The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life.
The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC) analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation.
APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine) had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine). For males, the relative risk (RR) was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62.
The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer mortality in later life.
Nutritive deficiency; Stomach Cancer; Mortality; Famine exposure
The purpose of this study was to identify the affect on the proliferation Eca-109 cells treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) combined with adriamycin (ADM).
Eca-109 cell were cultured in the presence of oxLDL/ADM, and cell proliferation tested by MTT and cell apoptosis was monitored by the proportion of apoptosis and cell cycle by flow cytomester. We simultaneously evaluated the level of associated- apoptosis Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3 gene mRNA and protein.
OxLDL were cytotoxic and activate apoptosis. OxLDL combined with ADM significant enhanced the proportion rate of apoptosis on a time and dose dependency. The expressions of the inhibiting apoptosis Bcl-2 gene mRNA and protein were down regulated, whereas, the expressions of the promoting apoptosis Bax, and Caspase-3 genes mRNA and protein were up regulation.
These results suggested that oxLDL have cytotoxicity and activate apoptosis on the Eca-109 cells. OxLDL combined with ADM have a synergistic effect on the apoptosis induced Eca-109 cells. Furthermore, oxLDL may contribute to the improvement of clinical chemotherapy of cancer need to make further investigation.
Esophagueal squamous cell line; low-density lipoprotein; adriamycin; apoptosis; gene; protein; expression
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of multi-genotype polymorphisms with the stepwise progression of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and the possibility of predicting those at higher risk.
A total of 1,004 subjects were recruited from Feicheng County, China, between Jan. 2004 and Dec. 2007 and examined by endoscopy for esophageal lesions. These subjects included 270 patients with basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), 262 patients with esophageal squamous cell dysplasia (ESCD), 226 patients with ESCC, and 246 controls with Lugol-voiding area but diagnosed as having normal esophageal squamous epithelial cells by histopathology. The genotypes for CYP2E1 G1259C, hOGG1 C326G, MTHFR C677T, MPO G463A, and ALDH2 allele genes were identified in blood samples collected from all participants.
The alleles ALDH2 and MTHFR C677T were critical for determining individual susceptibility to esophageal cancer. Compared to the ALDH 1*1 genotype, the ALDH 2*2 genotype was significantly associated with increased risks of BCH, ESCD, and ESCC. However, the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T only increased the risk of ESCC. Further analysis revealed that the combination of the high-risk genotypes 2*2/1*2 of ALDH 2 and TT/TC of MTHFR C677T increased the risk of BCH by 4.0 fold, of ESCD by 3.7 fold, and ESSC by 8.72 fold. The generalized odds ratio (ORG) of the two combined genotypes was 1.83 (95%CI: 1.55-2.16), indicating a strong genetic association with the risk of carcinogenic progression in the esophagus.
The study demonstrated that the genotypes ALDH2*2 and MTHFR 677TT conferred elevated risk for developing esophageal carcinoma and that the two susceptibility genotypes combined to synergistically increase the risk.
A difference equation (DE) model is developed using the methylene retention increment (Δtz) of n-alkanes to avoid the influence of gas holdup time (tM). The effects of the equation orders (1st–5th) on the accuracy of a curve fitting show that a linear equation (LE) is less satisfactory and it is not necessary to use a complicated cubic or higher order equation. The relationship between the logarithm of Δtz and the carbon number (z) of the n-alkanes under isothermal conditions closely follows the quadratic equation for C3–C30
n-alkanes at column temperatures of 24–260 °C. The first and second order forward differences of the expression (Δlog Δtz and Δ2log Δtz, respectively) are linear and constant, respectively, which validates the DE model. This DE model lays a necessary foundation for further developing a retention model to accurately describe the relationship between the adjusted retention time and z of n-alkanes.
Gas chromatography; Retention model; Retention time; Gas holdup time; n-Alkanes
The gas holdup time (tM) is a dominant parameter in gas chromatographic retention models. The difference equation (DE) model proposed by Wu et al. (J. Chromatogr. A 2012, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2012.07.077) excluded tM. In the present paper, we propose that the relationship between the adjusted retention time tRZ′ and carbon number z of n-alkanes follows a quadratic equation (QE) when an accurate tM is obtained. This QE model is the same as or better than the DE model for an accurate expression of the retention behavior of n-alkanes and model applications. The QE model covers a larger range of n-alkanes with better curve fittings than the linear model. The accuracy of the QE model was approximately 2–6 times better than the DE model and 18–540 times better than the LE model. Standard deviations of the QE model were approximately 2–3 times smaller than those of the DE model.
n-Alkanes; Gas chromatography; Gas holdup time; Retention model; Retention index
Chemical doping in materials is known to give rise to emergent phenomena. These phenomena are extremely difficult to predict a priori, because electron-electron interactions are entangled with local environment of assembled atoms. Scanning tunneling microscopy and low energy electron diffraction are combined to investigate how the local electronic structure is correlated with lattice distortion on the surface of Sr3(Ru1−xMnx)2O7, which has double-layer building blocks formed by (Ru/Mn)O6 octahedra with rotational distortion. The presence of doping-dependent tilt distortion of (Ru/Mn)O6 octahedra at the surface results in a C2v broken symmetry in contrast with the bulk C4v counterpart. It also enables us to observe two Mn sites associated with the octahedral rotation in the bulk through the “chirality” of local electronic density of states surrounding Mn, which is randomly distributed. These results serve as fingerprint of chemical doping on the atomic scale.
Background and Aims
Delayed selfing is the predominant mode of autonomous self-pollination in flowering plants. However, few delayed selfing mechanisms have been documented. This research aims to explore a new delayed selfing mechanism induced by stigmatic fluid in Roscoea debilis, a small perennial ginger.
Floral biology and flower visitors were surveyed. The capacity of autonomous selfing was evaluated by pollinator exclusion. The timing of autonomous selﬁng was estimated by emasculation at different flowering stages. The number of seeds produced from insect-pollination was assessed by emasculation and exposure to pollinators in the natural population. The breeding system was also tested by pollination manipulations.
Autonomous self-pollination occurred after flowers wilted. The stigmatic fluid formed a globule on the stigma on the third day of flowering. The enlarged globule seeped into the nearby pollen grains on the fourth flowering day, thus inducing pollen germination. Pollen tubes then elongated and penetrated the stigma. Hand-selfed flowers produced as many seeds as hand-crossed flowers. There was no significant difference in seed production between pollinator-excluded flowers and hand-selfed flowers. When emasculated flowers were exposed to pollinators, they produced significantly fewer seeds than intact flowers. Visits by effective pollinators were rare.
This study describes a new form of delayed autonomous self-pollination. As the predominant mechanism of sexual reproduction in R. debilis, delayed self-pollination ensures reproduction when pollinators are scarce.
stigmatic fluid; autonomous selfing; reproductive assurance; Roecoea debilis; pollinator failure; ginger
An aqueous normal phase (ANP) liquid chromatography coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ANP-LC-micrOTOFQ) method was used for the determination of zanamivir in human serum. Zanamivir was extracted with methanol from protein-precipitated human serum samples and further purified with SCX solid-phase extraction cartridges. Scherzo SM-C18, Agilent Zorbax SB-Aq, Cogent Diamond Hydride, Cogent Bidentate and Luna HILIC columns were compared and optimized for the retention and separation of zanamivir and he Luna HILIC and Diamond Hydride columns exhibited the best retention of zanamivir. The former provided a shorter retention time, a sharper peak and relatively high sensitivity, whereas the latter exhibited a longer retention time and less matrix interference. The analytical range of the calibration curve was between 5 and 1000 ng/mL.
Aqueous normal-phase; Zanamivir; Human serum
The recent reports of resistance in Plasmodium falciparum to artemisinin derivatives and their partner drugs demand intensive studies toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of resistance. In this study, we examined the in vitro susceptibility of 63 P. falciparum field isolates collected from the China-Myanmar border area to chloroquine (CQ) and piperaquine (PPQ). Parasite isolates remained highly resistant to CQ, with the geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 252.7 nM and a range of 51.9 to 1,052.0 nM. In comparison, these parasites had a geometric mean IC50 of 28.4 nM for PPQ, with a fairly wide range of 5.3 to 132.0 nM, suggesting that certain parasite isolates displayed relatively high levels of resistance to PPQ. Interestingly, within the 4 years of study, the parasites exhibited a continuous decline in susceptibilities to both CQ and PPQ, and there was a significant correlation between responses to CQ and PPQ (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.79, P < 0.0001). Consistent with the CQ-resistant phenotype, all parasites carried the pfcrt K76T mutation, and most parasites had the CVIET type that is prevalent in Southeast Asia. In contrast, pfmdr1 mutations were relatively rare, and no gene amplification was detected. Only the pfmdr1 N1042D mutation was associated with resistance to CQ. For the pfmrp1 gene, four substitutions reached relatively high prevalence of >22%, and the I876V mutation was associated with reduced sensitivity to CQ. However, we could not establish a link between PPQ responses and the polymorphisms in the three genes associated with quinoline drug resistance.
The consumption of dairy products may influence the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but inconsistent findings have been reported. Moreover, large variation in the types of dairy intake has not yet been fully explored.
Methods and Results
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the dose–response association of dairy products intake and T2DM risk. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus for studies of dairy products intake and T2DM risk published up to the end of October 2012. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk (RR) statistics. Dose-response relations were evaluated using data from different dairy products in each study. We included 14 articles of cohort studies that reported RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of T2DM with dairy products intake. We found an inverse linear association of consumption of total dairy products (13 studies), low-fat dairy products (8 studies), cheese (7 studies) and yogurt (7 studies) and risk of T2DM. The pooled RRs were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91–0.97) and 0.88 (0.84–0.93) for 200 g/day total and low-fat dairy consumption, respectively. The pooled RRs were 0.80 (0.69–0.93) and 0.91 (0.82–1.00) for 30 g/d cheese and 50 g/d yogurt consumption, respectively. We also found a nonlinear association of total and low-fat dairy intake and T2DM risk, and the inverse association appeared to be strongest within 200 g/d intake.
A modest increase in daily intake of dairy products such as low fat dairy, cheese and yogurt may contribute to the prevention of T2DM, which needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials.
AIM: To investigate the clinical advantages of the stent-laparoscopy approach to treat colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with acute colorectal obstruction (ACO).
METHODS: From April 2008 to April 2012, surgery-related parameters, complications, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) of 74 consecutive patients with left-sided CRC presented with ACO who underwent self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement followed by one-stage open (n = 58) or laparoscopic resection (n = 16) were evaluated retrospectively. The stent-laparoscopy group was also compared with a control group of 96 CRC patients who underwent regular laparoscopy without ACO between January 2010 and December 2011 to explore whether SEMS placement influenced the laparoscopic procedure or reduced long-term survival by influencing CRC oncological characteristics.
RESULTS: The characteristics of patients among these groups were comparable. The rate of conversion to open surgery was 12.5% in the stent-laparoscopy group. Bowel function recovery and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter (3.3 ± 0.9 d vs 4.2 ± 1.5 d and 6.7 ± 1.1 d vs 9.5 ± 6.7 d, P = 0.016 and P = 0.005), and surgical time was significantly longer (152.1 ± 44.4 min vs 127.4 ± 38.4 min, P = 0.045) in the stent-laparoscopy group than in the stent-open group. Surgery-related complications and the rate of admission to the intensive care unit were lower in the stent-laparoscopy group. There were no significant differences in the interval between stenting and surgery, intraoperative blood loss, OS, and DFS between the two stent groups. Compared with those in the stent-laparoscopy group, all surgery-related parameters, complications, OS, and DFS in the control group were comparable.
CONCLUSION: The stent-laparoscopy approach is a feasible, rapid, and minimally invasive option for patients with ACO caused by left-sided CRC and can achieve a favorable long-term prognosis.
Self-expandable metallic stent; Colorectal cancer; Endoscopy; Laparoscopy; Efficiency; Safety
When a distal common bile duct neoplasm is at the stage of carcinoma in situ or high-grade dysplasia, it is difficult for the surgeon to decide whether to perform pancreaticoduodenectomy. Here we describe a patient with a progressive dysplastic lesion in the common bile duct, which developed from moderate-high to high-grade dysplasia in approximately 2 mo. The patient refused major surgery. Therefore, endoscopic-assisted photodynamic therapy was performed. The result at follow-up using a trans-T-tube choledochoscope showed that the lesion was completely necrotic. This report is the first to describe the successful treatment of high-grade dysplasia of the distal bile duct using photodynamic therapy via a choledochoscope.
Photodynamic therapy; Common bile duct; High-grade dysplasia; Choledochoscope
Human tissue kallikrein (hTK) plays an essential role in the physiological and pathological mechanisms of blood vessels. This study aimed to determine whether angiogenesis induced by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transduced with the adenovirus-mediated hTK gene could improve blood flow in rat hindlimb ischemia in vivo and to establish a promising mechanism in vitro.
EPCs transduced with adenovirus encoding hTK-162 (i.e., Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs or Ad/GFP-transduced EPCs) were administered to Wister rats with hindlimb ischemia through therapeutic neovascularization. Muscular capillary density (MCD), blood flow (BF), and the number of myofibers were measured at days 7, 14, and 21 after treatment. Expressions of integrin αvβ3 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were detected on the surface of EPCs.
MCD, BF, and the number of myofibers in rats with Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs remarkably increased at day 21 after treatment compared with rats with Ad/GFP-transduced EPCs or the control group (P<0.01). Expressions of integrin αvβ3 and eNOS protein on the surface of EPCs also increased in rats with Ad/hTK-transduced EPCs. The levels of integrin αvβ3 expression were reduced by PI3K and eNOS blockade, and the inhibitor of integrin αvβ3 abrogated the migration and adhesion of hTK-transduced EPCs (P<0.05).
hTK gene delivery in vivo improves the natural angiogenic response to ischemia. The ability of hTK gene-transduced EPCs can be enhanced in vitro, in which integrin αvβ3 plays a role in the process.
Gossypiumbarbadense is a cultivated cotton species and possesses many desirable traits, including high fiber quality and resistance to pathogens, especially Verticilliumdahliae (a devastating pathogen of Gossypium hirsutum, the main cultivated species). These elite traits are difficult to be introduced into G. hirsutum through classical breeding methods. In addition, genetic transformation of G. barbadense has not been successfully performed. It is therefore important to develop methods for evaluating the function and molecular mechanism of genes in G. barbadense. In this study, we had successfully introduced a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) system into three cultivars of G. barbadense by inserting marker genes into the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) vector. After we optimized the VIGS conditions, including light intensity, photoperiod, seedling age and Agrobacterium strain, 100% of plants agroinfiltrated with the GaPDS silencing vector showed white colored leaves. Three other marker genes, GaCLA1, GaANS and GaANR, were employed to further test this VIGS system in G. barbadense. The transcript levels of the endogenous genes in the silenced plants were reduced by more than 99% compared to control plants; these plants presented phenotypic symptoms 2 weeks after inoculation. We introduced a fusing sequence fragment of GaPDS and GaANR gene silencing vectors into a single plant, which resulted in both photobleaching and brownish coloration. The extent of silencing in plants agroinfiltrated with fusing two-gene-silencing vector was consistent with plants harboring a single gene silencing vector. The development of this VIGS system should promote analysis of gene function in G. barbadense, and help to contribute desirable traits for breeding of G. barbadense and G. hirsutum.
The present study investigates cytogenetic damage in lymphocytes, derived from three victims who were unfortunately exposed to cobalt-60 (60Co) radiation (the 1999 accident occurred in a village in China’s Henan province). Case A of the three victims was exposed to a higher dose of 60Co radiation than Cases B and C. The chromosomal aberrations, cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN, the CBMN assay), and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the comet assay) examined in this study are biomarkers for cytogenetic abnormalities. After the lymphocytes collected from the victims were cultured, the frequencies of dicentric chromosomes and rings (dic + r) and CBMN in the first mitotic division detected in the lymphocytes of Case A were found to be substantially higher than in Cases B and C. Similarly, the DNA-DSB level found in the peripheral blood collected from Case A was much higher than those of Cases B and C. These results suggest that an acutely enhanced induction of the 60Co-induced cytogenetic abnormality frequency in humans depends on the dose of 60Co radiation. This finding is supported by the data obtained using practical techniques to evaluate early lymphoid-tissue abnormalities induced after exposure to acute radiation.
radiation accident; chromosome aberration; micronucleus assay; comet assay; DNA-DSB
Antibody arrays were developed to probe a monoclonal antibody's three-dimensional structure (3-D structure). Peptides with overlapping regions were designed to cover the whole mAb light chain and heavy chain, respectively, and used to generate polyclonal antibodies after the conjugation of the peptides to a carrier protein, KLH. It was shown that good peptide specificity was achieved from the antibodies generated. Using more than 30 different polyclonal antibodies to measure the surface epitope distribution, it was shown that the mAb antibody array can detect epitope exposure as low as 0.1% of defined mAb populations. This ELISA-based analysis of mAb epitope exposure can be considered as a measurement of “conformational impurity” in biologics development, similar to the analysis of other product-related impurities such as different forms of glycosylation, deamidation, and oxidation. This analysis of “conformational impurity” could provide valuable information on the mAb conformational comparability for biosimilar mAbs as well as novel mAbs, especially in the area of protein immunogenicity. Furthermore, stability studies indicated that there are several conformational “hot spots” in many mAbs tested, especially in the hinge region. This antibody array technology can be used for novel mAb Higher Order Structure (HOS) analysis during process and formulation development. Another important area of application is for biosimilar mAb development where the innovator molecule and biosimilar molecule could be compared based on their systemic “fingerprint” from the 30 plus antibodies.
monoclonal antibody; Higher Order Structure; ELISA; biosimilars; comparability; conformational stability
Concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in soils from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The analytical procedure involved the application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometric detection (GC/ITMS) for identification and quantification. Among the 28 PCB congeners studied, 26 of them, except CB195 and CB209, were detected in the analyzed samples at different frequencies. The total concentrations of 28 indicator PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 2.6 to 148.8 ng g−1 with an average value of 50.7 ng g−1 and median of 39.5 ng g−1. Sources and congeners’ pattern of PCB were investigated in the soil of Midway Atoll. The principal component analysis indicated that the compositions of PCBs in most of the soil samples were similar. The total concentrations of PCBs were used to assess the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣPCBs.
The pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of telmisartan varies among the individuals, and the main causes remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ORM1, as well as ABCC2, ABCB1, ABCG2 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms, on the disposition of the drug and BP change after taking 40 mg telmisartan in 48 healthy Chinese males.
A total of 48 healthy males were included in this trial. Every volunteer ingested a single dose of 40 mg telmisartan, and the plasma drug concentration and blood pressure (BP) were measured up to 48 h.
In this study, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) in the heterozygotes of ORM1 113AG was higher than that in the wild-type homozygotes, AUC(0–48) (113AA vs. 113AG, 1,549.18±859.84 ng·h/ml vs. 2,313.54±1,257.71 ng·h/ml, P = 0.033), AUC(0–∞) (113AA vs. 113AG, 1,753.13±1,060.60 ng·h/ml vs. 2,686.90±1,401.87 ng·h/ml, P = 0.016), and the change(%) of the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from the baseline BP value also showed a significant difference between the ORM1 113AG and 113AA genotypes at 5 h after taking telmisartan (P = 0.026). This study also showed that the allele of ABCC2 C3972T would affected the disposition of telmsiartan and the DBP change significantly after taking the drug. However, the common SNPs of ABCG2 C421, ABCB1 C3435T, and SLCO1B3 T334G showed no impacts on the PKs of telmisartan or BP change(%) in our trial.
The ORM1 A113G polymorphism was associated with the PKs variability after taking telmsiartan, as well as ABCC2 C3972T. The heterozygotes of ORM1 113AG showed a larger AUC and a notable BP change(%) from the baseline compared with the wild-type.
Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TNC-10000898
Cancer causes significant symptom burden and diminished quality of life. Despite the expansion of supportive and palliative care services (SPCS), little is known about rates of utilization and barriers to access to these services among oncology outpatients.
We performed a cross-sectional survey in three outpatient medical oncology clinics. Patients with a diagnosis of breast, lung, or gastrointestinal (GI) cancer and a Karnofsky score of ≥60 were included. Patients reported their use of SPCS and any perceived barriers. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with SPCS use.
Among 313 participants, (50.5%) had not used SPCS since cancer diagnosis. The most common services used were nutrition (26.5%), psychiatric/psychological counseling (29.7%), and physical therapy (15.1%). Pain/palliative care and cancer rehabilitation consultations were used by 8.5% and 4.1% of participants, respectively. In multivariate analysis, graduate education was associated with greater SPCS use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-4.26) compared with those with high school or less, whereas having lung cancer was associated with less SPCS use (AOR 0.48, 95% CI 0.24-0.96) when compared with those having breast cancer. The biggest reported barriers to using SPCS were a lack of awareness (22.4%) and lack of physician referral (23%).
Approximately half of these patients had not accessed SPCS since cancer diagnosis and cite lack of awareness and physician nonreferral as barriers. Further research is needed to understand patients' needs and beliefs regarding SPCS, and how to integrate SPCS into conventional treatments to improve cancer care.
Prenatal alcohol use, a leading preventable cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities, remains a prevalent public health concern in the United States. This study aims to detect the proportion and correlates of prenatal alcohol use in the prenatal care settings in Alabama. Prenatal care settings were chosen because of their potential as stable locations to screen for and to reduce prenatal alcohol use within a community.
We conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,046 women in the 22 and 23 weeks of gestation who sought prenatal care in eight community-based public clinics and participated in the Perinatal Emphasis Research Center project in Jefferson County, Alabama, in 1997–2001. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use in the past 3 months were assessed by research nurses during face-to-face interviews. We conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of correlates of prenatal alcohol use.
Participants were predominantly young, African American, and unmarried, 86.5% on Medicaid. The proportion of alcohol use in the second trimester of pregnancy was 5.1%; 0.3% of women reported 4 or more drinks on a drinking day to research nurses. Older maternal age (OR=1.11; 95% CI=1.08–1.15), use of welfare (OR=1.43; 95% CI=1.02–2.02), and male partner–perpetrated violence (OR=2.96; 95% CI=1.92–4.56) were positively associated with elevated risk of prenatal alcohol use. Protective factors included higher levels of self-esteem (OR=0.94; 95% CI=0.89–0.98) and more years of education (OR=0.88; 95% CI=0.78–0.98).
Prenatal alcohol use remains a public health issue among low-income pregnant women in Jefferson County, Alabama. Research nurses detected it in the second trimester. Future studies need to encourage screening for prenatal alcohol use in the prenatal care settings by obstetrician-gynecologists, family physicians, nurses, and midwifes. Combined interventions to educate and empower women and strengthen families are needed.
Alcohol Use; Pregnancy; Screening; Prenatal care settings; Epidemiology
Oxygen conversion process between O2 and H2O by means of electrochemistry or photochemistry has lately received a great deal of attention. Cobalt-phosphate (Co-Pi) catalyst is a new type of cost-effective artificial oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) with amorphous features during photosynthesis. However, can such Co-Pi OEC also act as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst in electrochemical processes? The question remains unanswered. Here for the first time we demonstrate that Co-Pi OEC does be rather active for the ORR. Particularly, Co-Pi OEC anchoring on reduced graphite oxide (rGO) nanosheet is shown to possess dramatically improved electrocatalytic activities. Differing from the generally accepted role of rGO as an “electron reservoir”, we suggest that rGO serves as “peroxide cleaner” in enhancing the electrocatalytic behaviors. The present study may bridge the gap between photochemistry and electrochemistry towards oxygen conversion.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have positive effect on the regulation of plasma lipids. But the mechanism for them to modulate lipid homeostasis in macrophage is still unclear. In this study, we employed PUFA to pretreat macrophages and evaluated the variations of lipid droplet (LD) content, lipid composition, and expressions of LD-associated genes in macrophage-derived foam cells.
THP-1-derived macrophages or human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages were pre-treated with four non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) separately: saturated fatty acid (SFA)-palmitic acid (PA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)-oleic acid (OA), PUFAs-linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Intracellular lipid content and cholesterol efflux were analyzed in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Related gene expressions were detected by quantitative real-time PCR.
PUFA pre-treatment reduced cholesterol content in foam cells and increased cholesterol efflux to lipid-free apoAI in conditioned medium compared with PA or OA group. Cell death-inducing DFF45 like effector (CIDE) and Perilipin-Adipophilin-TIP47 (PAT) family members, as LD-associated proteins, showed specific gene expression profiles after PUFA pre-treatment. These results may help to explain the process of lipid metabolism within foam cells.
PUFA (LA or EPA) had a potential protective effect against cholesterol accumulation. The specific expressions of CIDE and PAT genes may provide clues to explore the protective mechanism of PUFA in foam cells.
Polyunsaturated fatty acid; CIDE; PAT; Lipid metabolism; Atherosclerosis
This study measured organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in tissues of six mother–fetus pairs of harbor seals that were hunted for subsistence in Alaska waters of the Northern Pacific Ocean. These data suggest that significant amounts of these contaminants were transferred from mother harbor seals to fetuses during pregnancy and distributed among fetal organs. The tissue distribution depended on the chemical groups, the specific compounds in the groups and the target organs. Concentration profiles of ΣOCPs, ΣPCBs, ΣPCNs and ΣPBDEs were remarkably similar among maternal blubber, liver, and placenta, fetal blubber, and liver (except for HCHs), possibly indicating that the placenta did not serve as a barrier for all of the compounds analyzed. DDTs, HCB, HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs could penetrate the placenta and accumulate in the blubber of the fetus in utero, while HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs penetrated the placenta and accumulated more preferentially in the fetal liver than in the fetal brain in comparison with DDTs and HCB. Heptachlor and PCNs penetrated the placenta and accumulated in the fetal liver and brain instead of fetal blubber. Similar maternal transfer trends for OCPs, PCBs, PCNs and PBDEs were shown by fetal to maternal (FM) blubber ratios and FM liver ratios. Prenatal transfer of these toxic contaminants from mothers to fetus presumably through the placenta may pose health risks to the fetus during development.
persistent organic pollutants; harbor seals; maternal transfer
Rhodiola plants are used as a natural remedy in the western world and as a traditional herbal medicine in China, and are valued for their ability to enhance human resistance to stress or fatigue and to promote longevity. Due to the morphological similarities among different species, the identification of the genus remains somewhat controversial, which may affect their safety and effectiveness in clinical use.
In this paper, 47 Rhodiola samples of seven species were collected from thirteen local provinces of China. They were identified by their morphological characteristics and genetic and phytochemical taxonomies. Eight bioactive chemotaxonomic markers from four chemical classes (phenylpropanoids, phenylethanol derivatives, flavonoids and phenolic acids) were determined to evaluate and distinguish the chemotaxonomy of Rhodiola samples using an HPLC-DAD/UV method. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to compare the two classification methods between genetic and phytochemical taxonomy.
The established chemotaxonomic classification could be effectively used for Rhodiola species identification.
Rhodiola plants; Morphological characteristic; Genetic taxonomy; Phytochemical taxonomy