum Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor. Recently, down regulation of TFPI-2 was suggested to be involved in tumor invasion and metastasis in some cancers.
This study involved 12 normal cervical squamous epithelia, 48 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and 68 cervical cancer. The expression of TFPI-2, Ki-67 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were investigated by immunohistochemistry staining. The apoptolic index(AI) was determined with an in situ end-labeling assay(TUNEL). And the marker of CD34 staining was used as an indicator of microvessel density (MVD).
TFPI-2 expression has a decreasing trend with the progression of cervical cancer and was significantly correlated with FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis and HPV infection. In addition, there were significant positive correlations between the grading of TFPI-2 expression and AI(P = 0.004). In contrast, the expression of TFPI-2 and VEGF or MVD was negatively correlated (both p < 0.001). However, we did not establish any signiﬁcant correlation between Ki-67 and TFPI-2 expression in cervical cancer.
The results suggested that the expression of TFPI-2 had a decreasing trend with tumor progression of cervical cancer. There was a close association between the expression of TFPI-2 and tumor cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in patients with cervical cancer. TFPI-2 may play an inhibitive role during the development of cervical cancer.
cervical cancer; Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2; immunohistochemical study; apoptosis; angiogenesis
Elongation factor (EF) is a key regulation factor for translation in many organisms, including plants, bacteria, fungi, animals and insects. To investigate the nature and function of elongation factor 1β′ from Spodoptera exigua (SeEF-1β′), its cDNA was cloned. This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. Northern blotting revealed that SeEF-1β′ mRNA is expressed in brain, epidermis, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, ovary and tracheae. RT-PCR revealed that SeEF-1β′ mRNA is expressed at different levels in fat body and whole body during different developmental stages. In RNAi experiments, the survival rate of insects injected with SeEF-1β′ dsRNA was 58.7% at 36 h after injection, which was significantly lower than three control groups. Other elongation factors and transcription factors were also influenced when EF-1β′ was suppressed. The results demonstrate that SeEF-1β′ is a key gene in transcription in S. exigua.
elongation factor; cloning; expression pattern; RNAi; Spodoptera exigua
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of multiple cellular processes, and the deregulation of miRNA is a common event in diverse human diseases, particularly cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between disordered miRNA expression and tumorigenesis have remained largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated the down-regulation of miR-125b in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and HCC cell lines by Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. The ectopic expression of miR-125b reduced the cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression of HCC cells by targeting Mcl-1 and IL6R. Furthermore, the miR-125b-induced inhibition of cell proliferation was rescued by the expression of Mcl-1 or IL6R variants that lacked 3′ UTRs. Thus, this study revealed the differential expression of miR-125b in HCC cells and elucidated its potential as a tumor suppressor in HCC development.
hepatocellular carcinoma; miR-125b; Mcl-1; IL6R